Oregon

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This article is about the U.S. state of Oregon. For other uses, see Oregon (disambiguation).
State of Oregon
Flag of Oregon State seal of Oregon
Flag (obverse) Seal
Nickname(s): Beaver State
Motto(s): Alis volat propriis (Latin: She flies with her own wings)
State song(s): "Oregon My Oregon"
Map of the United States with Oregon highlighted
Official language De jure: none[1]
De facto: English
Demonym Oregonian
Capital Salem
Largest city Portland
Largest metro Portland metropolitan area
Area Ranked 9th
 - Total 98,381 sq mi
(255,026 km2)
 - Width 400 miles (640 km)
 - Length 360 miles (580 km)
 - % water 2.4
 - Latitude 42° N to 46° 18′ N
 - Longitude 116° 28′ W to 124° 38′ W
Population Ranked 27th
 - Total 3,930,065 (2013 est.)[2]
 - Density 39.9/sq mi  (15.0/km2)
Ranked 39th
Elevation
 - Highest point Mount Hood[3][4][5]
11,249 ft (3,428.8 m)
 - Mean 3,300 ft  (1,000 m)
 - Lowest point Pacific Ocean[4]
sea level
Before statehood Oregon Territory
Admission to Union February 14, 1859 (33rd)
Governor John Kitzhaber (D)
Secretary of State Kate Brown (D)
Legislature Legislative Assembly
 - Upper house State Senate
 - Lower house House of Representatives
U.S. Senators Ron Wyden (D)
Jeff Merkley (D)
U.S. House delegation 4 Democrats, 1 Republican (list)
Time zones  
 - most of state Pacific: UTC −8/−7
 - most of Malheur County Mountain: UTC −7/−6
Abbreviations OR, Ore. US-OR
Website www.oregon.gov
Oregon state symbols
Flag of Oregon.svg
Seal of Oregon.svg
Animal and Plant insignia
Bird(s) Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta)
Crustacean Dungeness crab
(Metacarcinus magister)
Fish Chinook salmon
(Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)
Flower(s) Oregon-grape
(Mahonia aquifolium)
Grass Bluebunch wheatgrass
Insect Oregon swallowtail
(Papilio oregonius)
Mammal(s) American beaver
(Castor canadensis)
Tree Douglas-fir
Inanimate insignia
Beverage Milk
Dance Square dance
Food Pear
(Pyrus)
Fossil Metasequoia
Gemstone Oregon sunstone
Motto Alis volat propriis
Rock Thunderegg
Shell Oregon hairy triton
(Fusitriton oregonensis)
Soil Jory soil
Song(s) "Oregon, My Oregon"
Route marker(s)
Oregon Route Marker
State Quarter
Quarter of Oregon
Released in 2005
Lists of United States state symbols
A map of Oregon[6]
The Oregon coastline looking south from Ecola State Park, with Haystack Rock in the distance

Oregon (Listeni/ˈɔrɨɡən/ ORR-ə-gən)[7] is a state in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. It is bordered on its west by the Pacific Ocean, on its north by Washington, on its south by California, on its east by Idaho, and on its southeast by Nevada. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary, and the Snake River delineates much of the eastern boundary.

Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before traders, explorers, and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843, the Oregon Territory was created in 1848, and Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, Oregon is the 9th largest and 27th most populous U.S. state. Its capital is Salem, the second most populous of its cities, with 160,614 residents (2013 estimate). With 609,456 residents (2013 estimate), Portland is the largest city in Oregon and ranks 29th in the U.S. Its metro population of 2,262,605 (2011 estimate) is 23rd. The Willamette Valley in western Oregon is the state's most densely populated area, home to eight of the ten most populous cities.

Oregon's landscape is diverse, with a windswept Pacific coastline, volcano-studded Cascade Range, abundant waterfalls, dense evergreen forests, mixed forests, and deciduous forests at lower elevations, and high desert sprawling across much of its east all the way to the Great Basin. The tall Douglas firs and redwoods along its rainy west coast contrast with the lighter timbered and fire-prone pine and juniper forests covering portions to the east. Abundant alders in the west fix nitrogen for the conifers; aspen groves are common in the east. Stretching east from central Oregon are semi-arid shrublands, prairies, deserts, steppes, and meadows. At 11,249 feet (3,429 m), Mount Hood is the state high point, and Crater Lake National Park is its only national park.

Etymology[edit]

Main article: Oregon (toponym)
The High Desert region of Oregon
Welcome to Oregon sign at Oregon/California border

The earliest known use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain. The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West (the Columbia River). By 1778 the spelling had shifted to Oregon.[8] In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote:[9]

"The rout [sic]...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, and from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon..."

One theory is the name comes from the French word ouragan ("windstorm" or "hurricane"), which was applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds of the lower Columbia River, or perhaps from firsthand French experience with the chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains.[10]

Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine in 1904 how Oregon's name was derived:[11]

"The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Aure il agua—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given probably by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, and it literally, in a large way, means cascades: 'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand entirely the full meaning of the name Aure il agua, Oregon."

Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink (Wisconsin) River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint," broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon."

According to the Oregon Tourism Commission (also known as Travel Oregon), present-day Oregonians /ˌɒrɨˈɡniənz/[12] pronounce the state's name as "OR-UH-GUN, never OR-EE-GONE."[7]

After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "ORYGUN" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state.[13][14] The stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore.[15]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Oregon

Humans have inhabited the area that is now Oregon for at least 15,000 years. In recorded history, mentions of the land date to as early as the 16th century. During the 18th and 19th centuries, European powers – and later the United States – quarreled over possession of the region until 1846 when the U.S. and Great Britain finalized division of the region. Oregon became a state in 1859 and is now home to over 3.8 million residents.

Earliest inhabitants[edit]

Human habitation of the Pacific Northwest began at least 15,000 years ago[citation needed], with the oldest evidence of habitation in Oregon found at Fort Rock Cave and the Paisley Caves in Lake County. Archaeologist Luther Cressman dated material from Fort Rock to 13,200 years ago.[16] By 8000 B.C. there were settlements throughout the state, with populations concentrated along the lower Columbia River, in the western valleys, and around coastal estuaries.

By the 16th century, Oregon was home to many Native American groups, including the Coquille (Ko-Kwell), Bannock, Chasta, Chinook, Kalapuya, Klamath, Molalla, Nez Perce, Takelma, Tillamook and Umpqua.[17][18][19][20]

European exploration[edit]

The first Europeans to visit Oregon were Spanish explorers led by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo who sighted southern Oregon off the Pacific Coast in 1543.[21] In 1592, Juan de Fuca undertook detailed mapping and ocean current studies. Stops along these trips included Oregon as well as the strait now bearing his name and the future emplacement of Vancouver (Washington). Exploration was retaken routinely in 1774, starting by the expedition of frigate Santiago by Juan José Pérez Hernández (see Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest), and the coast of Oregon became a valuable trading route to Asia. In 1778, British captain James Cook also explored the coast.[22]

French Canadian and metis trappers and missionaries arrived in the eastern part of the state in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, many having travelled as members of Lewis and Clark and the 1811 Astor expeditions. Some stayed permanently, including Étienne Lussier, believed to be the first European farmer in the state of Oregon. The evidence of this French Canadian presence can be found in the numerous names of French origin in that part of the state, including Malheur Lake and the Malheur River, the Grande Ronde and Deschutes rivers, and the city of La Grande.

During U.S. westward expansion[edit]

The Lewis and Clark Expedition traveled through the region also in search of the Northwest Passage. They built their winter fort in 1805-06 at Fort Clatsop, near the mouth of the Columbia River. British explorer David Thompson also conducted overland exploration.

In 1811, David Thompson, of the North West Company, became the first European to navigate the entire Columbia River. Stopping on the way, at the junction of the Snake River, he posted a claim to the region for Great Britain and the North West Company. Upon returning to Montreal, he publicized the abundance of fur-bearing animals in the area.

Also in 1811, New Yorker John Jacob Astor financed the establishment of Fort Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia River as a western outpost to his Pacific Fur Company;[23] this was the first permanent European settlement in Oregon.

In the War of 1812, the British gained control of all Pacific Fur Company posts. The Treaty of 1818 established joint British and American occupancy of the region west of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. By the 1820s and 1830s, the Hudson's Bay Company dominated the Pacific Northwest from its Columbia District headquarters at Fort Vancouver (built in 1825 by the District's Chief Factor John McLoughlin across the Columbia from present-day Portland).

In 1841, the expert trapper and entrepreneur Ewing Young died leaving considerable wealth and no apparent heir, and no system to probate his estate. A meeting followed Young's funeral at which a probate government was proposed. Doctor Ira Babcock of Jason Lee's Methodist Mission was elected Supreme Judge. Babcock chaired two meetings in 1842 at Champoeg, (half way between Lee's mission and Oregon City), to discuss wolves and other animals of contemporary concern. These meetings were precursors to an all-citizen meeting in 1843, which instituted a provisional government headed by an executive committee made up of David Hill, Alanson Beers, and Joseph Gale. This government was the first acting public government of the Oregon Country before annexation by the government of the United States.

Also in 1841, Sir George Simpson, Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, reversed the Hudson's Bay Company's long-standing policy of discouraging settlement because it interfered with the lucrative fur trade. He directed that some 200 Red River Colony settlers be relocated to HBC farms near Fort Vancouver, (the James Sinclair expedition), in an attempt to hold Columbia District.

Starting in 1842–1843, the Oregon Trail brought many new American settlers to Oregon Country. For some time, it seemed that Britain and the United States would go to war for a third time in 75 years (see Oregon boundary dispute), but the border was defined peacefully in 1846 by the Oregon Treaty. The border between the United States and British North America was set at the 49th parallel. The Oregon Territory was officially organized in 1848.

Settlement increased with the Donation Land Claim Act of 1850 and the forced relocation of the native population to Indian reservations in Oregon.

After statehood[edit]

Panorama of Portland, Oregon, in 1890

Oregon was admitted to the Union on February 14, 1859. Founded as a refuge from disputes over slavery, Oregon had a "whites only" clause in its original state Constitution.[24]

At the outbreak of the American Civil War, regular U.S. troops were withdrawn and sent east. Volunteer cavalry recruited in California were sent north to Oregon to keep peace and protect the populace. The First Oregon Cavalry served until June 1865.

In the 1880s, the growth of railroads helped market the state's lumber, wheat, and the rapid growth of its cities.

20th and 21st centuries[edit]

In 1902, Oregon introduced direct legislation by the state’s citizens through initiatives and referenda, known as the Oregon System. Oregon state ballots often include politically conservative proposals side-by-side with politically liberal ones, illustrating the diversity of political thought in the state.

Industrial expansion began in earnest following the 1933–1937 construction of the Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. Hydroelectric power, food, and lumber provided by Oregon helped fuel the development of the West, although the periodic fluctuations in the U.S. building industry have hurt the state's economy on multiple occasions.

In 1994, Oregon became the first U.S. state to legalize physician-assisted suicide through the Oregon Death with Dignity Act.

Recreational use of Marijuana in Oregon was legalized on November 4, 2014, making Oregon only the second state to have legalized gay marriage, physician-assisted suicide, and recreational marijuana.

Geography[edit]

National parks and historic areas in Oregon
Entity Location
Crater Lake National Park Southern Oregon
John Day Fossil Beds National Monument Eastern Oregon
Newberry National Volcanic Monument Central Oregon
Cascade–Siskiyou National Monument Southern Oregon
Oregon Caves National Monument Southern Oregon
California Trail Southern Oregon, California
Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Western Oregon, Washington
Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail IL, MO, KS, IA, NE, SD,
ND, MT, ID, OR, WA
Lewis and Clark National and State Historical Parks Western Oregon, Washington
Nez Perce National Historical Park MT, ID, OR, WA
Oregon Trail MO, KS, NE, WY, ID, OR

Oregon's geography may be split roughly into eight areas:

The mountainous regions of western Oregon, home to three of the most prominent mountain peaks of the United States including Mount Hood, were formed by the volcanic activity of the Juan de Fuca Plate, a tectonic plate that poses a continued threat of volcanic activity and earthquakes in the region. The most recent major activity was the 1700 Cascadia earthquake. Washington's Mount St. Helens erupted in 1980, an event which was visible from and affected some of northern Oregon.

The Columbia River, which forms much of the northern border of Oregon, also played a major role in the region's geological evolution, as well as its economic and cultural development. The Columbia is one of North America's largest rivers, and one of two rivers to cut through the Cascades (the Klamath River in Southern Oregon is the other). About 15,000 years ago, the Columbia repeatedly flooded much of Oregon during the Missoula Floods; the modern fertility of the Willamette Valley is largely a result of those floods. Plentiful salmon made parts of the river, such as Celilo Falls, hubs of economic activity for thousands of years. In the 20th century, numerous hydroelectric dams were constructed along the Columbia, with major impacts on salmon, transportation and commerce, electric power, and flood control.

Today, Oregon's landscape varies from rain forest in the Coast Range to barren desert in the southeast, which still meets the technical definition of a frontier.

Oregon is 295 miles (475 km) north to south at longest distance, and 395 miles (636 km) east to west at longest distance. In land and water area, Oregon is the ninth largest state, covering 98,381 square miles (254,810 km2).[25] The highest point in Oregon is the summit of Mount Hood, at 11,249 feet (3,429 m), and its lowest point is sea level of the Pacific Ocean along the Oregon coast.[26] Its mean elevation is 3,300 feet (1,006 m). Crater Lake National Park is the state's only national park and the site of Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the U.S. at 1,943 feet (592 m).[27] Oregon claims the D River is the shortest river in the world,[28] though the American state of Montana makes the same claim of its Roe River.[29]

Oregon is also home to Mill Ends Park (in Portland),[30] the smallest park in the world at 452 square inches (0.29 m2). Oregon's geographical center is farther west than that of any of the other 48 contiguous states (although the westernmost point of the lower 48 states is in Washington). Its antipodes, diametrically opposite its geographical center on the Earth's surface, is at 44°00′S 59°30′E / 44°S 59.5°E / -44; 59.5 in the Indian Ocean northwest of Port-aux-Français in the French Southern and Antarctic Lands. Oregon lies in two time zones. Most of Malheur County is in the Mountain Time Zone while the rest of the state lies in the Pacific Time Zone.

Oregon is home to what is considered the largest single organism in the world, an Armillaria solidipes fungus beneath the Malheur National Forest of eastern Oregon.[31]

Major cities[edit]

Oregon's population is largely concentrated in the Willamette Valley, which stretches from Eugene in the south (home of the University of Oregon) through Corvallis (home of Oregon State University) and Salem (the capital) to Portland (Oregon's largest city).[34]

Astoria, at the mouth of the Columbia River, was the first permanent English-speaking settlement west of the Rockies in what is now the United States. Oregon City, at the end of the Oregon Trail, was the Oregon Territory's first incorporated city, and was its first capital from 1848 until 1852, when the capital was moved to Salem. Bend, near the geographic center of the state, is one of the ten fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the United States.[35] In the southern part of the state, Medford is a rapidly growing metro area, which is home to The Rogue Valley International-Medford Airport, the third-busiest airport in the state. To the south, near the California-Oregon border, is the community of Ashland, home of the Tony Award-winning Oregon Shakespeare Festival.

Climate[edit]

Main article: Climate of Oregon

Oregon has many different climates, ranging from temperate rainforest climates on the Oregon Coast, Mediterranean in the inland valleys, alpine climates in the higher mountain regions, steppe in the northeast and desert in the southeast. Like Western Europe, Oregon is considered warm for its latitude, and the state has far milder winters for the given elevation than the comparable latitude parts of North America, such as the upper Midwest, Ontario, Quebec and New England.

Western Oregon's climate is heavily influenced by the Pacific Ocean. The western third of Oregon is very wet in the winter, moderately to very wet during the spring and fall, and dry during the summer. The relative humidity of Western Oregon is high except during summer days, which are semi-dry to semi-humid; Eastern Oregon typically sees low humidity year round.

The eastern two thirds of Oregon have cold, snowy winters and very dry summers; much of it is semiarid to arid like the rest of the Great Basin, though the Blue Mountains are wet enough to support extensive forests.

Most of the state does get significant snowfall, but 70 percent of Oregon's population lives in the Willamette Valley, which has exceptionally mild winters for its latitude and typically only sees a few light falls each year. This gives Oregon a reputation of being relatively "snowless".

Oregon's highest recorded temperature is 119 °F (48 °C) at Pendleton on August 10, 1898, and the lowest recorded temperature is −54 °F (−48 °C) at Seneca on February 10, 1933.

Flora and fauna[edit]

Typical of a western state, Oregon is home to a unique and diverse array of wildlife. About 46% of the state is covered in forest, mostly west of the Cascades where up to 80% of the land is forest. Sixty percent of the forests in Oregon are within federal land. Oregon remains the top timber producer of the lower 48 states.[36][37] Typical tree species include the Douglas fir, the state tree, as well as redwood, ponderosa pine (generally east of the Cascades), western red cedar, hemlock, camas, and ferns.[38] Ponderosa pine are more common in the Blue Mountains in the eastern part of the state and firs are more common in the west.

There are many species of mammals that live in the state, which include, but are not limited to, opossums, shrews, moles, bats, rabbits, pikas, mountain beavers, chipmunks, western gray squirrels, yellow-bellied marmots, beavers, porcupines, coyotes, wolves, red foxes, black bears, raccoons, badgers, skunks, cougars, bobcats, lynxes, deer, elk, and moose. Marine mammals include seals, sea lions, and humpback and killer whales. Notable birds include American widgeons, mallard ducks, great blue herons, bald eagles, golden eagles, western meadowlarks (the state bird), barn owls, great horned owls, rufous hummingbirds, pileated woodpeckers, wrens, towhees, sparrows, and buntings.[39]

Moose have not always inhabited the state but came to Oregon in the 1960s; the Wallowa Valley herd now numbers about 60.[40] Gray wolves were extirpated from Oregon around 1930 but have since found their way back; there are now two packs living in the south-central part of the state.[41] Although their existence in Oregon is unconfirmed, reports of grizzly bears still turn up the state and it is probable that some still move into eastern Oregon from Idaho.[42]

Oregon has three national park sites: Crater Lake National Park in the southern part of the Cascades, John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, and Lewis and Clark National and State Historical Parks.[43][44]

Governance[edit]

The flags of the United States and Oregon flown side-by-side in downtown Portland

A writer in the Oregon Country book A Pacific Republic, written in 1839, predicted the territory was to become an independent republic. Four years later, in 1843, settlers of the Willamette Valley voted in majority for a republic government.[45] The Oregon Country functioned in this way until August 13, 1848, when Oregon was annexed by the United States and a territorial government was established. Oregon maintained a territorial government until February 14, 1859, when it was granted statehood.[46]

State[edit]

Oregon state government has a separation of powers similar to the federal government. It has three branches, called departments by the state's constitution:

Governors in Oregon serve four-year terms and are limited to two consecutive terms, but an unlimited number of total terms. Oregon has no lieutenant governor; in the event that the office of governor is vacated, Article V, Section 8a of the Oregon Constitution specifies that the Secretary of State is first in line for succession.[47] The other statewide officers are Treasurer, Attorney General, Superintendent, and Labor Commissioner. The biennial Oregon Legislative Assembly consists of a thirty-member Senate and a sixty-member House. The state supreme court has seven elected justices, currently including the only two openly gay state supreme court justices in the nation. They choose one of their own to serve a six-year term as Chief Justice. The only court that may reverse or modify a decision of the Oregon Supreme Court is the Supreme Court of the United States.

The debate over whether to move to annual sessions is a long-standing battle in Oregon politics, but the voters have resisted the move from citizen legislators to professional lawmakers. Because Oregon's state budget is written in two-year increments and, having no sales tax, its revenue is based largely on income taxes, it is often significantly over- or under-budget. Recent legislatures have had to be called into special session repeatedly to address revenue shortfalls resulting from economic downturns, bringing to a head the need for more frequent legislative sessions. Oregon Initiative 71, passed in 2010, mandates the Legislature to begin meeting every year, for 160 days in odd-numbered years, and 35 days in even-numbered years.

Party registration in Oregon, 1950–2006
  total
  Democratic Party
  Republican Party
  non-affiliated and minor parties

The state maintains formal relationships with the nine federally recognized tribes in Oregon:

Oregonians have voted for the Democratic Presidential candidate in every election since 1988. In 2004 and 2006, Democrats won control of the state Senate and then the House. Since the late 1990s, Oregon has been represented by four Democrats and one Republican in the U.S. House of Representatives. Since 2009, the state has had two Democratic Senators, Ron Wyden and Jeff Merkley. Oregon voters have elected Democratic governors in every election since 1986, most recently electing John Kitzhaber over Republican Dennis Richardson in 2014.

The base of Democratic support is largely concentrated in the urban centers of the Willamette Valley. The eastern two-thirds of the state beyond the Cascade Mountains typically votes Republican; in 2000 and 2004, George W. Bush carried every county east of the Cascades. However, the region's sparse population means that the more populous counties in the Willamette Valley usually outweigh the eastern counties in statewide elections.

Oregon's politics are largely similar to those of neighboring Washington – for instance, in the contrast between urban and rural issues.

In the 2002 general election, Oregon voters approved a ballot measure to increase the state minimum wage automatically each year according to inflationary changes, which are measured by the consumer price index (CPI).[48] In the 2004 general election, Oregon voters passed ballot measures banning same-sex marriage,[49] and restricting land use regulation.[50] In the 2006 general election, voters restricted the use of eminent domain and extended the state's discount prescription drug coverage.[51]

The distribution, sales and consumption of alcoholic beverages are regulated in the state by the Oregon Liquor Control Commission. Thus, Oregon is an Alcoholic beverage control state. While wine and beer are available in most grocery stores, few stores sell hard liquor.

Federal[edit]

Like all US states, Oregon is represented by two U.S. Senators. Since the 1980 census, Oregon has had five Congressional districts.

After Oregon was admitted to the Union, it began with a single member in the House of Representatives (La Fayette Grover, who served in the 35th United States Congress for less than a month). Congressional apportionment increased the size of the delegation following the censuses of 1890, 1910, 1940, and 1980. A detailed list of the past and present Congressional delegations from Oregon is available.

The United States District Court for the District of Oregon hears federal cases in the state. The court has courthouses in Portland, Eugene, Medford, and Pendleton. Also in Portland is the federal bankruptcy court, with a second branch in Eugene.[52] Oregon (among other western states and territories) is in the 9th Court of Appeals. One of the court's meeting places is at the Pioneer Courthouse in downtown Portland, a National Historic Landmark built in 1869.

Politics[edit]

Main article: Politics of Oregon
Presidential elections results[53]
Year Republican Democratic
2012 42.18% 754,095 54.27% 970,343
2008 40.40% 738,475 56.75% 1,037,291
2004 47.19% 866,831 51.35% 943,163
2000 46.46% 713,577 47.01% 720,342
1996 39.06% 538,152 47.15% 649,641
1992 32.53% 475,757 42.48% 621,314
1988 46.61% 560,126 51.28% 616,206
1984 55.91% 685,700 43.74% 536,479
1980 48.33% 571,044 38.67% 456,890
1976 47.78% 492,120 47.62% 490,407
1972 52.45% 486,686 42.33% 392,760
1968 49.83% 408,433 43.78% 358,866
1964 35.96% 282,779 63.72% 501,017
1960 52.56% 408,060 47.32% 367,402
1956 55.25% 406,393 44.75% 329,204
1952 60.54% 420,815 38.93% 270,579

The state has been thought of as politically split by the Cascade Range, with western Oregon being liberal and Eastern Oregon being conservative. In a 2008 analysis of the 2004 presidential election, a political analyst found that according to the application of a Likert scale, Oregon boasted both the most liberal Kerry voters and the most conservative Bush voters, making it the most politically polarized state in the country.[54]

During Oregon's history it has adopted many electoral reforms proposed during the Progressive Era, through the efforts of William S. U'Ren and his Direct Legislation League. Under his leadership, the state overwhelmingly approved a ballot measure in 1902 that created the initiative and referendum for citizens to introduce or approve proposed laws or amendments to the state constitution directly, making Oregon the first state to adopt such a system. Today, roughly half of U.S. states do so.[55]

In following years, the primary election to select party candidates was adopted in 1904, and in 1908 the Oregon Constitution was amended to include recall of public officials. More recent amendments include the nation's first doctor-assisted suicide law,[56] called the Death with Dignity law (which was challenged, unsuccessfully, in 2005 by the Bush administration in a case heard by the U.S. Supreme Court), legalization of medical cannabis, and among the nation's strongest anti-urban sprawl and pro-environment laws. More recently, 2004's Measure 37 reflects a backlash against such land-use laws. However, a further ballot measure in 2007, Measure 49, curtailed many of the provisions of 37.

Of the measures placed on the ballot since 1902, the people have passed 99 of the 288 initiatives and 25 of the 61 referendums on the ballot, though not all of them survived challenges in courts (see Pierce v. Society of Sisters, for an example). During the same period, the legislature has referred 363 measures to the people, of which 206 have passed.

Oregon pioneered the American use of postal voting, beginning with experimentation approved by the Oregon Legislative Assembly in 1981 and culminating with a 1998 ballot measure mandating that all counties conduct elections by mail. It remains the only state, with the exception of Washington, where voting by mail is the only method of voting.[57]

In 1994, Oregon adopted the Oregon Health Plan, which made health care available to most of its citizens without private health insurance.

In the U.S. Electoral College, Oregon casts seven votes. Oregon has supported Democratic candidates in the last seven elections. Democratic incumbent Barack Obama won the state by a margin of twelve percentage points, with over 54% of the popular vote in 2012.

Economy[edit]

Main article: Economy of Oregon
A grain elevator in Halsey storing grass seed, one of the state's largest crops

The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Oregon in 2010 was $168.6 billion; Oregon is the 26th wealthiest state by GDP. The state's per capita personal income in 2010 was $44,447.[58]

With its unemployment rate at 8.0% (as of July 2013),[59] Oregon has the third largest amount of food stamp users in the nation (21% of the population).[60]

Agriculture[edit]

Land in the Willamette Valley owes its fertility to the Missoula Floods, which deposited lake sediment from Glacial Lake Missoula in western Montana onto the valley floor.[61]

Oregon is also one of four major world hazelnut growing regions, and produces 95% of the domestic hazelnuts in the United States. While the history of the wine production in Oregon can be traced to before Prohibition, it became a significant industry beginning in the 1970s. In 2005, Oregon ranked third among U.S. states with 303 wineries.[62] Due to regional similarities in climate and soil, the grapes planted in Oregon are often the same varieties found in the French regions of Alsace and Burgundy.

In the Southern Oregon coast commercially cultivated cranberries account for about 7 percent of US production, and the cranberry ranks 23rd among Oregon's top 50 agricultural commodities. From 2006 to 2008, Oregon growers harvested between 40 and 49 million pounds (18 and 22 kt) of berries every year.[clarification needed] Cranberry cultivation in Oregon uses about 27,000 acres (110 km2) in southern Coos and northern Curry counties, centered around the coastal city of Bandon.

In the northeastern region of the state, particularly around Pendleton, both irrigated and dry land wheat is grown. Oregon farmers and ranchers also produce cattle, sheep, dairy products, eggs and poultry.

Forestry and fisheries[edit]

Vast forests have historically made Oregon one of the nation's major timber production and logging states, but forest fires (such as the Tillamook Burn), over-harvesting, and lawsuits over the proper management of the extensive federal forest holdings have reduced the timber produced. Between 1989 and 2011, the amount of timber harvested from federal lands in Oregon dropped about 90%, although harvest levels on private land have remained relatively constant.[63]

Even the shift in recent years towards finished goods such as paper and building materials has not slowed the decline of the timber industry in the state. The effects of this decline have included Weyerhaeuser's acquisition of Portland-based Willamette Industries in January 2002, the relocation of Louisiana-Pacific's corporate headquarters from Portland to Nashville, and the decline of former lumber company towns such as Gilchrist. Despite these changes, Oregon still leads the United States in softwood lumber production; in 2011, 4,134 million board feet (9,760,000 m3) was produced in Oregon, compared with 3,685 million board feet (8,700,000 m3) in Washington, 1,914 million board feet (4,520,000 m3) in Georgia, and 1,708 million board feet (4,030,000 m3) in Mississippi.[64] The slowing of the timber and lumber industry has caused high unemployment rates in rural areas.[65]

Oregon has one of the largest salmon-fishing industries in the world, although ocean fisheries have reduced the river fisheries in recent years. See also the List of freshwater fishes of Oregon.

Tourism[edit]

Tourism is also a strong industry in the state. Oregon's mountains, forests, waterfalls, beaches and lakes, including Crater Lake National Park draw visitors year round. The Oregon Shakespeare Festival, held in Ashland, is a tourist draw for Southern Oregon.

Oregon ranks 1st nationally in craft breweries per capita[66]

Oregon is home to many breweries and Portland has the largest number of breweries of any city in the world.[67]

Oregon occasionally hosts film shoots. Movies filmed in Oregon include: Animal House, Free Willy, The General, The Goonies, Kindergarten Cop, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, and Stand By Me. Oregon native Matt Groening, creator of The Simpsons, has incorporated many references from his hometown of Portland into the TV series.[68]

Technology[edit]

High technology industries and services have been a major employer since the 1970s. Tektronix was the largest private employer in Oregon until the late 1980s. Intel's creation and expansion of several facilities in eastern Washington County continued the growth that Tektronix had started. Intel, the state's largest for-profit private employer,[69] operates four large facilities, with Ronler Acres, Jones Farm and Hawthorn Farm all located in Hillsboro.[70]

The spinoffs and startups that were produced by these two companies led to the establishment in that area of the so-called Silicon Forest. The recession and dot-com bust of 2001 hit the region hard; many high technology employers reduced the number of their employees or went out of business. Open Source Development Labs made news in 2004 when they hired Linus Torvalds, developer of the Linux kernel. In 2010, biotechnology giant Genentech opened a $400-million facility in Hillsboro to expand its production capabilities.[71] Oregon is home to several large datacenters that take advantage of cheap power and a climate in Central Oregon conducive to reducing cooling costs. Google has a large datacenter in The Dalles and Facebook has built a large datacenter in Prineville. In 2011, Amazon began operating a datacenter in northeastern Oregon near Boardman.[72]

Corporate headquarters[edit]

Largest Public Corporations Headquartered in Oregon[73]
Corporation Headquarters Market cap (million)
1. Nike near Beaverton $32,039
2. Precision Castparts Corp. Portland $16,158
3. FLIR Systems Wilsonville $4,250
4. StanCorp Financial Group Portland $2,495
5. Schnitzer Steel Industries Portland $1,974
6. Portland General Electric Portland $1,737
7. Columbia Sportswear near Beaverton $1,593
8. Northwest Natural Gas Portland $1,287
9. Mentor Graphics Wilsonville $976
10. TriQuint Semiconductor Hillsboro $938

Oregon is also the home of large corporations in other industries. The world headquarters of Nike are located near Beaverton. Medford is home to Harry and David, which sells gift items under several brands. Medford is also home to the national headquarters of the Fortune 1000 company, Lithia Motors. Portland is home to one of the West's largest trade book publishing houses, Graphic Arts Center Publishing. Oregon is also home to Mentor Graphics Corporation, a world leader in electronic design automation located in Wilsonville and employs roughly 4,500 people worldwide.

Adidas Corporations American Headquarters is located in Portland and employs roughly 900 full-time workers at its Portland campus. Adidas competes with Beaverton based Nike as "the other sports giant in town". The main Adidas campus has been ranked as one of the best places to work in Portland.[74]

Nike, located just outside of Portland in nearby Beaverton employs roughly 5,000 full-time employees at its 200-acre (81 ha) campus. Nike's Beaverton campus is continuously ranked as a top employer in the Portland area-along with competitor Adidas.[75]

Intel Corporation employs roughly 16,000 in Oregon with the majority of these employees located at the company's Hillsboro campus located about 30 minutes west of Portland. Intel has been a top employer in Oregon since 1974.[76]

The U.S. Federal Government and Providence Health systems are respective contenders for top employers in Oregon with roughly 12,000 federal workers and 14,000 Providence Health workers.

Employment[edit]

As of August 2013, the state's unemployment rate is 8.1%.[77] Oregon's largest for-profit employer is Intel, located in the Silicon Forest area on Portland's west side. Intel was the largest employer in Oregon until 2008. As of January 2009, the largest employer in Oregon is Providence Health & Services, a non-profit.[78]

Nike and Adidas also have their North American Headquarters in the Portland area.

Taxes and budgets[edit]

Oregon's biennial state budget, $42.4 billion as of 2007, comprises General Funds, Federal Funds, Lottery Funds, and Other Funds. Personal income taxes account for 88% of the General Fund's projected funds.[79] The Lottery Fund, which has grown steadily since the lottery was approved in 1984, exceeded expectations in the 2007 fiscal years, at $604 million.[80]

Oregon is one of only five states that have no sales tax.[81] Oregon voters have been resolute in their opposition to a sales tax, voting proposals down each of the nine times they have been presented.[82] The last vote, for 1993's Measure 1, was defeated by a 75–25% margin.[83]

The state also has a minimum corporate tax of only $10 a year, amounting to 5.6% of the General Fund in the 2005–7 biennium; data about which businesses pay the minimum is not available to the public.[84] As a result, the state relies on property and income taxes for its revenue. Oregon has the fifth highest personal income tax in the nation. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Oregon ranked 41st out of the 50 states in taxes per capita in 2005 with an average amount paid of 1,791.45.[85]

A few local governments levy sales taxes on services: the city of Ashland, for example, collects a 5% sales tax on prepared food.[86]

Oregon is one of six states with a revenue limit.[87] The "kicker law" stipulates that when income tax collections exceed state economists' estimates by 2% or more, any excess must be returned to taxpayers.[88] Since the enactment of the law in 1979, refunds have been issued for seven of the eleven biennia.[89] In 2000, Ballot Measure 86 converted the "kicker" law from statute to the Oregon Constitution, and changed some of its provisions.

Federal payments to county governments, which were granted to replace timber revenue when logging in National Forests was restricted in the 1990s, have been under threat of suspension for several years. This issue dominates the future revenue of rural counties, which have come to rely on the payments in providing essential services.[90]

Fifty-five percent of state revenues are spent on public education, 23% on human services (child protective services, Medicaid, and senior services), 17% on public safety, and 5% on other services.[91]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 12,093
1860 52,465 333.8%
1870 90,923 73.3%
1880 174,768 92.2%
1890 317,704 81.8%
1900 413,536 30.2%
1910 672,765 62.7%
1920 783,389 16.4%
1930 953,786 21.8%
1940 1,089,684 14.2%
1950 1,521,341 39.6%
1960 1,768,687 16.3%
1970 2,091,533 18.3%
1980 2,633,156 25.9%
1990 2,842,321 7.9%
2000 3,421,399 20.4%
2010 3,831,074 12.0%
Est. 2013 3,930,065 2.6%
U.S. Census Bureau[92]
Graph of Oregon's population growth from 1850–2010[92]
Oregon population by county using 2012 estimates[93]
County population cartogram of Oregon

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Oregon was 3,930,065 on July 1, 2013, a 2.6% increase over the 2010 United States Census.[2]

As of the census of 2010,[94] Oregon had a population of 3,831,074, which is an increase of 409,675, or 12%, since the year 2000. The population density was 39.9 persons per square mile. There were 1,675,562 housing units, a 15.3% increase over 2000. Among them, 90.7% were occupied.

In 2010, 78.5% of the population was white alone (meaning of no other race and non-Hispanic), 1.7% was black or African American alone, 1.1% was "American Indian or Alaska native alone, 3.6% was Asian alone, 0.3% was Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander alone, 0.1% was another race alone, and 2.9% was multiracial. Hispanics or Latinos made up 11.7% of the total population.

Oregon Racial Breakdown of Population
Racial composition 1970[95] 1990[95] 2000[96] 2010[97]
White 97.2% 92.8% 86.6% 83.6%
Asian 0.7% 2.4% 3.0% 3.7%
Black 1.3% 1.6% 1.6% 1.8%
Native 0.6% 1.4% 1.3% 1.4%
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
0.2% 0.4%
Other race 0.2% 1.8% 4.2% 5.3%
Two or more races 3.1% 3.8%

The state's most populous ethnic group, non-Hispanic white, has declined from 95.8% in 1970 to 77.8% in 2012.[98][99]

As of 2011, 38.7% of Oregon's children under one year of age belonged to minority groups, meaning they had at least one parent who was not a non-Hispanic white.[100] Of the state's total population, 22.6% was under the age 18, and 77.4% were 18 or older.

The center of population of Oregon is located in Linn County, in the city of Lyons.[101] More than 46% of the state's population lives in the Oregon portion of the Portland metropolitan area.[102]

As of 2004, Oregon's population included 309,700 foreign-born residents (accounting for 8.7% of the state population).

Population Growth by County, 2000–2007. Green counties grew faster than the national average, while purple counties grew more slowly or, in a few cases, lost population.

The largest ancestry groups in the state are:[103]

The largest reported ancestry groups in Oregon are: German (22.5%), English (14.0%), Irish (13.2%), Scandinavian (8.4%) and American (5.0%). Approximately 62% of Oregon residents are wholly or partly of English, Welsh, Irish or Scottish ancestry. Most Oregon counties are inhabited principally by residents of Northwestern-European ancestry. Concentrations of Mexican-Americans are highest in Malheur and Jefferson counties. But despite the fact that Russians account for only 1.4% of the population, Russian is the third most spoken language in Oregon after English and Spanish.[104]

The majority of the diversity in Oregon is in the Portland metropolitan area.

Future projections[edit]

Projections from the U.S. Census Bureau show Oregon's population increasing to 4,833,918 by 2030, an increase of 41.3% compared to the state's population of 3,421,399 in 2000.[105] The state's own projections forecast a total population of 5,425,408 in 2040.[106]

Religious and secular communities[edit]

Major religious affiliations of the people of Oregon are:[107]

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic Church with 398,738; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 147,965; and the Assemblies of God with 45,492.[108]

In a 2009 Gallup poll, 69% of Oregonians identified themselves as being Christian.[109] Most of the remainder of the population had no religious affiliation; the 2008 American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) placed Oregon as tied with Nevada in fifth place of U.S. states having the highest percentage of residents identifying themselves as "non-religious", at 24 percent.[110][111] Secular organizations include the Center for Inquiry (CFI), the Humanists of Greater Portland (HGP), and the United States Atheists (USA).

During much of the 1990s, a group of conservative Christians formed the Oregon Citizens Alliance, and unsuccessfully tried to pass legislation to prevent "gay sensitivity training" in public schools and legal benefits for homosexual couples.[112]

Oregon also contains the largest community of Russian Old Believers to be found in the United States.[113] The Northwest Tibetan Cultural Association is headquartered in Portland, and the New Age film What the Bleep Do We Know!? was filmed and had its premiere in Portland. There are an estimated 6,000 to 10,000 Muslims in Oregon, most of whom live in and around Portland.[114]

Education[edit]

Primary and secondary[edit]

As of 2010, the state had 561,698 students in public primary and secondary schools.[115] There were 197 public school districts at that time, served by 20 education service districts.[115] The five largest school districts as of 2007 were: Portland Public Schools (46,262 students); Salem-Keizer School District (40,106); Beaverton School District (37,821); Hillsboro School District (20,401); and Eugene School District (18,025).[116]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Lillis Complex (University of Oregon)
The Memorial Union at OSU

Public[edit]

Oregon supports seven public universities and one affiliate in the state. It is home to three public research universities: The University of Oregon (UO) in Eugene and Oregon State University (OSU) in Corvallis, both classified as research universities with high research activity, and Portland State University which is classified as a research university with high research activity.[117] UO is the state's most selective university by percentage of students admitted[118] and highest nationally ranked university by U.S. News & World Report and Forbes.[119] OSU is the state's only land-grant university, has the state's largest enrollment for Fall 2014,[120] and is the state's highest ranking university according to Academic Ranking of World Universities, Washington Monthly, and QS World University Rankings.[121] OSU is the state's most research-intensive university, receiving more annual funding for research than all other public higher education institutions in Oregon combined.[122] The state's urban Portland State University has Oregon's second largest enrollment.

The state has three regional universities: Western Oregon University in Monmouth, Southern Oregon University in Ashland, and Eastern Oregon University in La Grande. The Oregon Institute of Technology has its campus in Klamath Falls. The quasi-public Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) includes medical, dental, and nursing schools, and graduate programs in biomedical sciences in Portland and a science and engineering school in Hillsboro. It rated 2nd among US best medical schools for primary care based on research by The Med School 100.[123]

Oregon has historically struggled to fund higher education. Recently, Oregon has cut its higher education budget over 2002–2006 and now Oregon ranks 46th in the country in state spending per student. However, 2007 legislation forced tuition increases to cap at 3% per year, and funded the OUS far beyond the requested governor's budget.[124]

The state also supports 17 community colleges.

Private[edit]

Oregon is home to a wide variety of private colleges. The University of Portland and Marylhurst University are Catholic institutions in the Portland area. Reed College; Concordia University; Lewis & Clark College; Multnomah Bible College; Portland Bible College; Warner Pacific College; Cascade College; the National College of Natural Medicine; and Western Seminary, a theological graduate school; are also in Portland. Pacific University is in the Portland suburb of Forest Grove.

There are also private colleges farther south in the Willamette Valley. McMinnville has Linfield College, while nearby Newberg is home to George Fox University. Salem is home to two private schools: Willamette University (the state's oldest, established during the provisional period) and Corban University. Also located near Salem is Mount Angel Seminary, one of America's largest Roman Catholic seminaries. The state's second medical school, the College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, Northwest, is located in Lebanon. Eugene is home to three private colleges: Northwest Christian University, New Hope Christian College, and Gutenberg College.

Sports[edit]

Oregon is home to two major professional sports teams: the Portland Trail Blazers of the NBA and the Portland Timbers of MLS.[125]

Until 2011, the only major professional sports team in Oregon was the Portland Trail Blazers of the National Basketball Association. From the 1970s to the 1990s, the Blazers were one of the most successful teams in the NBA in terms of both win-loss record and attendance.[citation needed] In the early 21st century, the team's popularity declined due to personnel and financial issues, but revived after the departure of controversial players and the acquisition of new players such as Brandon Roy, LaMarcus Aldridge, and Greg Oden.[126][127] The Blazers play in the Moda Center in Portland's Lloyd District, which also is home to the Portland Winterhawks of the junior-league Western Hockey League.[128]

The Portland Timbers play at Providence Park, just west of downtown Portland. The Timbers have a strong following, with the team regularly selling out its games.[129] The Timbers repurposed the formerly multi-use stadium into a soccer-specific stadium in fall 2010, increasing the seating in the process.[130]

Eugene, Salem and Hillsboro have minor-league baseball teams. The Eugene Emeralds the Salem-Keizer Volcanoes and the Hillsboro Hops all play in the Single-A Northwest League.[131] Portland has had minor-league baseball teams in the past, including the Portland Beavers and Portland Rockies, who played most recently at PGE Park.

Oregon also has four teams in the fledgling International Basketball League: the Portland Chinooks, Central Oregon Hotshots, Salem Stampede, and the Eugene Chargers.[132]

The Oregon State Beavers and the University of Oregon Ducks football teams of the Pacific-12 Conference meet annually in the Civil War. Both schools have had recent success in other sports as well: Oregon State won back-to-back college baseball championships in 2006 and 2007,[133] and the University of Oregon won back-to-back NCAA men's cross country championships in 2007 and 2008.[134]

Sister states[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Minnesota
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on February 14, 1859 (33rd)
Succeeded by
Kansas

Coordinates: 44°00′N 120°30′W / 44°N 120.5°W / 44; -120.5