Richard Grosvenor, 2nd Marquess of Westminster

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The Most Honourable
The Marquess of Westminster
KGPC
A three-quarter length portrait of a standing man wearing a black cloak with gold buttons, and a red stole with tassels
Painting of Lord Westminster when he was
Viscount Belgrave by Henry William Pickersgill
Lord Steward of the Household
In office
22 March 1850 – 21 February 1852
Monarch Victoria
Prime Minister Lord John Russell
Preceded by The Earl Fortescue
Succeeded by The Duke of Montrose
Personal details
Born (1795-01-27)27 January 1795
Millbank House,
Westminster, London
Died 31 October 1869(1869-10-31) (aged 74)
Fonthill House, Fonthill Gifford, Wiltshire, England
Resting place St Mary's Church, Eccleston, Cheshire
53°09′27″N 2°52′46″W / 53.1576°N 2.8794°W / 53.1576; -2.8794
Nationality English
Political party Whig
Spouse(s) Lady Elizabeth Leveson-Gower
Children Eleanor
Mary Frances
Gilbert
Elizabeth
Hugh Lupus
Evelyn
Caroline Amelia
Octavia
Agnes
Gilbert Norman
Jane Louisa Octavia
Richard
Theodora Grosvenor
Residence Eaton Hall, Cheshire,
Grosvenor House, London
Alma mater Westminster School
Christ Church, Oxford
Occupation Landlord, politician

Richard Grosvenor, 2nd Marquess of Westminster KGPC (27 January 1795 – 31 October 1869), styled Viscount Belgrave from 1802 to 1831 and Earl Belgrave from 1831 to 1845, was an English politician, landowner, property developer and benefactor.

Background and education[edit]

Grosvenor was born at Millbank House, Westminster, London, the eldest of the three sons of Robert Grosvenor, 1st Marquess of Westminster and Lady Eleanor Egerton. He was educated at Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford where he graduated MA.[1] He undertook the Grand Tour in 1815.

Political and public life[edit]

In 1818 Grosvenor was elected as Whig MP for Chester and was later appointed as a Justice of the Peace.[2] In 1830 he was elected MP for Cheshire until the constituency was divided in 1832, and from then until 1834 he represented South Cheshire. He was Lord Lieutenant of Cheshire from 1845 to 1867 and Lord Steward of the Household between 1850 and 1852 in the Whig administration headed by Lord John Russell.[1] On 22 March 1850 he was admitted to the Privy Council.[3] He was presented with the Order of the Garter on 6 July 1857.[4] Of his political activity it is said that "he seldom spoke in the House of Lords".[1]

Development of the estate[edit]

Grosvenor "devoted himself ... to the improvement of his London property",[1] and added to his properties in Dorset and Cheshire; he was described as being a "model landlord".[2] Eaton Hall had been rebuilt in flamboyant Gothic style for his father by William Porden. Grosvenor commissioned the Scottish architect William Burn to make alterations to it, including raising the centre of the south front to make it look like a tower.[5] Burn also designed Fonthill House for him in Scottish Baronial style.[6] On his estates Grosvenor built farms, schools and "numerous" cottages.[7] Among his schools were the Bishopsfield Schools in Hoole, Chester.[8]

Personality and personal interests[edit]

Statue of Grosvenor wearing his garter robes

Grosvenor continued the family interest in horse racing[1] and, when he was living in the country estate, he spent time hunting and fishing.[2] He gave generously to charity, and built and restored churches.[1] He was an early patron of the Chester architect John Douglas.[9] In 1865–66 Douglas designed St John's Church for him in his estate village of Aldford.[8] About the same time Grosvenor gave fields in Chester to the city council for the formation of Grosvenor Park.[10] For this park Douglas designed a number of items, including the Entrance Lodge, the gates, and a cover for Billy Hobby's Well.[8] In 1865 the citizens of Chester began to raise money for the erection of a statue "to mark the public and private worth of his lordship, and the high estimation in which he is held by his neighbours and tenants, as well as by all classes of the community". Over £5,000 (£420,000 as of 2014)[11] was raised. The statue showing the marquess in his garter robes was designed by Thomas Thornycroft, and erected in 1869; it still stands in Grosvenor Park.[10]

Grosvenor's parents had instilled "high moral principles" in their children, and these stayed with Richard throughout his life.[2] He has been described as "of austere character and unswerving devotion to duty as family man, politician and landlord".[6] His obituary in The Times says "he administered his vast estate with a combination of intelligence and generosity not often witnessed".[1]

Family[edit]

Half-length portrait in black and white of a young woman in a low-cut dress
Elizabeth, Marchioness of Westminster, by Sir Thomas Lawrence.

Lord Westminster married Lady Elizabeth Leveson-Gower, younger daughter of George Leveson-Gower, 2nd Marquess of Stafford (later 1st Duke of Sutherland), in 1819.[2] Following their marriage, Westminster and his wife initially lived at Eaton Hall, Cheshire, the family's country house, with Lord and Lady Grosvenor. During the London season, from April each year, the family moved to live in Grosvenor House. In 1827 the couple visited Norway, Sweden and Russia and in 1835–36 they toured through Germany and Italy. In 1883 they moved into Motcombe House, Dorset, in one of the family's estates. When the 1st Marquess died in 1845 they followed the family tradition of using Eaton Hall as their country house and Grosvenor House as their London residence, where they entertained lavishly.[2]

Lord Westminster and his wife had thirteen children, ten of whom survived into adulthood and three of whom lived into their nineties.[2] Their second son Hugh Lupus Grosvenor succeeded him as 3rd Marquess; he was later created Duke of Westminster.[1] Their youngest son Lord Richard Grosvenor was ennobled as Baron Stalbridge.[12]

Lord Westminster died at Fonthill House, Fonthill Gifford in Wiltshire on 31 October 1869 after a short illness and was buried in the family vault in St Mary's Church, Eccleston. His wealth at death is recorded as being under £800,000 (£64,480,000 as of 2014).[1][11]

References[edit]

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Tedder, H. R., rev. K. D. Reynolds (2004) 'Grosvenor, Richard, second marquess of Westminster (1795–1869)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Retrieved on 18 April 2010. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Newton, Diana; Lumby, Jonathan (2002), The Grosvenors of Eaton, Eccleston, Cheshire: Jennet Publications, pp. 25–26, ISBN 0-9543379-0-5 
  3. ^ London Gazette, 26 March 1850, p. 907, retrieved 19 April 2010 
  4. ^ London Gazette, 10 July 1857, p. 2405, retrieved 19 April 2010 
  5. ^ Eaton Halls. Eaton Estate. 2002. p. 4. 
  6. ^ a b Hubbard 1991, p. 59.
  7. ^ Hubbard 1991, p. 60.
  8. ^ a b c Hubbard 1991, p. 239.
  9. ^ Hubbard 1991, p. 28.
  10. ^ a b Information Sheet: Grosvenor Park, Cheshire West and Chester, retrieved 18 April 2010 
  11. ^ a b UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Gregory Clark (2014), "What Were the British Earnings and Prices Then? (New Series)" MeasuringWorth.
  12. ^ Children of Richard Grosvenor, 2nd Marquess of Westminster and Lady Elizabeth Mary Leveson-Gower, Darryl Lundy thePeerage.com, retrieved 19 April 2010 
  13. ^ http://worldroots.com/brigitte/famous/h/henry8englanddesc-25.htm
  14. ^ http://www.angelfire.com/realm/gotha/Part_h10.htm

Sources

External links[edit]

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Thomas Grosvenor
John Egerton
Member of Parliament for Chester
18181830
With: Thomas Grosvenor 1818–1826
Lord Robert Grosvenor 1826–1830
Succeeded by
Lord Robert Grosvenor
Sir Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton, Bt
Preceded by
Davies Davenport
Wilbraham Egerton
Member of Parliament for Cheshire
18301832
With: Wilbraham Egerton 1830–1831
George Wilbraham 1831–1832
constituency divided
New constituency Member of Parliament for South Cheshire
18321835
With: George Wilbraham
Succeeded by
George Wilbraham
Sir Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton, Bt
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Earl of Stamford
Lord Lieutenant of Cheshire
1845–1867
Succeeded by
The Lord Egerton
Political offices
Preceded by
The Earl Fortescue
Lord Steward
1850–1852
Succeeded by
The Duke of Montrose
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Robert Grosvenor
Marquess of Westminster
1845–1869
Succeeded by
Hugh Lupus Grosvenor