Ritu (Indian season)
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For other uses see Ritu (disambiguation).
Ritu (Sanskrit: ऋतु) means "season" in the Hindu calendar, and there are six ritus (also transliterated rutu) or Indian seasons. The word is derived from the Vedic Sanskrit word Rtu, a fixed or appointed time, especially the proper time for sacrifice (yajna) or ritual in Vedic Religion; this in turn comes from the word Rta (ऋत), as used in Vedic Sanskrit literally means the "order or course of things".
|No.||Ritu||Season||Hindu lunar months||Gregorian month||Characteristics||Seasonal festivals|
|Spring||Chaitra and Vaishakha||~ March to May||Temperature around 20-30 degrees; vernal equinox occurs in the middle of this season.||Vasant panchami, Ugadi, Gudhi Padwa, Holi, Rama Navami, Vishu/RongaliBihu/Baisakhi/Tamil Puthandu, Hanuman Jayanti|
|Summer||Jyeshta and Aashaadha||~ May to July||Very hot, temperatures up to 45-50 degrees Celsius; ends with the summer solstice.||Vat Pournima, Rath Yatra, Guru Purnima|
|Monsoon||Shraavana (Sawan) and Bhadrapada (Bhado)||~ July to September||Very hot, very humid and heavy monsoon rains; begins with the summer solstice.||Raksha Bandhan, Krishna Janmaashtami, Ganesh Chaturthi, Onam, Gurujonar Tithi|
|Autumn||Ashwin (Kwar) and Kartika||~ September to November||Mild temperatures; 19 to 22 degrees Celsius; Autumnal equinox occurs in the middle of this season.||Navaratri, Vijayadashami, Sharad Purnima, Bihu|
|Fall winter||Margashirsha (Agrahayana, Agahan) and Pausha (Poos)||~ November to January||Very pleasant temperatures; generally, 20-25 degrees Celsius; ends with the winter solstice.||(mid-Winter celebration), Bihu, Deepavali, Kartik Poornima|
|Winter||Magha and Phalguna (Phagun)||~ January to March||Moderately cold, but pleasant during occasional sunshine; temperatures may decrease below 10 degrees Celsius.This season is typical to tropical and subtropical regions, because trees actually shed their leaves in this season in tropical areas; starts with the winter solstice.||Shivaratri, Shigmo, Pongal, Sankranthi|
- Feller, Danielle. The Seasons in Mahākāvya Literature, Eastern Book Linkers, Delhi, 1995, ISBN 8186339248
- Raghavan, V. Ṛtu in Sanskrit literature, Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Kendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Delhi, 1972
- Renou, Louis. Sanskrit et culture, Payot, 1950
- Selby, Martha Ann (translator). The Circle of Six Seasons, Penguin, New Delhi, 2003, ISBN 0-14-100772-9
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