Ritu (Indian season)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

For other uses see Ritu (disambiguation).

Ritu (Sanskrit: ऋतु) means "season" in the Hindu calendar, and there are six ritus (also transliterated rutu) or Indian seasons. The word is derived from the Vedic Sanskrit word Rtu, a fixed or appointed time, especially the proper time for sacrifice (yajna) or ritual in Vedic Religion; this in turn comes from the word Rta (ऋत), as used in Vedic Sanskrit literally means the "order or course of things".

Seasonal table[1][2][edit]

India observes all 6 ecological seasons. South India experiences the seasons on a different schedule than the one depicted here.

No. Ritu Season Hindu lunar months Gregorian month Characteristics Seasonal festivals
1 Vasanta
वसन्त
Spring Chaitra and Vaishakha ~ March to May Temperature around 20-30 degrees; vernal equinox occurs in the middle of this season. Vasant panchami, Ugadi, Gudhi Padwa, Holi, Rama Navami, Vishu/RongaliBihu/Baisakhi/Tamil Puthandu, Hanuman Jayanti
2 Grishma
ग्रीष्म
Summer Jyeshta and Aashaadha ~ May to July Very hot, temperatures up to 45-50 degrees Celsius; ends with the summer solstice. Vat Pournima, Rath Yatra, Guru Purnima
3 Varsha
वर्षा
Monsoon Shraavana (Sawan) and Bhadrapada (Bhado) ~ July to September Very hot, very humid and heavy monsoon rains; begins with the summer solstice. Raksha Bandhan, Krishna Janmaashtami, Ganesh Chaturthi, Onam, Gurujonar Tithi
4 Sharad

शरद्,

Autumn Ashwin (Kwar) and Kartika ~ September to November Mild temperatures; 19 to 22 degrees Celsius; Autumnal equinox occurs in the middle of this season. Navaratri, Vijayadashami, Sharad Purnima, Bihu
5 Hemanta

हेमन्त

Fall winter Margashirsha (Agrahayana, Agahan) and Pausha (Poos) ~ November to January Very pleasant temperatures; generally, 20-25 degrees Celsius; ends with the winter solstice. (mid-Winter celebration), Bihu, Deepavali, Kartik Poornima
6 Shishira
शिशिर
Winter Magha and Phalguna (Phagun) ~ January to March Moderately cold, but pleasant during occasional sunshine; temperatures may decrease below 10 degrees Celsius.This season is typical to tropical and subtropical regions, because trees actually shed their leaves in this season in tropical areas; starts with the winter solstice. Shivaratri, Shigmo, Pongal, Sankranthi

The seasons are described in literature such as the Sanskrit poem Ṛtusaṃhāra written by Kālidāsa.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Feller, Danielle. The Seasons in Mahākāvya Literature, Eastern Book Linkers, Delhi, 1995, ISBN 8186339248
  • Raghavan, V. Ṛtu in Sanskrit literature, Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Kendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Delhi, 1972
  • Renou, Louis. Sanskrit et culture, Payot, 1950
  • Selby, Martha Ann (translator). The Circle of Six Seasons, Penguin, New Delhi, 2003, ISBN 0-14-100772-9

External links[edit]


[[]]