Ritu (Indian season)
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For other uses see Ritu (disambiguation).
Ritu (Sanskrit: ऋतु) means "season" in the Hindu calendar, and there are six ritus (also transliterated rutu) or seasons. The word is derived from the Vedic Sanskrit word Rtu, a fixed or appointed time, especially the proper time for sacrifice (yajna) or ritual in Vedic Religion; this in turn comes from the word Rta (ऋत), as used in Vedic Sanskrit literally means the "order or course of things". This word is used in nearly all Hindu languages.
|No.||Ritu||Season||Hindu lunar months||Gregorian month||Characteristics||Seasonal festivals|
|Spring||Chaitra and Vaishakha||~ March to May||Temperature around 20-30 degrees; vernal equinox occurs in the middle of this season.||Vasant panchami, Ugadi, Gudhi Padwa, Holi, Rama Navami, Vishu/RongaliBihu/Baisakhi/Tamil Puthandu, Hanuman Jayanti|
|Summer||Jyeshta and Aashaadha||~ May to July||Very hot, temperatures up to 45-50 degrees Celsius; ends with the summer solstice.||Vat Pournima, Rath Yatra, Guru Purnima|
|Monsoon||Shraavana (Sawan) and Bhadrapada (Bhado)||~ July to September||Very hot, very humid and heavy monsoon rains; begins with the summer solstice.||Raksha Bandhan, Krishna Janmaashtami, Ganesh Chaturthi, Onam, Gurujonar Tithi|
|Autumn||Ashwin (Kwar) and Kartika||~ September to November||Mild temperatures; 19 to 22 degrees Celsius; Autumnal equinox occurs in the middle of this season.||Navaratri, Vijayadashami, Sharad Purnima, Bihu|
|Fall winter||Margashirsha (Agrahayana, Agahan) and Pausha (Poos)||~ November to January||Very pleasant temperatures; generally, 20-25 degrees Celsius; ends with the winter solstice.||(mid-Winter celebration), Bihu, Deepavali, Kartik Poornima|
|Winter||Magha and Phalguna (Phagun)||~ January to March||Moderately cold, but pleasant during occasional sunshine; temperatures may decrease below 10 degrees Celsius.This season is typical to tropical and subtropical regions, because trees actually shed their leaves in this season in tropical areas; starts with the winter solstice.||Shivaratri, Shigmo, Pongal, Sankranthi|
- Feller, Danielle. The Seasons in Mahākāvya Literature, Eastern Book Linkers, Delhi, 1995, ISBN 8186339248
- Raghavan, V. Ṛtu in Sanskrit literature, Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Kendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Delhi, 1972
- Renou, Louis. Sanskrit et culture, Payot, 1950
- Selby, Martha Ann (translator). The Circle of Six Seasons, Penguin, New Delhi, 2003, ISBN 0-14-100772-9
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