Schizophora

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Schizophora
Marsh fly01.jpg
Marsh fly (Sciomyzidae)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Suborder: Brachycera
Infraorder: Muscomorpha
Section: Schizophora
Subsections

Acalyptratae
Calyptratae

Schizophora is a section of true flies containing 78 families, which are collectively referred to as muscoids, even though - technically - the term "muscoid" should be limited to flies in the superfamily Muscoidea; this is an example of informal, historical usage persisting in the vernacular. The section is divided into two subsections, the Acalyptratae and Calyptratae, which are commonly referred to as acalyptrate muscoids and calyptrate muscoids, respectively.

The defining feature of the Schizophora is the presence of a special structure that is used to help the emerging adult fly break free of the puparium; this structure is an inflatable membranous sac called the ptilinum that protrudes from the face, above the antennae. The inflation of the ptilinum (using fluid hemolymph rather than air) creates pressure along the line of weakness in the puparium, which then bursts open along the seam to allow the adult to escape. Once the adult emerges, the fluid is withdrawn, the ptilinum collapses, and the membrane retracts entirely back inside the head. The large, inverted "U"-shaped suture in the face through which it came, however, is still quite visible, and it is this ptilinal suture or frontal suture from which the name "Schizophora" ("split-bearers") is derived. The term was first used by Eduard Becher.

In contrast to eggs of other arthropods, most insect eggs are drought resistant. This is because inside the maternal chorion two additional membranes develop from embryonic tissue, the amnion and the serosa. This serosa secretes a cuticle rich in chitin that protects the embryo against desiccation. In Schizophora however the serosa does not develop, but these flies lay their eggs in damp places, such as rotting matter.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jacobs, C.G.; Rezende, G.L.; Lamers, G.E.; van der Zee, M. (2013). "The extraembryonic serosa protects the insect egg against desiccation". Proceedings of the Royal Society - Biological series 280 (1764): 20131082. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.1082. PMID 23782888. 

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