Screwed Up Click

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Screwed Up Click
Also known as S.U.C., Soldiers United 4 Cash
Origin Houston, Texas, United States
Genres Southern hip hop, Screwed and Chopped
Years active 1990s–present
Labels Screwed Up Records
Associated acts Devin the Dude, K-Rino, Lil' Troy, South Park Mexican, UGK, narvell

The Screwed Up Click (or S.U.C.) is an American hip hop collective based out of Houston, Texas, that was led by DJ Screw. Its most notable members include DJ Screw himself, Big Hawk, Big Mello, Big Moe, Big Pokey, the Botany Boyz, E.S.G., Fat Pat, Lil Flip, Lil' Keke, Lil' O, Trae and Z-Ro. In addition, Devin the Dude, K-Rino, Lil' Troy, South Park Mexican and UGK are considered to be "Screwed Up Affiliated".

History[edit]

In the early 1990s, a new type of music began gaining popularity in Houston, collectively called "Chopped and screwed", which was pioneered by DJ Screw.[1] The sound was created from a turntable technique in which Screw slowed down the tempo and torqued with parts of hip-hop anthems, giving them a new sound which he believed made the lyrics easier to understand.[2] In 1993, he began to release tapes, known as "Screw Tapes", on which he slowed down and manipulated records by popular artists and also prominently included freestyles by a group of friends and local rappers, who soon came to be known as the "Screwed Up Click".[1][3] In 1994, Screw moved into a house located in the eastern park of South Park, which soon came to be known as "The Screw House", where he could conduct his new business of selling tapes and recording freestyles with the group.[3] These tapes quickly gained popularity in the area, allowing many of the groups members to launch successful solo careers. At some point the business became too much for the house, so the group relocated its operations to a store in Missouri City that became known as "The Screw Shop".[3] After years of success that took its members to new heights, the S.U.C. found itself surrounded by tragedy when two of its members died, Fat Pat who was murdered and DJ Screw who overdosed from a lethal combination of codeine and other drugs.[4][5][6] However, the group still continues to record new music with many of its members now focusing primarily on their solo careers. In later years, the group saw the passing of other members including Big Hawk and Big Moe in 2006 and 2007 respectively, as well as the incarceration of others.[7][8]

More recently in 2010, the S.U.C. had a reunion tour in 2010 which included Big Pokey, Lil' Keke, Lil' O and Z-Ro.[9] In 2014, several members of the group appeared on the track "The Legendary DJ Screw" from Bun B's fourth studio album Trill OG: The Epilogue, including a post-humorous verse from Big Hawk.

Original members[edit]

This is a list of all of the original members of the Screwed Up Click.[10][5]

Big Hawk[edit]

Main article: Big Hawk

John Edward Hawkins, better known as H.A.W.K. or Big Hawk was one of the founding members of the Screwed Up Click. He grew up on the dead end block of MLK with younger brother, Patrick "Fat Pat" Hawkins and two sisters. He started rapping in 1992 when Fat Pat took him to DJ Screw’s house, an upcoming mixtape producer and DJ in the southern area of Houston.[11] In 1994 Hawk, Fat Pat, DJ Screw, Lil' Keke and Koldjack, collaborated to form the group D.E.A. and Dead End Records. In late 1998 D.E.A. released an original independent album entitled, “Screwed For Life”. In 1999 Hawk participated in a Southside Playaz compilation album titled You Got Us Fuxxed Up, with Mike D, Claydoe and other members of the S.U.C. Hawk released his solo album, Under Hawk's Wings on Dead End Records in 2000 and was featured on the Lil' Troy hit "Wanna Be A Baller". He also collaborated with Lil' O on the hit song, "Back Back". Next, he partnered with Game Face Records in 2002 and released his first album under his label Ghetto Dreams Ent., self-titled, HAWK. With the hit song, "U Already Know", the album charted the Billboard's list of top R&B and Rap Albums at no. 45. On May 1, 2006, Hawkins, 36, was shot to death outside of a home in Houston, TX.[12][7] Police were unable to find any witnesses that could provide information on a suspect or a motive for the shooting.[7]

Big Moe[edit]

Main article: Big Moe

Kenneth Doniell Moore, better known as Big Moe, was known for a softer and slower style than other Houston rappers, including a mixture of rapping and singing that he called "rapsinging"[13] as well as for his music that celebrated codeine-laced syrup as a recreational drug.[14] As one of the founding members of the "Original Screwed Up Click," Big Moe started out in music by freestyling on DJ Screw mixtapes before being signed to Wreckshop Records.[13][14] He would go on to release three albums with Wreckshop Records, City of Syrup in 2000, Purple World in 2002 and then Moe Life in 2003. Moe died on October 14, 2007 at 33 years old, after suffering a heart attack one week earlier that left him in a coma.[8] There was speculation that recreational codeine use in the form of Purple Drank may have contributed to his death.[14]

Big Pokey[edit]

Main article: Big Pokey

Milton Powell, better known as Big Pokey, is one of the original members of the Screwed Up Click.[15] He joined up with DJ Screw in the early 1990s and started releasing songs on DJ Screw's many mixtapes. His first full-length album appeared in early 1999, "Hardest Pit in the Litter". The following year, Pokey returned with "D-Game" 2000, another album of mid-tempo 808-driven beats featuring several of his Houston peers as guests. In 2005 he was featured in a song which was #93 on US Top 100 [3][4] with Paul Wall called Sittin' Sidewayz. He has since released many other albums and mixtapes.

Botany Boyz[edit]

Main article: Botany Boyz

The rap group the Botany Boyz, are a rap group which included rappers Big D-E-Z, B.G. Duke, B.G. Gator, C-Note, D-Red, Lil 3rd, Lil Head, Pap-Pap and Will-Lean. One of the foremost contributors to the Houston screw scene, the group was part of the Screwed Up Click in the early to mid 1990s. The group name is a reference to Botany Lane in the Cloverland area of Houston where they resided. Their first album, Thought of Many Ways, was released on their own label, Big Shot Records, in 1997; its follow-up, Forever Botany, was released in 1999 and managed to crack the Billboard Top R&B/Hip-Hop charts at #99 in 2000 as the Houston rap scene became more popular across the US. Since then, the members have concentrated more on solo projects, with C-Note being the most successful.[16] Since the groups creation members Big D-E-Z, Lil 3rd, Lil Head and Pap-Pap have left the group as well as member B.G. Gator, who committed suicide on Mother's Day a year after his mom passed away.

DJ Screw[edit]

Main article: DJ Screw

Robert Earl Davis, Jr. also known as DJ Screw was a central figure in the Houston hip hop community and was the creator of the now-famous Chopped and Screwed DJ technique. This creation led to his nickname of "The Originator". During the early 1990s, he invited some of the Houston emcees from the city's south side to rhyme on those mixes.[17] He was also a member of the rap group Dead End Alliance. This eventually led to the formation of the Screwed Up Click. DJ Screw died on November 16, 2000 from a lethal combination of codeine and other drugs. [4] Since his death, DJ Screw has had a considerable influence in the Houston scene, which is sometimes referred to as "Screwston" in his memory. His distinct musical stylings influenced countless rap acts. Alternative weekly The Houston Press named the 1995 album 3 'n the Mornin' (Part Two) as no. 13 on its list of the 25 best Houston rap albums of all time. The newspaper credited the release for the way it helped shape Houston's hip-hop culture.[18] The newspaper also referred to Chopped and Screwed music as the second most likely type of music to be associated with Texas, an example of DJ Screw's influence in the region.[19]

E.S.G.[edit]

Main article: E.S.G.

Cedric Hill, better known by his stage name E.S.G. which stands for Everyday Street Gangsta, is a rapper originally from Bogalusa, Louisiana.[20] He helped to popularize the "chopped and screwed" style of rap music.[20] His debut album Ocean of Funk was released in 1995 and he released albums regularly since then. He is also known for static between him and Lil' Flip, for the claim of "Freestyle King", which was eventually resolved with Lil' Flip claiming the title.

Fat Pat[edit]

Main article: Fat Pat (rapper)

Patrick Lamark Hawkins, better known by his stage name Fat Pat, was a member of DEA (Dead End Alliance) with his brother John "Big Hawk" Hawkins, DJ Screw and Kay-K, all original members of the Screwed Up Click.[5][6] He released two albums with Wreckshop Records in 1998, Ghetto Dreams and Throwed In Da Game, the latter of which was released posthumously. On February 3, 1998, Hawkins was fatally shot at a home in Houston, TX, after going to a promoter's apartment to collect an appearance fee.[21][5][6][22] Eight years later, his brother rapper Big Hawk was also shot to death.[7]

Kay-K[edit]

Kay-K also known as Koldjack was an original member of the Screwed Up Click and a founding member of the D.E.A. (Dead End Alliance), which also included DJ Screw, Fat Pat, & Big Hawk.[5]

Lil' Keke[edit]

Main article: Lil' Keke

Marcus Lakee Edwards, better known by his stage name Lil' Keke, is an original member of the Southern hip hop collective Screwed Up Click.[23] Lil Keke gained national underground love with his track "Southside" from his 1997 release "Don't Mess Wit Texas". In 2005, Lil' Keke signed to Swishahouse Records. In an interview with HitQuarters at the time, label president and A&R T. Farris said, "He is a legend here in Houston. He plays a big role in the whole style of rap that we make down here."[24]

Lil' O[edit]

Main article: Lil' O

Ore Magnus Lawson, better known by his stage name Lil' O, was born in Lagos, Nigeria and raised in Southwest Houston, Texas.[25] He is an original member of Screwed Up Click. He is known for his short stature, being 5 feet tall, from which he earned the nickname "Da Fat Rat Wit Da Cheeze".[26] While studying at Xavier University of Louisiana in New Orleans in 1997, he recorded “Can’t Stop”, which featured vocal contributions from the ladies that would go on to earn renown as Destiny's Child. The track soon became Lil’ O’s debut single and went on to score an instant local hit. In 1999, he signed with the Houston-based indie label Game Face Entertainment, from which he released his debut album, Blood Money, which went on to sell 20,000 copies.[27] In 2001, his album "Da Fat Rat With The Cheeze" sold over 75,000.[25][28] He collaborated with Big Hawk on the hit single "Back Back", which led to a nationwide deal with Atlantic Records, which he later left in 2003.[29]

Mike D[edit]

Mike D, also known as Bosshog Corleone or Dickbone Corleone, is a rapper based out of Houston, Texas, who along with Clay Doe, Fat Pat and Mr. 3-2, formed the rap group Southside Playaz. Mike D was able to create a lot of tracks with Fat Pat before his death, which are still included on new Southside Playaz CDs to this day.

Other members[edit]

This is a list of all of the known past and present members who joined the Screwed Up Click after its creation.

Al-D[edit]

Al-D is a member of the Screwed Up Click. He joined the group because of his brother, DJ Screw, who was the founder of the Screwed-Up Click.

Big Jut[edit]

Big Jut is a member of the Screwed Up Click who was also DJ Screw's and many of the other members personal barber.[30] He was also the one to introduce some rappers to Screw, such as Dat Boy Grace, who later joined the group.[30] He released an album titled Screwed Up Fo Life in 2004.

Big Mello[edit]

Main article: Big Mello

Curtis Donnell Davis, better known by his stage name Big Mello, was a member of the Screwed Up Click.[31] He debuted as Big Mello in 1992 with the album "Bone Hard Zaggin'" on the Rap-A-Lot Records label. Shea Serrano of the Houston Press said that Big Mello was famous for "repping Hiram Clarke in the 90's[...]"[32] On June 15, 2002 Mello, along with a passenger died after he lost control of his vehicle and hit a pillar in the 4500 block of South Loop West In Houston.[33]

Big Rue[edit]

Big Rue was a member of the Screwed Up Click. He was also one of the founding members of M.O.B. Style Protected. He is deceased.

Big Steve[edit]

Big Steve, also known as Granpappy and Mafioso, was a member of the Screwed Up Click. He was also a founding member of the group "Woss Ness" with Rasir X and Mista Luv. He was murdered two years after the group's debut album "Da Game Changed Forever".

Bird[edit]

Reggie "Bird" Oliver is a member of the Screwed Up Click. He met DJ Screw in 1989 and they became close friends. While Screw sold tapes hand over fist out of the house he asked Bird to stand behind the door with a gun. Screw’s friend Toe famously commissioned the first tape and then played it for Bird, who was among the first to commission a second round of tapes.[34]

Chris Ward[edit]

One of the last added members of the Screwed Up Click. He is also part of the group Boss Hogg Outlawz with Slim Thug.

Clay Doe[edit]

Clay Doe is a rapper based out of Houston, Texas, who along with Mike D, Fat Pat and Mr. 3-2, formed the rap group Southside Playaz.

Dat Boy Grace[edit]

Dat Boy Grace, now known as Macc Grace, as well as his brother Lo$, were members of the Screwed Up Click, in which he developed a long time friendship with DJ Screw. He was introduced to Screw by his barber, Big Jut, a fellow Screwed Up Click member.[35]

Enjoli[edit]

Enjoli, also known as First Lady of the SUC, earned her title by rapping on DJ Screw's Underground Chapters. She was a close friend of fellow Houston rapper Big Moe and appeared on his albums City of Syrup, on the track "I Wonder", and Purple World, on the track "The Letter". She also made an appearance on rapper Z-Ro's album Z-Ro vs. the World on the track "Dirty 3rd".

Herschelwood Hardheadz[edit]

The Herschelwood Hardheadz, named after the south side Houston Texas neighborhood they grew up in, is a group that was a part of the Screwed Up Click and was formed in 1993. Its members included Duke, Knock, Archie Lee and formerly Lil Keke.

Lil Flip[edit]

Main article: Lil Flip

Wesley Eric Weston, Jr., better known by his stage name Lil' Flip, is a rapper and member of the Screwed Up Click.[31][36]He gained early popularity from the title "The Freestyle King", given to him by Screw himself.[37] In 2000, Lil' Flip independently released his first album titled The Leprechaun In 2002, Columbia Records offered Flip a contract and Suckafree a distribution deal. Lil Flip released his debut studio album Undaground Legend on August 27, 2002. The album was certified Platinum in December 2002. It contained his hit single "The Way We Ball". When Lil' Flip's label Columbia tried to restructure Flip, he left, ending up at Sony Urban Music which he believed could promote his music better. The first single from the album was "Game Over (Flip)". After that he quickly released his second single, "Sunshine" featuring Lea Sunshine. This album sold 198,000 domestic copies in its first week and was certified double Platinum by August, 2004. Lil' Flip released his third album I Need Mine in 2007. The album debuted at number 15 on the Billboard 200 with 43,000 copies sold in its first week. Lil' Flip has since left Columbia records and gone back to being an independent artist, founding his own label Clover G records. His fourth album Ahead of My Time was originally set to be released as early as 2007, but was pushed back many times and was finally released on July 6, 2010. Lil' Flip released two "album-before-the-album's" in 2009 to help promote the release of Ahead of My Time. The two albums were: Respect Me[38] and Underground Legend 2.[39][40] Lil' Flip released his fifth album The Black Dr. Kevorkian on October 31, 2013, which sold 10,000 copies in its first week.

Mr. 3-2[edit]

Mr. 3-2, is a member of the Screwed Up Click. While signed to Rap-A-Lot Records he was involved with three groups, The Convicts, Southside Playaz and Blac Monks, and released one solo album. After leaving Rap-A-Lot, 3-2 released albums on "N yo Face" and "Street Game Records." He has collaborated on tracks with UGK, Scarface, 8 Ball & MJG, South Park Mexican & Too $hort.

Trae[edit]

Main article: Trae

Frazier Othel Thompson, better known by his stage name Trae tha Truth or simply Trae, is a part of the Screwed Up Click. Trae, along with Z-Ro, and Dougie D are the founding members of the group Guerilla Maab.[41][42] He first gained exposure on the Houston rap scene in 1998, when he made his rapping debut with a guest appearance on Z-Ro's album Look What You Did to Me.[43] In 2003, he began his solo career with the album Losing Composure. 2004's Same Thing Different Day, 2006's Restless, and 2007's Life Goes On followed shortly after. Trae Tha Truth has also worked relentlessly with fellow Houston rapper Chamillionaire on his various Mixtape Messiah series. He also collaborated with Z-Ro to form the duo ABN or Assholes by Nature. They have released two albums, Assholes by Nature in 2003 and It Is What It Is in 2008. In 2008, Trae Tha Truth was awarded by the mayor of Houston, Bill White, and Council Member Peter Brown with his own day, Trae Day, in honor of his outstanding work within the community, the first time the honor has been extended to a rap artist. Trae Day is celebrated every year on July 22 in Houston. On March 1, 2012, T.I. announced he signed Trae Tha Truth to Grand Hustle Records. On October 9, 2012, Trae was featured on the annual BET Hip Hop Awards cypher, alongside his Grand Hustle label-mates Iggy Azalea, B.o.B, Chip and T.I.[44] His first Grand Hustle album will be released in 2014, titled Banned.[45] However, prior to that he will release the mixtape I Am King and has been involved in the recording process for the Grand Hustle Records compilation album.[46]

Yungstar[edit]

Yungstar is a member of the Screwed Up Click who began rapping around age ten. In the early 1990s, he began working with DenDen, CEO of Straight Profit Records. He emerged nationally with a guest appearance on Lil' Troy's "Wanna Be a Baller". He then went on to release the hit song "Knocking Pictures Off The Wall" with Lil' Flex.

Z-Ro[edit]

Main article: Z-Ro

Joseph Wayne McVey, better known by his stage names Z-Ro and The Mo City Don, was a member of the Screwed Up Click.[47] In 1998, Z-Ro released his debut album, Look What You Did to Me. He celebrated his 22nd birthday at DJ Screw's house, recording the "Blue 22" tape. These things helped to escalate Z-Ro’s popularity throughout the South and by 2002 his talent and hard work caught the attention of Rap-a-Lot’s founder and CEO James Prince, who offered him a deal.[48] In 2004, Z-Ro released his critically acclaimed Rap-a-Lot debut titled The Life of Joseph W. McVey.[48] The record was a huge success and helped expand Z-Ro’s fan base beyond the South.[48] In 2005, Z-Ro released Let the Truth Be Told, which was well received.[48] Z-Ro's 2006 album I'm Still Livin' was released while he was imprisoned for drug possession, to positive reviews.[49][50] It was called "a great album... powerful" but "relentlessly bleak" by The Village Voice[49] and "one of the best rap albums to come out of Houston" by the Houston Chronicle.[51] He was named one of America's most underrated rappers by the New York Times in 2007.[52] In 2010 he released his next album titled Heroin, which was followed by another new album titled Meth in 2011 and then Angel Dust in 2012.

Discography[edit]

Studio albums[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b http://sites.lib.uh.edu/hiphop/djscrew/
  2. ^ http://pigeonsandplanes.com/2013/03/10-chopped-and-screwed-songs-that-never-get-old/
  3. ^ a b c Lance Scott Walker (Author), Big Pokey, ESG, Meshah Hawkins, Lil' Keke, Shorty Mac (March 28, 2012). DJ Screw & the Screwed Up Click (Motion picture). Houston, TX: University of Houston. 
  4. ^ a b Demby, Eric (2001-01-11). "Codeine Overdose Killed DJ Screw, Medical Examiner Says". MTV News. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Simmonds, Jeremy (2008) The Encyclopedia of Dead Rock Stars: Heroin, Handguns, and Ham Sandwiches, Chicago Review Press, ISBN 978-1-55652-754-8, p. 575
  6. ^ a b c Newton, Michael (2009) The Encyclopedia of Unsolved Crimes, Facts On File Inc, ISBN 978-0-8160-7818-9, p. 160
  7. ^ a b c d "Rap Deaths: John Edward Hawkins". CBS News. 
  8. ^ a b DJs – Rapper Big Moe Dies, contactmusic.com, Oct. 15, 2007
  9. ^ TONIGHT SCREWED UP CLICK Z-Ro AND LIL KEKE BIG POKEY LIVE IN CONCERT
  10. ^ http://rapgenius.com/The-screwed-up-click-toy-soldiers-lyrics
  11. ^ [1][dead link]
  12. ^ Houston Police Department > News Releases Incident at 12127 Redfern
  13. ^ a b Big Moe, Koch Records website
  14. ^ a b c Peralta, Eyder. "Houston rappers remember Big Moe, dead at 33." Houston Chronicle. October 16, 2007. Retrieved on September 20, 2009.
  15. ^ Birchmeier, Jason. "Biography: Big Pokey". Allmusic. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  16. ^ Billboard, Allmusic.com
  17. ^ Flashing Back to the Heyday of DJ Screw. Houston Press. July 2009.
  18. ^ The H-Town Countdown, No. 13: DJ Screw's 3 N' Tha Mornin' Pt. 2 (Blue). Houston Press. October 2009.
  19. ^ The Five Most Texan Types Of Music. Houston Press. April 2011.
  20. ^ a b Birchmeier, Jason "E.S.G. Biography", Allmusic, retrieved 2011-01-29
  21. ^ [2]
  22. ^ Texas Music Pioneers
  23. ^ Birchmeier, Jason. "Biography: Lil' Keke". Allmusic. Retrieved 4 June 2010. 
  24. ^ "Interview With T Farris". HitQuarters. December 5, 2005. Retrieved Jun 21, 2010. 
  25. ^ a b Lil' O - Da Fat Rat Wit Da Cheez :: Hip-Hop Album Review
  26. ^ Clark, Rob (14 June 2001). "A Lil' trend In hip-hop no one's too tall to be small". Dallas News. Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
  27. ^ Wirt, John (25 May 2001). "Houston rapper Lil' O: Rekindling career with music from heart and streets". Dallas News. Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
  28. ^ Lindsey, Craig D. (22 December 2001). "Lil' O". Houston Press. Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
  29. ^ http://www.myspace.com/suclilo Left Atlantic Records
  30. ^ a b http://blogs.houstonpress.com/rocks/2009/07/flashing_back_to_the_heyday_of.php
  31. ^ a b Jeffries, David (2008). "Big Mello > Biography". allmusic. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  32. ^ Serrano, Shea. "Y'all Musta Forgot: Big Mello's Bone Hard Zaggin'." Houston Press. Thursday April 1, 2010. Retrieved on October 26, 2011.
  33. ^ Houston rapper Big Mello killed in car accident
  34. ^ http://www.spacecityrock.com/2010/12/15/a-conversation-with-reggie-bird-oliver-of-the-suc/#sthash.43HoHol6.dpuf
  35. ^ http://www.wordofsouth.com/myblock/showthread.php?38656-Dat-Boy-Grace-Interview
  36. ^ Proctor, Becky (April 18, 2002). "Lil' Flip OK after shooting, still plans to release album" (Fee required). Houston, Texas: University Wire. Retrieved August 17, 2009. 
  37. ^ Lil' Flip Biography at the Wayback Machine (archived February 26, 2011). Pandora.com
  38. ^ Arnold, Paul W (2009-09-18). "Lil Flip Talks "Respect Me," Rap-A-Lot Records | Get The Latest Hip Hop News, Rap News & Hip Hop Album Sales". HipHop DX. Retrieved 2011-11-03. 
  39. ^ "iTunes - Music - Underground Legend 2 by Lil' Flip.". 
  40. ^ "Chicken N Beer: Where are they now?" BET
  41. ^ City Of Houston Proclaims July 22 Trae Day | BallerStatus.com|NEWS[dead link]
  42. ^ Update: Houston Rapper Z-Ro Jailed For Drug Possession | Daily Hip-Hop News|SOHH.com /
  43. ^ "Assholes By Nature". Last.fm. November 19, 2008. Retrieved September 9, 2010. 
  44. ^ "HIP HOP AWARDS EXCLUSIVES: THE GRAND HUSTLE CYPHER". BET. Black Entertainment Television LLC. October 9, 2012. Retrieved April 9, 2013. 
  45. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p3SbJQV2shw
  46. ^ http://www.hiphopdx.com/index/news/id.26380/title.trae-the-truth-addresses-radio-ban-details-i-am-king-mixtape
  47. ^ Z-Ro changes name to The Mo City Don. Dirty-glove.com. Retrieved on 2013-12-28.
  48. ^ a b c d "Z-Ro Biography". Artist Direct. Retrieved January 12, 2012. 
  49. ^ a b Breihan, Tom (2006-12-07). "Project Pat and Z-Ro: The Unsung Heroes of Southern Rap". The Village Voice. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 
  50. ^ Sanneh, Kelefa (2007-05-27). "A Hip-Hop Hurricane and Other Phenomena". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 
  51. ^ Peralita, Eyder (2006-11-06). "Z-Ro breaks ground, visits the past on new CD". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 
  52. ^ Sanneh, Kelefa. (2007-05-27) A Hip-Hop Hurricane and Other Phenomena – New York Times. Nytimes.com. Retrieved on 2011-06-21.
  53. ^ https://itunes.apple.com/us/album/making-history/id323844838
  54. ^ http://blogs.houstonpress.com/rocks/2014/04/screwed_up_click_the_take_over.php

External links[edit]