Seven Second Summits
The Seven Second Summits are the second highest mountains of each of the seven continents. All of these mountain peaks are separate peaks rather than a sub-peak of the continents' high point.
Seven Second Summits definitions
The definition of continent is a matter of some dispute among mountaineers seeking to complete this challenge.
The main ridge of the Greater Caucasus range is generally considered to form the boundary between Europe and Asia. In that case, Mount Elbrus (5,642 m (18,510 ft)) situated some 10 km north of the continental divide, is the highest mountain in Europe. Excluding the Caucasus Mountains, Mont Blanc (4,808 m (15,774 ft)) would be Europe's highest mountain.
The Australian continent is defined as comprising the mainland of Australia and proximate islands on the same continental shelf, including Tasmania and New Guinea. In the convention of the seven continents, one of the continents is the region of Australasia, which includes for example the mountainous islands of New Zealand. For both the geological and conventional continent, New Guinea's Carstensz Pyramid (4,884 m (16,024 ft)) is the highest summit. When considering a continent as a continuous landmass surrounded by oceans, mainland Australia would be its own continent, with Mount Kosciuszko (2,228 m (7,310 ft)) as its highest summit.
The Bass and Messner list
The Second Seven Summits list follows the Seven Summits list created by Richard Bass , who chose the highest mountain of mainland Australia, Mount Kosciuszko (2,228 m), to represent the Australian continent's highest summit. Reinhold Messner proposed another list (the Messner or Carstensz list) replacing Mount Kosciuszko with Western New Guinea's Carstensz Pyramid, which is part of Indonesia (4,884 m).
Following the Bass list, Mount Townsend is the second highest summit (2,209 m) in Australia. According to the Messner list, Puncak Mandala (4,760 m) on New Guinea is the second highest of the Australian continent. Heights of mountain peaks in West Papua are poorly established, and Puncak Trikora has been listed as the second highest summit on the island, but SRTM-data do support a higher elevation for Mandala.
Both lists count Mount Elbrus as the highest peak in Europe. This makes Dykh-Tau (5,205 m), located in Russia, the second highest summit in Europe. Those who consider Mont Blanc to be the highest mountain in Europe would consider Monte Rosa (4,634 m), located in Switzerland, to be the second highest summit.
|Seven Second Summits (sorted by elevation)|
|Peak||Bass list||Messner list||Elevation||Prominence||Continent||Range||Country|
|K2||✔||✔||8,611 m (28,251 ft)||4,017 m (13,179 ft)||Asia||Karakoram||Pakistan / China|
|Ojos del Salado||✔||✔||6,893 m (22,615 ft)||3,688 m (12,100 ft)||South America||Andes||Argentina / Chile|
|Mount Logan||✔||✔||5,959 m (19,551 ft)||5,250 m (17,224 ft)||North America||Saint Elias||Canada|
|Dykh-Tau||✔||✔||5,205 m (17,077 ft)||2,002 m (6,568 ft)||Europe||Caucasus||Russia|
|Mount Kenya||✔||✔||5,199 m (17,057 ft)||3,825 m (12,549 ft)||Africa||-||Kenya|
|Mount Tyree||✔||✔||4,852 m (15,919 ft)||1,152 m (3,780 ft)||Antarctica||Sentinel||-|
|Puncak Mandala||✔||4,760 m (15,617 ft)||2,760 m (9,055 ft)||Australia (continent)||Jayawijaya||Indonesia|
|Mount Townsend||✔||2,209 m (7,247 ft)||189 m (620 ft)||Australia||Snowies||Australia|
Difficulty versus Seven Summits
In Asia K2 (8,611 m) demands greater technical climbing skills than Everest (8,848 m), while altitude-related factors such as the thinness of the atmosphere, high winds and low temperatures remain much the same.
In North America, some sources consider Mount Logan a more difficult climb than Denali, although the climbing and outdoor recreation website Summitpost considers Logan no more difficult than Denali, because it is neither technical nor steep..
In Australasia, the continent's Second Summit on the Bass list, Mount Townsend, is more challenging than Mount Kosciuszko, but still just a walk-up. The normal route on the highest peak of the Messner list, Carstensz Pyramid, is technically difficult (UIAA grade V+). Puncak Mandala, however, is extremely challenging with respect to the approach route, which is arguably the more significant problem in climbing the New Guinea peaks. There have been perhaps only two successful approaches (and climbs) reported.
In Antarctica, Mount Vinson presents little difficulty beyond normal challenges of Antarctica (the guiding company Adventure Peaks rates the ascent at PD/AD on the Alpine scale), but Mount Tyree requires technical climbing and it has been climbed by a total of ten people since its discovery.
- Seven Summits
- Seven Third Summits
- Volcanic Seven Summits
- Three Poles Challenge
- Explorers Grand Slam, also known as The Adventurers Grand Slam
- Territorial claims of Antarctica
- Kashmir conflict
- See for example the lists at peaklist, peakbagger.com, and gunungbagging.com
- Bass, Dick; Frank Wells, Rick Ridgeway (1986). Seven Summits. Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-51312-1.
- Several other summits of Mount Carstensz besides Carstensz Pyramid, like Ngga Pulu (4,862 m) and Carstensz East (4,820 or 4,840 m) are higher than both Mandala and Trikora, but because of their low prominence (200-300 m) and isolation (2.2-2.6 km) these are usually not regarded as separate mountains.
- Krakauer, Jon (1997). Into Thin Air. Villard. ISBN 0-385-49208-1.
- John Biggar: The Andes - A Guide for Climbers, ISBN 0-9536087-2-7
- Bender: Classic Climbs of the Caucasus
- Geehi Bushwalking Club: Snowy Mountains Walks ISBN 0-9599651-4-9
- Puncak Mandala at the gunung bagging website