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Soda-lime glass, also called soda-lime-silica glass, is the most prevalent type of glass, used for windowpanes, and glass containers (bottles and jars) for beverages, food, and some commodity items. Glass bakeware is often made of tempered soda-lime glass.
Soda-lime glass is prepared by melting the raw materials, such as sodium carbonate (soda), lime, dolomite, silicon dioxide (silica), aluminium oxide (alumina), and small quantities of fining agents (e.g., sodium sulfate, sodium chloride) in a glass furnace at temperatures locally up to 1675 °C. The temperature is only limited by the quality of the furnace superstructure material and by the glass composition. Relatively inexpensive minerals such as trona, sand, and feldspar are usually used instead of pure chemicals. Green and brown bottles are obtained from raw materials containing iron oxide. The mix of raw materials is termed batch.
Soda-lime glass is divided technically into glass used for windows, called flat glass, and glass for containers, called container glass. The two types differ in the application, production method (float process for windows, blowing and pressing for containers), and chemical composition. Float glass has a higher magnesium oxide and sodium oxide content than container glass, and a lower silica, calcium oxide, and aluminium oxide content. From this follows the slightly higher quality of container glass for chemical durability against water, which is required especially for storage of beverages and food.
Typical compositions and properties 
The following table lists some physical properties of soda-lime glasses. Unless otherwise stated, the glass compositions and many experimentally determined properties are taken from one large study. Those values marked in italic font have been interpolated from similar glass compositions (see calculation of glass properties) due to the lack of experimental data.
|74 SiO2, 13 Na2O,
10.5 CaO, 1.3 Al2O3,
0.3 K2O, 0.2 SO3,
0.2 MgO, 0.04 Fe2O3,
|73 SiO2, 14 Na2O,
9 CaO, 4 MgO,
0.15 Al2O3, 0.03 K2O,
0.02 TiO2, 0.1 Fe2O3
log(η, dPa·s or Poise) = A +
B / (T in °C − To)
A = −2.309
B = 3922
To = 291
A = −2.585
B = 4215
To = 263
temperature, Tg, °C
at 20°C, g/cm3
nD at 20°C
|Dispersion at 20°C,
at 20°C, GPa
at 20°C, GPa
capacity at 20°C,
at ~1300°C, mJ/m2
after ISO 719
- Coefficient of restitution (glass sphere vs. glass wall): 0.97 ± 0.01
- Thermal conductivity: 0.9-1.3 W/m.K
- Hardness (Mohs scale): 6
- Knoop hardness: 585 kg/mm2 + 20
See also 
- "Pyrex Manufacturing History". World Kitchen Inc. Retrieved 2009-06-09.
- B. H. W. S. de Jong, "Glass"; in "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry"; 5th edition, vol. A12, VCH Publishers, Weinheim, Germany, 1989, ISBN 3-527-20112-5, p 365-432.
- "High temperature glass melt property database for process modeling"; Eds.: Thomas P. Seward III and Terese Vascott; The American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, 2005, ISBN 1-57498-225-7
- "Transmission Curves - Soda Lime, Borosilicate, UV Glasses & Sapphire". Sinclair Manufacturing Company. Retrieved 2009-12-11.
- International Organization for Standardization, Procedure 719 (1985)
- Wiederhorn, S.M. (1969). "Fracture stress energy of glass". Journal of the American Ceramic Society 52 (2): 99–105. doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.1969.tb13350.x.
- Gondret, P.; M. Lance and L. Petit (2002). "Bouncing Motion of Spherical Particles in Fluids". Physics of Fluids 14 (2): 643–652. doi:10.1063/1.1427920.
- Janssen, L.P.B.M., Warmoeskerken, M.M.C.G., 2006. Transport phenomena data companion. Delft: VVSD.
- Material Properties Data: Soda-Lime Glass