Iron oxides and oxide-hydroxides are widespread in nature, play an important role in many geological and biological processes, and are widely utilized by humans, e.g., as iron ores, pigments, catalysts, in thermite (see the diagram), Hemoglobin. Common rust is a form of iron(III) oxide. Iron oxides are widely used as inexpensive, durable pigments in paints, coatings and colored concretes. Colors commonly available are in the "earthy" end of the yellow/orange/red/brown/black range.
- iron(II) oxide, wüstite (FeO)
- iron(II,III) oxide, magnetite (Fe3O4)
- iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3)
- goethite (α-FeOOH),
- akaganéite (β-FeOOH),
- lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH),
- feroxyhyte (δ-FeOOH),
- ferrihydrite (Fe5HO8·4H2O approx.), or 5Fe2O3•9H2O, better recast as FeOOH•0.4H2O
- high-pressure FeOOH
- schwertmannite (ideally Fe8O8(OH)6(SO)·nH2O or Fe3+16O16(OH,SO4)12-13·10-12H2O)
- green rust (FeIIIxFeIIy(OH)3x+2y-z(A-)z; where A- is Cl- or 0.5SO42-)
- Cornell, RM; Schwertmann, U (2003). The iron oxides: structure, properties, reactions, occurrences and uses. Wiley VCH. ISBN 3-527-30274-3.
- http://www.mindat.org/min-7281.html Mindat
- "Bacteria reduce iron oxide: Shewanella oneidensis". July 2012.
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