Stanisław Wojciechowski

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Stanisław Wojciechowski
President of Poland Stanisław Wojciechowski.png
President of the Republic of Poland
2nd President of the Second Polish Republic
In office
22 December 1922 – 14 May 1926
Prime Minister Władysław Sikorski, Wincenty Witos, Władysław Grabski, Aleksander Skrzyński, Wincenty Witos
Preceded by Gabriel Narutowicz
Succeeded by Ignacy Mościcki
Personal details
Born (1869-03-15)15 March 1869
Kalisz, Congress Poland (now Poland)
Died 9 April 1953(1953-04-09) (aged 84)
Gołąbki, People's Republic of Poland (now Ursus in Warsaw, Poland)
Political party Polish People's Party Piast
Spouse(s) Maria Wojciechowska
Children 2
Religion Roman Catholicism

Stanisław Wojciechowski (Polish: [staˈɲiswaf vɔjt͡ɕɛˈxɔfskʲi]; 1869–1953) was a Polish politician and scientist. In 1922 he was elected the second President of the Republic of Poland following the assassination of Gabriel Narutowicz. He was ousted by the May Coup d'État of 1926.[1]

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

Stanisław Wojciechowski was born on 15 March 1869 in Kalisz. He was born into a family of Polish nobility, and the intelligentsia. He studied mathematics and physics at the University of Warsaw, from 1888–1891. At the university, he was a member of two underground organizations: the Zet ("Polish Youth Union") and the Workers Union. Wojciechowski was arrested in 1891 for his involvement in the Polish Socialist movement, a group agitating heavily for independence from Imperial Russia. After being released from prison, Wojciechowski moved to Paris, where he participated in the Paris Congress.[2]

Career[edit]

Stanisław Wojciechowski

In 1893, Stanisław Wojciechowski helped co-found the Congress of the Polish Socialist Party in Vilnius. There he met and befriended Józef Piłsudski. Wojciechowski had always spoken out against terror as a political tool, but was arrested and expelled from France in 1895. He stayed in France illegally until 1899. In 1899, Wojciechowski moved to London, where he studied the cooperative movement while helping to publish the Polish Socialist periodical Przedswit (“The Dawn”).

In 1905, he and Pilsudski edited and published the Robotnik (“Worker”) together. Amidst political turmoil in 1906, Wojciechowski returned to Poland. Wojciechowski had bought into the cooperative movement and withdrew from the Polish Socialist Party as he worked to establish Polish cooperatives. He founded a weekly named Społem (“Together”).

During World War I, Stanisław Wojciechowski, believing that Germany posed the biggest threat to Poland, moved to Moscow and after the fall of the Tsarist regime was elected President of the Council of Polish Parties’ Union. After helping to create the Polish Army in Russia in 1918, Stanisław Wojciechowski was forced to leave Moscow under threat of arrest. From 1919 to 1920, Wojciechowski served as Minister of the Interior for three different Polish governments. During this time, Wojciechowski also participated in the drafting of the Polish constitution.[3]

Presidency[edit]

In 1922, Wojciechowski was elected to the Sejm as a member of the Polish People's Party "Piast". Only a month later he was chosen by the National Assembly to succeed the assassinated Gabriel Narutowicz as President of the Polish Republic. Stanisław Wojciechowski served as President from 1922–1926. In 1926, after disputes over the direction of the government (Wojciechowski favoring a continuation of parliamentary democracy over increased authoritarianism), his old friend Józef Piłsudski staged a coup d’etat and Wojciechowski resigned from office.

Death and legacy[edit]

Stanisław Wojciechowski retired to private life and died in Gołąbki (now Ursus) in 1953, at the age of 84.

Stanisław Wojciechowski experienced a political life not unlike that of many Central European politicians during the early 20th century. They initially were radicals in their youth, but as they matured, they changed or modified their ideology. He was at the forefront of over a quarter-century of Polish political development. Stanisław Wojciechowski is considered one of the founders of the modern independent Polish state.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/646442/Stanislaw-Wojciechowski
  2. ^ http://www.info.kalisz.pl/biograf/wojcie.htm
  3. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/646442/Stanislaw-Wojciechowski
  • Stanisław Wojciechowski. Kancelaria Prezydenta RP. President of the Republic of Poland. 1 December 2005 [1].
  • Polish President: a Co-operator The Co-operative League of U.S.A.Co-operation IX 1923: 67.
  • Wojciechowski, Stanislaw. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. 1 December 2005 [2].
Political offices
Preceded by
Maciej Rataj
President of Poland
1922–1926
Succeeded by
Maciej Rataj