Lincoln wearing a military-style uniform, c. 1860s
April 4, 1853
Springfield, Illinois, U.S.
|Died||July 15, 1871
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
|Lincoln Tomb at Oak Ridge Cemetery|
|Education||Elizabeth Street School|
Mary Todd Lincoln
|Relatives||See: Lincoln family tree|
Thomas "Tad" Lincoln (April 4, 1853 – July 15, 1871) was the fourth and youngest son of Abraham and Mary Lincoln. The nickname "Tad" was given to him by his father, who found him "as wriggly as a tadpole" when he was a baby. Lincoln was known to be impulsive and unrestrained, and he did not attend school during his father's lifetime. He had free run of the White House, and there are stories of him interrupting Presidential meetings, collecting animals, and charging visitors to see his father. He died at the age of 18 on July 15, 1871, in Chicago.
Early life and education
Lincoln was born on April 4, 1853, the fourth son of Abraham and Mary Lincoln (née Todd). The couple's other children were Robert, born in 1843; "Eddie", born in 1846, who died in February 1850 of tuberculosis; and "Willie", born in December 1850. Named after his paternal grandfather Thomas Lincoln, the fourth boy was soon nicknamed "Tad" by his father, for his small body and large head, and because he wiggled like a tadpole as an infant. Lincoln's first name has occasionally been erroneously recorded as Thaddeus.
Lincoln was born with a form of cleft lip and palate, causing him speech problems throughout his life. He had a lisp and delivered his words rapidly and unintelligibly. Often only those close to Lincoln were able to understand him. For example, he called his father's bodyguard, William H. Crook, "Took", and his father "Papa Day" instead of "Papa Dear". The cleft palate contributed to uneven teeth; he had such difficulty chewing food that his meals were specially prepared.
Lincoln and his brother Willie were considered "notorious hellions" during the period they lived in Springfield. They were recorded by their father's law partner William Herndon as having turned their law office upside down, pulling the books off the shelves, while their father appeared oblivious to their behavior.
White House years
Upon their father's election as President, both Tad and Willie moved into the White House and it became their new playground and home. At the request of Mrs. Lincoln, Julia Taft brought her younger brothers, 12-year-old "Bud" and 8-year-old "Holly", to the White House, and they became playmates of the two young Lincolns.
In February 1862, both Lincoln boys contracted typhoid fever and both boys were bedridden. Willie died on February 21, while Tad recovered. After his brother's death, his parents became even more lenient toward Lincoln's behavior.
During the time his father lived, Lincoln was impulsive, unrestrained, and did not attend school. John Hay wrote that the boy's numerous tutors in the White House usually quit in frustration. Lincoln had free run of the White House, and there are stories of him interrupting Presidential meetings, collecting animals, charging visitors to see his father, and more.
On April 14, 1865, Lincoln went to Grover's Theater to see the play Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp while his parents attended the performance of Our American Cousin at Ford's Theater. That night, his father was fatally shot by John Wilkes Booth. When news of the assassination spread to Grover's Theater, the manager made an announcement to the entire audience. Lincoln began running and screaming, "They killed Papa! They killed Papa!" He was escorted back to the White House while his mother pleaded to have him brought to his father's deathbed at the Petersen House. "Bring Tad—he will speak to Tad—he loves him so." Late that night an inconsolable Tad was put to bed by a White House doorman. President Lincoln died the next morning, on April 15, at 7:22am. About the death of his father Lincoln said:
Pa is dead. I can hardly believe that I shall never see him again. I must learn to take care of myself now. Yes, Pa is dead, and I am only Tad Lincoln now, little Tad, like other little boys. I am not a president's son now. I won't have many presents anymore. Well, I will try and be a good boy, and will hope to go someday to Pa and brother Willie, in Heaven.
After the assassination, Mary, Robert and Tad Lincoln lived together in Chicago. Robert moved out after a short time, and Tad began attending school. In 1868, they left Chicago and lived in Europe for almost three years, in Germany and later in England.
Lincoln suffered from what one modern commentator has called a "complex speech and language disorder" related to some form of a cleft lip or palate. This caused some problems when Lincoln was in school in Chicago. While at the Elizabeth Street School, his schoolmates sometimes called him "Stuttering Tad" because of the speech impediment, which he was able to overcome as a teenager.
On Saturday morning, July 15, 1871, Lincoln died at the age of 18. The cause of death has been variously referred to as tuberculosis, a pleuristic attack, pneumonia, or congestive heart failure.[Note 1] Lincoln's death occurred at the Clifton House hotel in Chicago. In an obituary, John Hay affectionately referred to him as "Little Tad".
Funeral services were held for Lincoln in his brother Robert's home in Chicago. His body was transported to Springfield and buried in the Lincoln Tomb at Oak Ridge Cemetery, alongside his father and two of his brothers. Robert accompanied the casket on the train, but Mary was too distraught to make the trip.
- Emerson, Jason (2012). Giant in the Shadows:The Life of Robert T. Lincoln. SIU (Southern Illinois University) Press. p. 478. "With serious effusion compressing the lungs and crowding the nearby heart, there was not enough oxygen to maintain the life centers of the brain" (quoting Milton Shutes, "Mortality of the Five Lincoln Boys", Lincoln Herald, vol. 57 (Spring 1955), p. 7.)
- Wead (2003), pp. 89–90.
- Bayne (2001), p. 13
- Hutchinson (2009), para. 2.
- Hutchinson (2009), para. 11.
- Bayne (2001), p. 3.
- Hutchinson (2009), para. 16.
- Hutchinson (2009), para. 22.
- Wead (2003), p. 90.
- Wead (2003), p. 91.
- Bayne (2001), pp. 1–3.
- Wead (2003), pp. 91–92.
- By R. J. Brown Editor-in-Chief. "R. J. Brown. Tad Lincoln: The Not-so-Famous Son of A Most-Famous President". Historybuff.com. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- Wead (2003), p. 93.
- Richard A. R. Fraser, MD (February/March 1995). "How Did Lincoln Die?". American Heritage 46 (1).
- Wead (2003), pp. 93–94.
- Emerson, Jason (2012). Giant in the Shadows: The Life of Robert T. Lincoln. SIU (Southern Illinois University) Press. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
- Hutchinson, John M. (Winter 2009). "What Was Tad Lincoln's Speech Problem?". Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 30 (1). Retrieved December 2, 2012.
- "Abraham Lincoln and Chicago (Abraham Lincoln's Classroom)". The Lincoln Institute. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
- Davenport, Don (2001). In Lincoln's Footsteps: A Historical Guide to the Lincoln Sites in Illinois. Big Earth Publishing. p. 210.
- Emerson, Jason. Giant in the Shadows: The Life of Robert T. Lincoln. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2012, P. 478.
- "The Lincoln Boys". Library of Congress. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
- Davenport, Page 153
- Hay, John (1871). Michael Burlingame (2006), ed. At Lincoln's Side: John Hay's Civil War Correspondence and Selected Writings. SIU (Southern Illinois University) Press. p. 111. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
- Davenport, pages 153 –154
- Bayne, Julia Taft; DeCredico, Mary A (2001). Tad Lincoln's Father (First Bison Books ed.). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-6191-8. OCLC 248170310.
- Hutchinson, John M. (Winter 2009). "What Was Tad Lincoln's Speech Problem?". Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association (University of Illinois Press) 30 (1). Retrieved July 22, 2011.
- Randall, Ruth Painter (1955). Lincoln's Sons. Boston: Little, Brown. OCLC 9448054.
- Wead, Doug (2003). All The Presidents' Children. New York: Atria Books. ISBN 0-7434-4631-3. OCLC 51616758.
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