Taiwan Indigenous Television
||A major contributor to this article appears to have a close connection with its subject. (July 2010)|
|This article relies on references to primary sources. (August 2008)|
|Taiwan Indigenous Television|
|Network||Taiwan Broadcasting System|
|Slogan||Seeing indigenous vision. (看見原視界)|
|Taiwan CATV||Channel 16|
|Taiwan Chunghwa Telecom MOD||Channel 16|
In January 2007, TITV joined the operation of Taiwan Broadcasting System (TBS) and transformed into a non-commercial public media platform for indigenous people and to provide special audio and visual service for audiences.
- 1 History
- 2 Overview
- 3 Participation
- 4 Programming
- 4.1 News
- 4.2 Documentaries
- 4.3 Variety shows
- 4.4 Educational programs
- 4.5 Talk shows
- 5 Notes
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
In 1962, Taiwan Television(TTV) started broadcasting at a time when broadcasting regulations did not specifically protect minorities. The operational guidelines of the Government Information Office(GIO) stipulated that the allocation, control, and use of broadcasting resources “should give consideration to the rights and benefits of minorities and disadvantaged groups.”
Since the 1980s, social activism brought about major changes in Taiwan, and as native peoples became aware of their own identities and rights, they wanted to have more programs in their mother tongue.
In 1984, the indigenous radio program Green Mountain and Jade Hill, produced by the Fuxing Broadcasting Station 復興廣播電台, was broadcast.
In 1985, the indigenous TV program Spring in the Green Mountains was produced by the production crew of Taiwan Public Television Service(PTS), a subordinate unit of the Broadcasting Development Foundation.
In 1992, broadcasting channels were opened to public access. With five new TV stations, 35 medium power stations, and 46 low power stations, there were around 200 stations in Taiwan, only one of which, Lanan, covered indigenous peoples’ issues.
In September 1994 the PTS Preparation Committee recruited 24 indigenous people for training as professionals in the visual production industry, 11 of whom were selected for their outstanding performance to work as journalists at PTS. This has helped more indigenous people become a formal part of the media industry since that time.
On December 1, 1996, the Council of Indigenous Peoples of the Executive Yuan (CIP) was set up with the express responsibility for consulting with the indigenous media.
On May 31, 1997 the Public Television Service Act was passed, Article 11 of which states that indigenous programs should “maintain diversity, objectivity, fairness, and consider the balance among different ethnic groups,” and that the programming, interviewing, filming, editing, and narration should all be done by indigenous journalists. The first indigenous TV program production team was thus formed.
Education Act For Indigenous Peoples
In June 1998, the Education Act For Indigenous Peoples 原住民族教育法 was passed. Article 26 of the act stipulated that a channel or TV station expressly run by and for native peoples must be established (amended in 2004 as Article 29).
PTS began formal broadcasting in July 1998. The station was the first to introduce a native produced program, Formosa Aboriginal News Magazine."Formosa Aboriginal News Magazine: (Chinese)原住民新聞雜誌". Retrieved 2010-07-15.</ref> Transmitter locations, however, prevented many indigenous areas from effectively receiving the signal. With PTS as a cultivator and platform, indigenous talents in the TV industry have fully demonstrated their professional capacities. Unfortunately, they mainly work in Taipei, a place where they cannot observe the detailed problems and the needs of indigenous villages over an extended period of time.
To help indigenous people to voice their needs and accurately report on the situation of indigenous villages in different places, the News Department of PTS started the Indigenous TV Talent Cultivation Program. The second tier of the program began in March 2001 with funding from the CIP and Council of Labor Affairs(CLA) and the third tier commenced in July 2002. More than 60 skilled people capable of producing a program independently were trained over the course of the three-tiered program.
In 2001, when the second tier of the cultivation program was in operation, the Deputy Minister of the CIP, Kao Cheng-shang (Bajack Gilin), commissioned PTS to promote the establishment of a TV channel exclusively by and for indigenous people.
In 2003, a budget of NT$330 million was earmarked, but was frozen by the Legislative Yuan pending the improvement of signal transmission in indigenous areas.
In September 2003 the GIO and CIP worked on formulating the policy of Shared Satellite and Disk for Radio and Television Stations; under which the government would rent a dedicated transmission satellite and draw up a budget to distribute satellite receiver to indigenous families in mountain areas to ensure signal reception.
In 2004, the Legislative Yuan approved the establishment of a TV station exclusively targeted at indigenous people, to be located on channel 16. However, inadequate production facilities forced the programming to be produced by another TV station. According to government procurement regulations, contracts must be subject to an open bidding process. As a result, Taiwan Television won the bid. Trial broadcasting started on December 1, 2004 and official broadcasting began on July 1, 2005, formally establishing the first indigenous TV station in Asia. The second bid was conducted in the second half of the same year and was awarded to Eastern Broadcasting Company (EBC).
Three bids were conducted within the first one and a half years since Taiwan Indigenous Television (TITV) started to operate after approval. This caused some anxiousness among the crew as long term plans cannot be made without a steady foundation. With the implementation of the policy of eliminating the involvement of political parties, political forces, and the military from the media, the Legislative Yuan reviewed the Statute Regarding the Disposition of Government Shareholdings in the Terrestrial Television Industry, Article 14 of which stipulated: “the production and broadcasting of indigenous TV programs should be executed by the Public Television Service Foundation effective the year following the Act’s promulgation.”
In January 2007 Public Television Service Foundation established TITV as an operational branch. The station has gone on to become a non-commercial public media platform for indigenous people to voice their opinions, ensure their right to be informed, and pass down their cultural heritage.
- Chief Director: Masao Aki (Atayal people)
- News Department: Olo Kumu (Amis people)
- Program Department Manager: Maraos (Tao people)
- Marketing Department: Mei Wang
- To solidify the power of indigenous society
- To present abundant indigenous cultures and characteristics
- To improve the social status of indigenous peoples
- To realize a fair and just society
- Respect for diverse cultures
- Priority on Tribal Issues
- Professional and independent TV station
- Dedicated to aboriginal matters in Taiwan and to promote the discussion, interpretation and broadcasting of aboriginal issues.
- Dedicated to recording and preserving aboriginal cultures in Taiwan and to enhance the development of aboriginal cultural education.
- To provide information and knowledge to facilitate the development of aboriginal societies.
- To cultivate aboriginal broadcasting talents in Taiwan.
- To open dialogues and increase understanding among ethnic groups.
- Dedicated to indigenous matters in Taiwan and promoting the discussion, interpretation and broadcasting of indigenous issues.
- Preserving indigenous cultures in Taiwan and enhancing the development of indigenous cultural education.
- Providing information and knowledge to facilitate the development of indigenous societies.
- Cultivating indigenous broadcasting professionals in Taiwan.
- Opening dialogue and furthering understanding among ethnic groups.
World Indigenous Television Broadcasters Network
In March 2008, TITV and PTS joined the first World Indigenous Television Broadcasting Conference (WITBC) hosted by Māori Television.
At the conference, President Sylvia Feng of PTS and Director Masao Aki of TITV gave a presentation on how PTS of Taiwan supported the indigenous peoples on this island to make their voices in the media heard and detailed the achievements of TITV since it was established in 2004. The presentation was well received and TITV and PTS of Taiwan were unanimously approved to host the WITBC in 2010.
Based on the consensus achieved in that conference, TITV and PTS went to New Zealand for the preparatory meeting for the World Indigenous Television Broadcasters Network (WITBN) in August 2008. At the meeting, WITBN was officially established with nine media members, including Taiwan Indigenous TV (TITV)/Public Television Service(PTS) of Taiwan, Māori Television of New Zealand, National Indigenous Television(NITV) of Australia, Aboriginal Peoples Television Network(APTN) of Canada, BBC Alba of Scotland, TG4 of Ireland, S4C of Wales, Sámi Radio of Norway, and South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) of South Africa.
In 2008, Jim Mather, CEO of Māori Television was appointed as the first WITBN Chairperson. In March 2010 the position was passed on to Masao Aki, Chief Director of TITV. Since then, the Secretariat Office has been finalizing the transition, including its finance, website maintenance, database, and administrative businesses. The next transition will take place in 2012, when NRK Sami Radio and Television of Norway will host WITBC2012.
World Indigenous Television Broadcasting Conference
Taiwan Indigenous Television (TITV) and Public Television Services(PTS) – under the umbrella of the Taiwan Broadcasting System – hosted WITBC’10 at the National Museum of Prehistory in Taitung from Wednesday March 10 to Friday March 12, 2010. The theme of the three-day event was ‘Facing the Challenges in the Digital Age for Indigenous Media’ and the programm covered a range of topics including new media challenges, the changing role of indigenous broadcasters in revitalizing native languages and cultures, and the maintenance of core cultural values whilst operating successful television organisations.
At WITBC ’10, the inaugural chairman of WITBN, Jim Mather from Māori Television, handed over the leadership mantle of the network to the hosts, TITV, for the next two years. The conference concluded with the new TITV chairman of WITBN outlining their vision for the future of WITBN.
TITV’s participation in WITBN and organizing WITBC 2010 has significantly enhanced its interaction with international media. TITV have earned the respect and friendship of international friends in the process, and these events are expected to further broaden TITV’s horizons in the future. They thus stand among TITV’s most significant achievements in 2008.
SINPONG, TITV News
Presenter: Kolas Yotaka(Amis), Kumu Watan(Atayal), Balu Tjaljiyalu(Paiwan)
SINPONG, TITV Daily News is aired from Monday to Sunday. It is the first indigenous daily news program in Mandarin and its target audience is both indigenous and non-indigenous people. The program presents the latest news in the timeliest fashion daily from an indigenous perspective. When major events or natural disasters transpire, TITV also produces special news programs to provide the latest information and keep watch for the news on behalf of all audiences.
Since the establishment of the TITV Eastern News Center, the direction of the SINPONG, TITV News headline stories has gradually changed to contain more news about areas like Hualien, Taitung, and Pingtung, to help indigenous people make their voices heard.
There are three sessions of news in the morning, at noon and in the evening to provide the latest tribal news and important national, international news.
Indigenous Languages News
To serve the indigenous peoples in the communities and provide them access to the latest information in real time, Indigenous Language News of TITV covers languages of 14 ethnic groups, with different languages featured in different time slots. The program also interprets the news from the perspective of different indigenous groups. This is the only news program in Taiwan presented in indigenous languages.
Eight segments are compiled and presented for the morning, noon, and evening news, including:
Major Tribal Events (main news), Tribal Daluan (news commentary), Words from the Elders (records of the wisdom of the elders), The Tribal Scene (culture/ ritual records), From Tribes to the World (international news), Tribal Watchtower (events/job information), Tribal Stories (origins of tribes’ names), and Walk into History (historical events).
TITV News Magazine
Presenter: Lisin Paysu(Amis), Kumu Watan(Atayal), Tipus Chen(Amis)
To ensure the right to know for the people in tribes and present indigenous related civil issues completely, professionally, and in depth, every one-hour weekly episode of TITV News Magazine focuses on important news events for Taiwan Indigenous Peoples. With an indigenous viewpoint and international vision, the program discusses issues concerning domestic and foreign native peoples.
The show aims at presenting multidimensional issues in indigenous society through special reports, and inspires people to reflect and think while fulfilling its responsibility to serve and inform the public. It is also hoped the program can urge indigenous society to know more about the pulse of the whole society, and furthermore enhance self-awareness.
TITV News Magazine opens a window for Taiwan’s audience to see indigenous cultures and backgrounds of overseas island countries. The multiculturalism of the show cultivates a broader vision and manifests the spirit of mutual respect and care.
Presenter: Isuth Balinzinan(Bunun), Pisuy Masou(Atayal)
Previously "Face to Face with the Tribes," Indigenous Voice discusses vanguard topics and voices concern for the future of indigenous people. Every week, Indigenous-related public affairs and news events are discussed to ensure indigenous people’s right to know. Call-ins or on-site coverage are all forms the show adopts to facilitate face to face dialogue among indigenous people.
Host: Patagaw Talimalaw(Paiwan), Eval Malinjinnan(Bunun)
TITV Weekly is the first Taiwan Indigenous broadcast news program in English. The program was launched Feb. 2007. Working with the TITV news team, TITV Weekly features news series about significant historical events. Important historical issues as well as current affairs are covered in-depth.
TITV Weekly offers a full hour of English news to the people of Taiwan and of the rest of the world. TITV Weekly is aired on channel 16 and has its own English website. TITV Weekly’s English Web site provides access to the most up-to-date news about Taiwan’s indigenous peoples as well as indigenous current affairs worldwide.
Significant Taiwanese indigenous news events are selected, translated and dubbed into English for the program. TITV Weekly also cooperates with international indigenous media and news agencies to present international indigenous news. Target audiences are global. By using the internet as a marketing tool, the voices and culture of Taiwanese indigenous peoples can reach and touch the world.
TITV Weekly is currently suspended since Jan 2010 due to budget shortage.
Presentation of tribal customs and integrated audience opinion are the main focus of TITV‘s production of shows most suited to natives. Production is tailored to present the most natural, unvarnished picture of indigenous villages.
Among the shows, Ina’s Kitchen is the first TV program produced from an indigenous female’s perspective. By highlighting special features of indigenous kitchens, the special bonds between kitchen and families, relatives, and tribes are presented. Unique cuisines cooked in these kitchens fully display the delicacies, the lifestyle of women, and the culture of each tribe.
Marketing Tribal Assets
The indigenous traditional cultural industry is gradually attracting attention from the outside world and other groups. Indigenous people are anxious to grab the opportunity to market tribal industry and help more people get to know indigenous art as well. Toward this end, TITV has produced a special program called Marketing Tribal Assets as a new information channel for indigenous people who want to develop or have developed the tribal industry can further understand their strengths and weakness.
The ultimate objective is to make money really come to the tribe along with employment information and advice.
Tribe Eco-Map: Here Comes Indigenous Power
TITV has visited tribes in various locations to present local features, splendid landscapes, and cultural characteristics. The production crew and the host of Tribe Eco-Map: Here Comes Indigenous Power visits one indigenous tribe in each episode to complete an “industrial mission”.
The show objectively presents and records the lifestyle of the indigenous village. The hardships and difficulties the masters in each industry have experienced are presented in vivid detail to give the show practical and educational meaning.
Besides language, traditional ancient melodies can be the most representative icon of Indigenous culture. Ancient melodies have long been an indispensable part of indigenous culture, long used to record indigenous history before writing systems were developed. Gradually, singing became the most important part of tribal life.
Unforgettable Songs is produced with the idea to pass down the Amis’ folk song legacy and present ancient indigenous melodies a cappella, in the most natural form without instrumental accompaniment. By telling the touching stories behind the songs, Amis songs and culture can be known by more people and be transmitted in a joyful atmosphere.
TITV emphasizes the quality of its documentaries in order to present the most real and touching human culture to the audience so that they can share the same mood as the characters in the films or inspire reflection.
The Gift realistically records how an 82-year-old elder in the tribe educated his son and grandson in the mountains and on the sea. He guided them to know plants closely related to the family house and boat and helped them to experience the living philosophy of unity of humanity and nature through the tribe’s boat-building culture.
The Story Telling Hands
Indigenous people of different tribes have long lived in harmony with Taiwan’s mountains and oceans. That’s why indigenous architecture, agriculture, unting, food and clothes are all closely related to nature. They sincerely thank nature for providing these bountiful gifts. To help the audience understand and appreciate how natives lived with nature in the past and the mythology handed down over the generations, TITV produced The Story Telling Hands.
This show is about the lives of Taiwanese indigenous groups living in the mountains, and how the changes of the mountains and seasons have nurtured the rich myths and stories of Taiwan.
Host: Biung Tak-Banuaz(Bunun) To satisfy the needs of audiences of different ages and tastes, TITV has produced diverse high quality programs. Among these, talent shows have been popular in recent years, and TITV Power, hosted by renowned indigenous singer Biung Tak-Banuaz, provides a platform for indigenous people to show their gifts.
The show has been a great hit among indigenous in Taiwan, becoming the most requested show on the TITV customer service line and leading to the discovery of many commanding new indigenous singers. In addition, TITV is the first commercial station that invites parents of young performers to showcase their own brilliant talents.
Native Hits invites successful indigenous superstars to perform. The audience can not only enjoy the beautiful voices of the singers they are familiar with, but also see performances that the superstars have never given before. This is also the show that includes both pop music and traditional folk songs together.
The fine program has been rated as a “Quality Second Season Program of 2008” by the Broadcasting Development Foundation, and was nominated for “Best Singing Show” and “Best Host of Singing Show” at the 43rd Golden Bell Awards in 2008.
Children of Earth
To teach indigenous children about their own culture and help them to appreciate their backgrounds, Children of Earth, produced by TITV, shares with children the life wisdom their indigenous ancestors learned through their hunting culture and shows them how cultural taboos and ethics developed that harmonize society and enable the tribes to lead precious and cohesive lives.
WAWA Ba-bi-ka is a program that infuses traditional indigenous culture into children’s singing instruction. By joyfully teaching them how to sing and dance, the indigenous culture connotation of the ballads is easily assimilated. The show also conveys ideas about how to respect nature and provides everyday wisdom.
The show is available for the language of every tribe so all indigenous children can watch and learn without difficulty.
Paper Sculpting Game
Paper Sculpting Game is a show that interacts with kids in front of TV the best by presenting easy paper sculpting methods. The values of “human beings as part of the natural ecological system,” “respect for ancestors,” and “cherishing resources” are implied in the process. The works of the master are inspired by indigenous legends and stories that have happened in their parents’ lives.
It is hoped the show can become the seed of artistic inspiration in children’s minds; audiences, young and old, can all make their own masterpiece by following the instructions in the show and enjoying leisure time with their family.
So Math is Fun
The simple games in the program enable audiences to think logically and understand math as well as the cultural connotations of indigenous culture. It breaks the myth of “math is hard to understand and useless in life” and helps indigenous children to know the essence of ancient culture.
Little Science Hunters
Ancient objects are analyzed from a scientific perspective, and made by using simple materials. In the process of doing and playing, scientific principles are understood and applied; ancient wisdom, tribal relics and spirit are also appreciated.
The Best Young Indigenous
The program provides an exclusive stage for indigenous children to show their talent. They are able to present their own works or performances that integrate elements of youth and traditional culture. Indigenous artists and singers are invited as judges and awards are given to youth for excellent performances to encourage these energetic youngsters to continue their devotion to traditional culture. This is a joyful show that helps youngsters build confidence and can be enjoyed by the whole family.
Buddy Call Me
The evening prime time call-in program Buddy Call Me aims at closer relations with tribes and more direct interaction among indigenous people. It is also practical, informative, and culturally conscious. For indigenous society that has long been limited in access to information, the immediate information transmission of the show is significant, giving it a wide reception among many audiences.
Passing down indigenous culture to help strengthen indigenous identities is the goal of The Soundtrack. The interviews featured on the program are conducted in indigenous languages only. The “original soundtrack” is used to re-present stories of indigenous figures to familiarize people with tribes to foster appreciation for native lands.
TITV Cinema presents documentaries informed with a Taiwanese indigenous perspective. The host leads guests to interpret the documentary freely according to their own life experiences. A dialogue between one’s live experience and the content of the documentary can then be developed. It’s a show combines sense and sensibility.
View of Culture Documentary
The show presents documentaries of Austronesian countries with indigenous populations that share the same language roots with those in Taiwan. Issues of indigenous tradition, culture, social structure, and land in Taiwan and these countries are compared and contrasted. African indigenous culture and North and South American Indian culture presented in the show also broaden the horizons of Taiwanese indigenous people.
Documentaries about foreign indigenous peoples help locals see their relations with the outside world. Three experts are invited to host each session and discuss issues from varied viewpoints.