Tula Arms Plant
|Type||Public limited company|
|Founders||Peter the Great|
|Key people||Sergey Pariyskiy (CEO)|
|Products||Firearms and ammunition|
|Net income||US$ -9,913,000 (2009)|
|Total assets||US$ 11,334,000 (2009)|
|Employees||3600 (August 2010)|
Tula Arms Plant (or Tulsky Oruzheiny Zavod)(Rus"Тульский оружейный завод") is a Russian weapons manufacturer founded by Tsar Peter I of Russia in 1712 in Tula, Russia as Tula Arsenal. Throughout its history, it has produced weapons for whomever controlled the Russian state. Its name was changed from Tula Arsenal to Tula Arms Plant during the Soviet era.
History of the plant
Historically, Tula’s Arms plant produced big assortment of arms and sports weapons for the Russian Army. Originally, the plant was created to defend citizens of Tula from the nomad’s invasions, because they did not have enough weapons, which were produced in Moscow. So by decree of Petr I, had started a construction of the plant. The Factory was equipped with then progressive equipment such as: water machines, "trochanteric" machines for drilling shafts, grapes, hammers, machines for "scrubbing" - exterior and interior finishes trunks. Firstly in the production of mechanisms had started to use the most advanced technologies, which vastly increased the quality of weapons in Russia. In the 18th century this plant was recognized as etalon of Russian Arms Production. In 1720, for the weaponry of Russian army, a plant was produced 22 thousand light infantry and dragoon rifles, pistols flintlock, and from the 1749 has been started mass production of cold weapons- knives, sabers, broadswords, swords.
The flourishing of Tula Arms Plant had in the second half of 18th century, when in that time, rapidly increased a demand on the artistically decorated weapons. A unique, remarkable for its elegance invention Tula’s plant - "Diamond Line" on the metal, and many other secrets of decoration on metal and wood are rooted precisely in this era. By the end of 18th century, becoming known names such fine gunsmiths as Ivan Pushkin, Ivan Lialin - creator of the double-barreled breech-loading flintlock, Ivan Pauline - the designer who created one of the first examples of a multiply-charged weapons shop.
Tula Arms Plant in the 19th century
Reconstructed in the 19th century Tula Arms Factory became one of the most prominent arms factories in Europe. In 1879 the plant started production of the famous Berdan rifle with an improved bolt. Workshop was organized by a model where created their own models of small arms and hunting weapons. Increased production of various products: single- and double-barrel muzzle-loading shotguns, breech-loading center-fire rifles. Designer Sergei Ivanovich Mosin took part in devising damascus steel technology used in production of barrels. He also designed a bolt action rifle which was put to testing along with a rifle developed by Émile Nagant. In 1891, as a result of complex tests Mosin's entry was chosen over the Belgian design and it was adopted by the Imperial Russian Army as the three-line rifle of 1891.
In 1902 the factory was re-organized, fully mechanized mass production of hunting rifles (first hammerless shotguns model "B", and then Ivashentsev’s trigger gun system). In 1910 the factory started the production of Maxim machine gun. In 1920s the plant had developed and produced a range of different firearms, such as: hunting shotgun model "P" and carbine NK-8,2 (designed by Kochetov), small-caliber rifles TOZ-1 and TOZ-2, single-shot rifles TOZ-7 and TOZ-8, and sporting shotgun TOZ-10.
In 1927 planning and design office was established in order to improve the work of all of the plant's designers, the result of which was the development of aircraft machine guns - PV-1 and ShKAS. Between 1927 to 1938 the plant built the country's first spinning machines. Between 1932 and 1939 the plant mastered the production of milling machines, and started to massively produce three models of them (versatile, horizontal and vertical). In 1939 Fedor Tokarev (rus. Фёдор Васильевич Токарев) created a self-loading rifle SVT-38, which served as a basis for the SVT-40. In the years 1927–1939 besides producing SVT-38 rifles, UB and ShKAS machine guns, the factory also produced B-2 cannons.
Importance During WWII
Tula was strategically important to the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Significant ore deposits were situated relatively close to it and it had access to ample transportation routes like the Upa River and many rail lines coming in and out of the city.
During World War II, the German army invaded Russia as part of Operation Barbarossa. By December 5, the German 2nd Panzer Division had advanced to within a few kilometers of Tula, forcing the Soviets to evacuate Tula Arms Plant. As a result, far fewer weapons were produced there than at other Soviet factories such as Izhevsk Mechanical Plant. Consequently, Tula weapons of World War II are considered more valuable by collectors.
In 1941-1945, working under the slogan "Everything for the front, everything for victory", Tula gunsmiths produced SVT-40 self-loading rifles, ShVAK aircraft guns, Nagant revolvers and Tokarev pistols.
Factory activity in the post-war period
The post-war period - the time of fruitful work in a different kinds of sporting and hunting weapons. In this years were established models of guns such as a double-barreled hammerless T03-25, a double trigger "BM", small-caliber rifle TOZ-8M, TOZ-12, TOZ-16, TOZ-18. At the same time, the plant produced also Simonov SKS carbine.
In 1965 constructors N. I. Korovyakov and V.P. Ochneva created a reliable double-barreled shotgun with vertical shafts TOZ-34.
During a 1961–1982 years. The plant has received an order for production of the world-famous Kalashnikov assault rifles (six variants), anti-tank guided missiles - "Baby", "Viola", "competition" grenade "Bonfire." It also began producing the TOZ-35 competition "free pistol" used in 50m pistol events at the Olympics.
From the early 1980s, the factory continued to produce the AK-47 as well as AK-74, and also manufactured the VSS Vintorez, AS Val, OTs-14 Groza, and TOZ rifle weapons designed by TsNIITochMash. The plant also produces large quantities of small arms ammunition for the military as well as for commercial sale.
- "New director at Tula Arms Plant". Retrieved 2011-02-19.
- "Annual report of Tula Arms Plant". Retrieved 2011-02-19.
- "Tula Arms Plant paid salary for May to its employees". Retrieved 2011-02-19.
- TOZ Information