9M133 missile with launcher
|Place of origin||Russia|
|Used by||See users|
|Designer||KBP Instrument Design Bureau|
|Manufacturer||KBP Instrument Design Bureau|
|Variants||9M123, 9M123-2, 9M123F, 9M123F-2|
|Weight||27 kg (29 kg with launch tube)|
|Warhead||1000–1300 mm RHA penetration after ERA with Tandem HEAT, Thermobaric|
|Warhead weight||7 kg HEAT, 10 kg TNT equivalent Thermobaric|
|SACLOS laser beam riding|
|Two control surfaces|
The Kornet (Russian: "Корнет"; English: Cornet) is a Russian anti-tank guided missile (ATGM). It is intended to deal with main battle tanks and to engage slow and low flying helicopters, but it is not intended to fully replace previous systems, due to the cost. The missile carries the GRAU designation 9M133 and the NATO reporting name AT-14 Spriggan.
The Kornet anti-tank missile was unveiled in October 1994 by the KBP Instrument Design Bureau. The missile started development in 1988 as a modular, universal system able to engage any target from a mix of platforms using a reliable laser beam guidance system that was simple to use. It is a heavy ATGM, superior to the earlier 9K111 Fagot (NATO: AT-4 Spigot) and 9K113 Konkurs (NATO: AT-5 Spandrel) wire-guided ATGMs, but not to replace them (due to the cost). The missile is believed to have entered service in the Russian army in 1994. Its export designation is the Kornet-E.
The Kornet Anti Tank Missile system is an advanced ATGM with spiral trajectory.
The 9M133 missile together with its 9P163-1 tripod launcher and 1PN79-1 thermal sight forms the 9K135 missile system, the 9K135 can be carried and operated by a two-person infantry crew. In addition to an infantry portable version, the 9K133 the system has been integrated into a variety of other vehicles and weapons systems as either an upgrade package or a new weapon system. The 9K133 has been fitted into a BMP-3 to form the 9P163M-1 tank destroyer and is similar in function to the Khrizantema missile system. The 9P163M-1 carries two 9M133 missiles on launch rails, which are extended from a stowed position during transit. Missile are re-loaded automatically by the tank destroyer from an internal magazine with 16 rounds (missiles are stored and transported in sealed canisters). NBC protection is provided for the two crew (gunner and driver) of each 9P163M-1 in addition to full armour protection equivalent to the standard BMP-3 chassis. The guidance system of the 9P163M-1 allows two missiles to be fired at once, the missiles operating on different guidance (laser) channels.
The KBP Instrument Design Bureau has also marketed the 9K133 system as part of the Kvartet for mounting on vehicles and boats, the system has four missiles on ready to launch rails along with associated guidance and sighting system all packaged in a single turret. The turret has space for an additional five rounds and is operated by a single individual, the guidance system also allows two missiles to be fired at once. Another upgrade possibility is the Kliver missile and gun turret, seen as an upgrade option for the BTR series of APC, BMP-1 IFV and patrol boats. It has similar capabilities as the Kvartet turret, but also carries a 30 mm 2A72 cannon; the turret weight is 1,500 kg. Finally the 9M133 is also available in the BEREZHOK turret upgrade also made available by KBP.
The Kornet-EM variant uses technical vision with an automatic target tracker to make it a "fire and forget" missile, giving it a 5-times increase in accuracy of target tracking at any range. The fire and forget capability gives a vehicle the ability to salvo launch against two different targets at once, increasing its rate of fire and decreasing the number of vehicles needed for a mission. It can also salvo fire two missiles against one target to defeat vehicles equipped with an active protection system.
During the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Kornets were used by some groups of Iraqi special forces to attack American armoured vehicles, "disabling at least two Abrams tanks and one Bradley armored troop carrier in the opening week of the war".
The second verified episode of the Kornet ATGM in combat use occurred during the 2006 Lebanon War, where the missiles, reportedly supplied by Syria, were successfully used by Hezbollah fighters to destroy up to four Israeli Merkava tanks, and damage a number of others. One of the first detailed accounts of IDF's successful capture of Kornet ATGMs on Hezbollah positions in the village of Ghandouriyeh appeared in the Daily Telegraph article, which also reported that the boxes were marked with "Customer: Ministry of Defense of Syria. Supplier: KBP, Tula, Russia". Several months after the cease-fire, reports have provided sufficient photographic evidence that Kornet ATGMs were indeed both in possession of, and used by, Hezbollah in this area.
Israel claims that Russian weapons were smuggled to Hezbollah by Syria, and Israel has sent a team of officials to Moscow to show Russia the evidence of what they say can only be Syrian weapons transfers. Despite initial public denials by the Russian officials that any proof of actual use of Kornet by Hezbollah has been presented, the Russian government in fact has moved to tighten control over the use of Russian-made weapons by the importing states, suggesting that the visit of the Israeli delegation did bear fruit, although it might have nothing to do with Kornet. On 6 December 2010, a Kornet launched from the Gaza strip penetrated the outer armour of a Merkava Mark III tank on the Israeli side of the border, but it caused no injuries.
During the fighting between Israel and Hamas in Gaza in the summer of 2014, of the 15 anti-tank missiles which launched on Israeli tanks that were intercepted by the Israeli active protection system "Trophy", most were of the Kornet type. In some cases the Kornet launchers were destroyed after the "Trophy" system has detected the launch and directed the tank's main gun to the launcher position.
In September 2014, the Iraqi Army used Kornet missiles against Islamic State militants for the first time. Iraqi security forces claimed five IS-operated vehicles along with fighters were destroyed in Diyala Province. Three Iraqi Army squadrons have been trained to use the Kornet anti-tank missile.
In attacks against civilians
On 7 April 2011 Hamas claimed responsibility for a missile strike on an Israeli yellow school bus which killed a 16-year old boy, Daniel Viflic, and wounded another civilian (all the other children who were on the bus got out few minutes earlier). According to Israeli military spokesman, the bus was hit by a Kornet missile.
- 9M133-1 – 9M133 missile with Tandem HEAT warhead.
- 9M133F-1 – 9M133 missile with Thermobaric warhead.
- Algeria – 3000 missiles ordered in 2006
- Azerbaijan – 60 launchers with 540 missiles
- Bahrain - Kornet-EM ordered
- Bangladesh - unknown amount of Kornet-E ordered on 14 January 2013.
- Eritrea - 80 Kornet-E's were delivered in 2005
- Hamas – Used in 2010–2011 / 2012 / 2014 
- Greece – 196 launchers with 1100+ missiles, in service as of 2008
- Hezbollah – Used in 2006 Lebanon war
- India - 3000 missiles including over 250 launchers were delivered between 2003 and 2006.
- Iran – Produced locally under the name Dehlavie
- Jordan – 200 Kornet-E launchers with 2000 missiles.
- Morocco _ 80 Kornet missiles ordered in 2000.
- Syria – 50 Kornet-E launchers with 1500 missiles as of 1998. Received about 1500 more between 2002 and 2006.
- Libya – Used in 2011 Civil War by Qaddafi loyalists
- Peru – 288 missiles and 24 launchers plus training simulators and technical support. The contract (worth on US$24 million) was signed in 2008. All missiles delivered in January 2010. As of June 2013, it is currently negotiating the purchase of additional units.
- Russia – 750 missiles were produced, quantity of the launchers is unknown (2009)
- Turkey – 80 launchers with 800 missiles
- Uganda - 1000 Kornet-E missiles ordered in 2010 and delivered between 2012 and 2013.
- Kornet-EM missiles are compatible with the Kornet launchers.
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