Value (personal and cultural)
A personal value is absolute or relative and ethical value, the assumption of which can be the basis for ethical action. A value system is a set of consistent values and measures. A principle value is a foundation upon which other values and measures of integrity are based.
Some values are physiologically determined and are normally considered objective, such as a desire to avoid physical pain or to seek pleasure. Other values are considered subjective, vary across individuals and cultures, and are in many ways aligned with belief and belief systems. Types of values include ethical/moral values, doctrinal/ideological (religious, political) values, social values, and aesthetic values. It is debated whether some values which are not clearly physiologically determined are intrinsic such as altruism and whether some, such as acquisitiveness, should be classified as vices or virtues. Values have been studied in sociology, anthropology, social psychology, moral philosophy, and business ethics.
Values can be defined as broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes. As such, values reflect a person's sense of right and wrong or what "ought" to be. "Equal rights for all", "Excellence deserves admiration", and "People should be treated with respect and dignity" are representative of values. Values tend to influence attitudes and behavior. For example, if you value equal rights for all and you go to work for an organization that treats its managers much better than it does its workers, you may form the attitude that the company is an unfair place to work; consequently, you may not produce well or may perhaps leave the company. It is likely that if the company had a more egalitarian policy, your attitude and behaviors would have been more positive.
Personal values 
According to Morris Massey, values are formed during three significant periods:
- Imprint period from birth to 7 years.
- Modelling period from 8–13 years.
- Socialization period from 13–21 years.
Personal values provide an internal reference for what is good, beneficial, important, useful, beautiful, desirable, constructive, etc. Values generate behaviour and help solve common human problems for survival by comparative rankings of value, the results of which provide answers to questions of why people do what they do and in what order they choose to do them.
Over time the public expression of personal values, that groups of people find important in their day-to-day lives, lay the foundations of law, custom and tradition. Personal values in this way exist in relation to cultural values, either in agreement with or divergent from prevailing norms.. A culture is a social system that shares a set of common values, in which such values permit social expectations and collective understandings of the good, beautiful, constructive, etc. Without normative personal values, there would be no cultural reference against which to measure the virtue of individual values and so culture identity would disintegrate.
Wyatt Woodsmall points out that "'Criteria' are used to refer to 'the standards on which an evaluation is based'." Values relate then to what one wants and in what order one wants them, criteria can only refer to the evidences for achieving values and act as a comparative standard that one applies in order to evaluate whether goals have been met / values satisfied.
Values are obtained in many different ways.
Cultural values 
Individual cultures develop values which their members broadly share. One can often identify the values of a society by noting which people receive honor or respect. In the United States of America, for example, professional athletes at the top levels in some sports receive more honor (measured in terms of monetary payment) than college professors. Surveys show that voters in the United States would be reluctant to elect an atheist as a president, suggesting that a belief in a God as a generally shared value. There is a difference between values clarification and cognitive moral education. Values clarification consists of "helping people clarify what their lives are for and what is worth working for. It encourages students to define their own values and to understand others' values." Cognitive moral education builds on the belief that students should learn to value things like democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops. Educationist Chaveen Dissanayake says personal and cultural values can be varied by the living standards of a person.
Values relate to the norms of a culture, but they are more global and abstract than norms. Norms provide rules for behavior in specific situations, while values identify what should be judged as good or evil. Flying the national flag on a holiday is a norm, but it reflects the value of patriotism. Wearing dark clothing and appearing solemn are normative behaviors at a funeral. In certain cultures norms reflect the values of respect and support of friends and family. Different cultures reflect different values. "Over the last three decades, traditional-age college students have shown an increased interest in personal well-being and a decreased interest in the welfare of others." Values seemed to have changed, affecting the beliefs, and attitudes of the students.
Members take part in a culture even if each member's personal values do not entirely agree with some of the normative values sanctioned in the culture. This reflects an individual's ability to synthesize and extract aspects valuable to them from the multiple subcultures they belong to.
If a group member expresses a value that seriously conflicts with the group's norms, the group's authority may carry out various ways of encouraging conformity or stigmatizing the non-conforming behavior of that member. For example, imprisonment can result from conflict with social norms that the state has established as law.[clarification needed]
Furthermore, institutions in the global economy can genuinely respect values which are of three kinds based on a "triangle of coherence". In the first instance, a value may come to expression within the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as (in the second instance) within the United Nations - particularly in the Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - providing a framework for global legitimacy through accountability. In the third instance, the expertise of member-driven international organizations and civil society depends on the incorporation of flexibilities in the rules, so as to preserve the expression of identity in a globalized world.
Nonetheless, in a warlike economic competition, differing views may contradict each other, particularly in the field of culture. Thus audiences in Europe may regard a movie is an artistic creation and grant it benefits from special treatment, while audiences in the United States may see it as mere entertainment, whatever the merits of its artistry. Even within fragmented Europe, interventionist policies based on the notion of "cultural exception" can become opposed to the policy of "cultural specificity" on the liberal Anglo-Saxon side. Indeed, international law traditionally treats films as property and the content of television programs as a service. Consequently cultural interventionist policies get opposed to Anglo-Saxon liberal position, causing failures in international negotiations
Values are generally received through cultural means, especially transmission from parents to children. Parents in different cultures have different values. For example, parents in a hunter–gatherer society or surviving through subsistence agriculture value practical survival skills from a young age. Many such cultures begin teaching babies to use sharp tools, including knives, before their first birthdays. Italian parents value social and emotional abilities and having an even temperament. Spanish parents want their children to be sociable. Swedish parents value security and happiness. Dutch parents value independence, long attention spans, and predictable schedules. American parents are unusual for strongly valuing intellectual ability, especially in a narrow "book learning" sense. The Kipsigis people of Kenya value children who are not only smart, but who employ that intelligence in a responsible and helpful way, which they call ng'om.
See also 
- Hofstede's Framework for Assessing Culture
- Rokeach Value Survey
- Value theory
- The Cock and the Jewel
- Spiral Dynamics
- Rokeach, M. (1973). The Nature of Human Values. New York: The Free Press.
- Santrock, J.W. (2007). A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
- Lamy, Pascal, WTO Director-General, Speech to the European University Institute in Florence on 19 February 2011 (http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/sppl_e/sppl187_e.htm)
- Hacker, Violaine (2011a), "Building Medias Industry while promoting a community of values in the globalization: from quixotic choices to pragmatic boon for EU Citizens", Politické Védy-Journal of Political Science, Slovakia, pp. 64-74.
- Day, Nicholas (10 April 2013). "Parental ethnotheories and how parents in America differ from parents everywhere else.". Slate. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Day, Nicholas (09 April 2013). "Give Your Baby a Machete". Slate. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
Further reading 
- Das Rechtsgefühl (English: Sense of Justice) in: R. Zippelius, Rechtsphilosophie, 6th ed., C.H. Beck, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-406-61191-9
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- An online assessment for personal and professional value
- Quotations on value
- Union of International Association: Human Values Online - A comprehensive database and analysis of values
- Humanity Quest: a community and portal for the exploration of human spirits, values, attitudes, principles and emotions; thematically exploring a growing list of over 500 human values
- RespectResearchGroup: Multidisciplinary research project on the value of interpersonal respect, with additional quotes, gallery, literature
- Integration of Human Values with Education
-  - Integral approach to evolutionary psychology based on Clare W Graves value system
-  - CNX.ORG: Interaction Values and Beliefs (a free online book)