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|Wikisource has the text of the 1920 Encyclopedia Americana article Immorality.|
The word "immoral" is normally used to describe persons or actions. In a broader sense it can be applied to groups or corporate bodies, beliefs, religions, and works of art. To say that some act is immoral is to say that violates some moral laws, norms or standards.
Aristotle saw many vices as excesses or deficits in relation to some virtue, as cowardice and rashness relate to courage. Some attitudes and actions - such as envy, murder, and theft - he saw as wrong in themselves, with no question of a deficit/excess in relation to the mean.
Religion and sexuality
Immorality is closely linked with both religion and sexuality, not least in the western tradition. Max Weber saw rational articulated religions as engaged in a long-term struggle with more physical forms of religious experience linked to dance, intoxication and sexual activity. Durkheim pointed out how many primitive rites culminated in an abandonment of the distinction between licit and immoral behavior.
Coding of sexual behavior has historically been a feature of all human societies, as too has the policing of breaches of its mores - sexual immorality - by means of formal and informal social control. Interdictions and taboos among primitive societies were arguably no less severe than in traditional agrarian societies. In the latter, the degree of control might vary from time to time and region to region, being least in urban settlements; however, only the last three centuries of intense urbanisation, commercialisation and modernisation have broken with the restrictions of the pre-modern world, in favor of a successor society of fractured and competing sexual codes and subcultures, where sexual expression is integrated into the workings of the commercial world.
Nevertheless, while the meaning of sexual immorality has been drastically redefined in recent times, arguably the boundaries of what is acceptable remain publicly policed and as highly charged as ever, as the decades-long debates over reproductive rights after Roe v. Wade, or 21st-century controversy over child images on Wikipedia and Amazon would tend to suggest.
Michel Foucault considered that the modern world was unable to put forward a coherent morality - an inability underpinned philosophically by emotivism. Nevertheless modernism has often been accompanied by a cult of immorality, as for example when John Ciardi acclaimed The Naked Lunch as "a monumentally moral descent into the hell of narcotic addiction".
Freud himself however was of the opinion that "anyone who has succeeded in educating himself to truth about himself is permanently defended against the danger of immorality, even though his standard of morality may differ".
- When questioned by a proof-reader whether his description of Meleager as the immoral poet should be immortal poet, T. E. Lawrence replied: "Immorality I know. Immortality I cannot judge. As you please: Meleager will not sue us for libel".
- De Quincey set out an (inverted) hierarchy of immorality in his study On Murder Considered as one of the Fine Arts: "if once a man indulges himself in murder, very soon he comes to think little of robbing; and from robbing he comes next to drinking and Sabbath-breaking, and from that to procrastination and incivility...this downward path".
- Aristotle, Ethics (1976) p. 102
- B. Kirkpatrick ed, Roget's Thesaurus (1998) p. 650 and p. 670
- Max Weber, The Sociology of Religion (1971) p. 158
- Émile Durkheim, The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life (1971) p. 383
- S. Freud, Civilization, Society and Religion (PFL 12) p. 220
- F. Dabhoiwala, 'The first sexual revolution', The Oxford Historian X (2012) p. 42-6
- Durkheim, p. 410
- S. Freud, On Sexuality (PFL 7) p. 271
- E. Ladurie, Montaillou (1980) p. 149 and p. 169
- Dabhoiwala, p. 41-3
- Herbert Marcuse, One-Dimensional Man (2002) p. 78
- A. Lih, The Wikipedia Revolution (2010) p. 204-9
- G, Gutting ed., The Cambridge Companion to Foucault (2003) p. 87
- Eric Berne, Games People Play (1966) p. 70
- Quoted in J. Campbell, This is the Beat Generation (1999) p. 265
- Peter Gay, Freud (1989) p. 194-6
- S. Freud, Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis (PFL 1) p. 485-6
- T. E. Lawrence, Seven Pillars of Wisdom (1936) p. 25
- Thomas De Quincey, On Murder Considered as one of the Fine Arts (2004) p. 28
André Gide, L'Immoraliste (1902)
Catherine Edwards, The Politics of Immorality in Ancient Rome (2002)