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In particle physics, a vector boson is a boson with the spin quantum number equal to 1. The vector bosons regarded as elementary particles in the Standard Model are the gauge bosons, which are the force carriers of fundamental interactions: the photon of electromagnetism, the W and Z bosons of the weak interaction, and the gluons of the strong interaction. Some composite particles are vector bosons, for instance vector meson (quark and antiquark). During the 1970s and '80s, intermediate vector bosons—vector bosons of "intermediate" mass—drew much attention in particle physics.
Vector bosons and the Higgs
The name vector boson arises from quantum field theory. The component of such a particle's spin along any axis has the three eigenvalues −ħ, 0, and +ħ (where ħ is the reduced Planck constant), meaning that any measurement of it can only yield one of these values. (This is, at least, true for massive vector bosons; the situation is a bit different for massless particles such as the photon, for reasons beyond the scope of this article.) The space of spin states therefore has three degrees of freedom, the same as the number of components of a vector in three-dimensional space. Quantum superpositions of these states can be taken such that they transform under rotations just like the spatial components of a rotating vector. If the vector boson is taken to be the quantum of a field, the field is a vector field, hence the name.
- "CERN experiments observe particle consistent with long-sought Higgs boson". Press Release by CERN. 2012-07-04. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
- Weingard, Robert. "Some Comments Regarding Spin and Relativity"
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