Xi baryon

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The Xi baryons or cascade particles are a family of subatomic hadron particles which have the symbol Ξ and have a +2, +1 or −1 elementary charge or are neutral. They are baryons containing three quarks: one up or down quark, and two more massive quarks. They are sometimes called the cascade particles because of their unstable state; they decay rapidly into lighter particles through a chain of decays.[1] The first discovery of a charged Xi baryon was in cosmic ray experiments by the Manchester group in 1952.[2] The first discovery of the neutral Xi particle was at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in 1959.[3] It was also observed as a daughter product from the decay of the omega baryon (Ω) observed at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1964.[4]

The Ξ
b
particle is also known as the cascade B particle and contains quarks from all three families. It was discovered by and CDF experiments at Fermilab. The discovery was announced on 12 June 2007. It was the first known particle made of quarks from all three quark generations – namely, a down quark, a strange quark, and a bottom quark. The DØ collaboration reported the mass of the new state to be 5.774±0.019 GeV/c2; while the CDF collaboration measured the mass at 5.7929±0.0030 GeV/c2. The two results are consistent with each other. The Particle Data Group world average mass is 5.7924±0.0030 GeV/c2.

When unspecified, the non-up/down quark content of Xi baryons is strange. Thus a Ξ0
b
contains one up, one strange, and one bottom quark, while a Ξ0
bb
contains one up and two bottom quarks.

Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have detected a Ξ∗0
b
baryon (reported mass 5.945±2.8 GeV/c2) made up of three quarks (u, s and b).[5][6]

Xi Baryons[7][8][9][10]
Particle Symbol Makeup Rest mass
MeV/c2
Isospin
I
Spin(Parity)
JP
Q S C B Mean lifetime
s
Decays to
Xi [11] Ξ0 uss 1 314.86 ± 0.20 12 12+* 0 −2 0 0 2.90 ± 0.09×10−10 Λ0 + π0
Xi [12] Ξ dss 1321.31 ± 0.13 12 12+* −1 −2 0 0 (1.639±0.015)×10−10 Λ0 + π
Xi resonance [13] Ξ0(1530) uss 1 531.80(32) 12 32+ 0 −2 0 0 Ξ + π
Xi resonance [13] Ξ(1530) dss 1 535.0(6) 12 32+ −1 −2 0 0 Ξ + π
charmed Xi[14] Ξ+
c
usc 2 467.9 ± 0.4 12 12* +* +1 −1 +1 0 (4.42±0.26)×10−13 See Ξ+
c
Decay Modes
charmed Xi[14] Ξ0
c
dsc 2 471.0 ± 0.4 12 12* +* 0 −1 +1 0 1.12+0.13
−0.10
×10−13
See Ξ0
c
Decay Modes
charmed Xi resonance [14] Ξ′+
c
usc 2 575.7±3.1 12 12+ +1 −1 +1 0 Ξ+
c
+ γ (Seen)
charmed Xi resonance [14] Ξ′0
c
dsc 2 578.0±2.9 12 12+ 0 −1 +1 0 1.1×10−13 Ξ0
c
+ γ (Seen)
double charmed Xi Ξ++
cc
ucc 12* 12* +* +2 0 +2 0
double charmed Xi[a] [15] Ξ+
cc
dcc 3 518.9 ± 0.9[c] 12* 12* +* +1 0 +2 0 <3.3×10−14[a] Λ+
c
+ K + π+
[e] or
p+ + D+ + K[e]
bottom Xi [16] Ξ0
b
usb 5 792 ± 3 12* 12* +* 0 −1 0 −1 1.42+0.28
−0.24
×10−12
[b]
See Ξ
b
Decay Modes
bottom Xi or
Cascade B [16][17][18]
Ξ
b
dsb 5 792.9 ± 3.0 12* 12* +* −1 −1 0 −1 1.42×10−12 See Ξ
b
Decay Modes

(Ξ + J/ψ was also seen)
double bottom Xi Ξ0
bb
ubb 12* 12* +* 0 0 0 −2
double bottom Xi Ξ
bb
dbb 12* 12* +* −1 0 0 −2
charmed bottom Xi Ξ+
cb
ucb 12* 12* + +1 0 +1 −1
charmed bottom Xi Ξ0
cb
dcb 12* 12* +* 0 0 +1 −1

[a] Some controversy exists about this data. See references
[b] This is actually a measurement of the average lifetime of b-baryons that decay to a jet containing a same sign Ξ±l± pair. Presumably the mix is mainly Ξ
b
, with some Λ
b
.
† Particle (or quantity, i.e. spin) has neither been observed nor indicated.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Xi Baryon;". hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu. Retrieved 4 April 2013. 
  2. ^ R. Armenterosa, et al (1952). "The properties of charged V-particles". Philosophical Magazine 43 (341): 597. doi:10.1080/14786440608520216. 
  3. ^ L. W. Alvarez, et al (1959). "Neutral Cascade Hyperon Event". Physical Review Letters 2 (5): 215. Bibcode:1959PhRvL...2..215A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.2.215. 
  4. ^ R. Nave. "The Xi Baryon". HyperPhysics. Retrieved 2009-06-20. 
  5. ^ Simpson, Connor (28 April 2012). "New Particle Discovered with 'Higgs Boson' Machine". The Atlantic Wire. Retrieved 4 April 2013. 
  6. ^ The CMS Collaboration. (2012). "Observation of an excited Ξb baryon". Retrieved 2012-04-29. 
  7. ^ V. Abazov, et al (Collaboration) (2007). "Direct observation of the strange b baryon Ξ
    b
    ". Physical Review Letters 99 (5). arXiv:0706.1690. Bibcode:2007PhRvL..99e2001A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.052001.
     
  8. ^ "Fermilab physicists discover "triple-scoop" baryon" (Press release). Fermilab. 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-14. 
  9. ^ "Back-to-Back b Baryons in Batavia" (Press release). Fermilab. 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-25. 
  10. ^ T. Aaltonen, et al (CDF Collaboration) (2007). "Observation and mass measurement of the baryon Xi(b)-". Physical Review Letters 99 (5). arXiv:0707.0589. Bibcode:2007PhRvL..99e2002A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.052002. 
  11. ^ W.-M. Yao et al. (2006). "Particle listings – Neutral Xi". Journal of Physics G (Particle Data Group) 33 (1). Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  12. ^ W.-M. Yao et al. (2006). "Particle listings – Negative Xi". Journal of Physics G (Particle Data Group) 33 (1). Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  13. ^ a b "Particle Data Groups: 2006 Review of Particle Physics – Xi(1530)". Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  14. ^ a b c d W.-M. Yao et al. (2006). "Particle listings – Charmed baryons". Journal of Physics G (Particle Data Group) 33 (1). Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  15. ^ W.-M. Yao et al. (2006). "Particle listings – Double charmed positive Xi". Journal of Physics G (Particle Data Group) 33 (1). Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  16. ^ a b W.-M. Yao et al. (2006). "Particle listings – Bottom Xis". Journal of Physics G (Particle Data Group) 33 (1). Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  17. ^ V. M. Abazov et al. (2007). "Direct observation of the strange b baryon Ξ
    b
    ". Physical Review Letters 99 (5): 052001. arXiv:0706.1690. Bibcode:2007PhRvL..99e2001A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.052001.
     
  18. ^ T. Aaltonen et al. (2007). "Observation and mass measurement of the baryon Ξ
    b
    ". Physical Review Letters 99 (5): 052002. arXiv:0707.0589. Bibcode:2007PhRvL..99e2002A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.052002.
     

External links[edit]