Wajid Ali Shah
|Nawab Wajid Ali Shah|
|Mirza (Royal title)
King of Oudh
|Reign||13 February 1847 – 11 February 1856|
|Predecessor||Amjad Ali Shah|
|Abul Mansoor Meerza Muhammed WAJID ALI SHAH|
|Father||Amjad Ali Shah|
30 July 1822|
|Died||21 September 1887
Matiaburj, Kolkata, India
He was the tenth and last Nawab of the state of Awadh in present day Uttar Pradesh in India. He ascended the throne of Awadh in 1847 and ruled for nine years. His kingdom, long protected by the British under treaty, was eventually annexed peacefully on 11 February 1856 – days before the ninth anniversary of his coronation. The Nawab was exiled to Garden Reach in Metiabruz, then a suburb of Kolkata, where he lived out the rest of his life off a generous pension. He was a poet, playwright, dancer and great patron of the arts. He is widely credited with the revival of Kathak as a major form of classical Indian dance.
As a Nawab
Wajid Ali Shah succeeded to the throne of Awadh when its glory days were long past. The British East India Company seized half of the kingdom under the treaty of 1801, in exchange for British military assistance and under the stipulation that the administration would be reformed for the benefit of the general population.
Wajid Ali Shah ascended the throne of Oudh at a time when the British East India Company had delivered an ultimatum, warning that he must reform his administration or face British assumption of the government, with him relegated to a figurehead position. When he ascended the throne, he took a brief interest in the administration, carrying on his father's weekly durbar for example, but gradually sank into a life of pleasures surrounded by courtesans, singers, dancers, and eunuchs.
Patron of the arts
Contribution to music
A large number of composers who thrived under the lavish patronage of the Nawab rulers of Lucknow enriched the light classical form of thumri; most prominent among these was Wajid Ali Shah. He was not only a munificent patron of music, dance, drama, and poetry, but was himself a gifted composer. He had received vocal training under great Ustads like Basit Khan, Pyar Khan and Jafar Khan.Pyar Khan,Jafar Khan, and Basit Khan were the direct descendants of Miyan Tansen and were the sons of Famous Tanseni Chajju Khan.Bahadur Hussain Khan/Zia-ud-Daulah was the favourite musician of Wajid Ali Shah.Bahadur Hussain Khan was the son of Famous sufi saint Jeevan Shah of Jhansi, and descendant of Tansen's son-in-law Naubaat Khan.Although Wajid Ali Shah's pen-name was Qaisar, he used the pseudonym "Akhtarpiya" for his numerous compositions. Under this pen name, he wrote over forty works – poems, prose and Thumris. "Diwan-i-Akhtar", "Husn-i-Akhtar" contain his Ghazals. He is said to have composed many new ragas and named them Jogi, Juhi, Shah-Pasand, etc.
Revival of Kathak
Kathak dance attained new heights of popularity and glory under his expert guidance and lavish patronage. Thakur Prasadji was his Kathak guru, and the unforgettable Kalka-Binda brothers performed in his court. What with the grand pageantry of the Rahas, Jogiya Jashan, Dance dramas, and Kathak performances, Lucknow became the magnetic cultural centre where the most reputed musicians, dancers and poets of the time flourished. The greatest musicians, dancers and instrumentalists of the time enjoyed his munificent patronage and hospitality.
When Wajid Ali Shah was a young boy, some astrologers warned his parents that he would become a Yogi, and advised them that the boy should be dressed up as a Yogi on each birthday of his so as to counteract the effect of the evil stars. He established his famous Parikhaana (abode of fairies) in which hundreds of beautiful and talented girls were taught music and dancing by expert-teachers engaged by the royal patron. These girls were known as Paris (fairies) with names such as Sultan pari, Mahrukh pari and so on. On each birthday, the Nawab would dress up as a Yogi with saffron robes, ash of pearls smeared on his face and body, necklaces of pearls around his neck, and a rosary in his hand, and walk pompously into the court with two of his 'paris dressed up as Jogans. Gradually he made it into a spectacular pageant or Mela known as Jogia Jashan, in which all citizens of Lucknow could participate, dressed as Yogis, irrespective of caste and creed. Later on, when his favourite venue, the Qaisarbagh Baradari was built, he began to stage his magnificent Rahas (obviously a Persianised name for Rasleela) full of sensuous poetry, his own lyrical compositions and glamorous Kathak dances.
Ranbir Singh gives details of Wajid Ali Shah's book entitled Bani in which the author mentions 36 types of Rahas all set in Kathak style (with colourful names like Mor-Chchatr, Ghunghat, Salami, Mor Pankhi and Mujra), and gives exhaustive notes about the costumes, jewellery, and stage- craft. Rahas, prepared at a fabulous cost of several lakhs (hundred thousands) of rupees, became very popular, and was performed at the Kaisarbagh-Rahas Manzil, (most probably the first Hindustani Theatre Hall). Many have regarded Wajid Ali Shah as "the first playwright of the Hindustani theatre", because his "Radha Kanhaiyya Ka Qissa" staged in the Rahas Manzil was the first play of its kind. It featured Radha, Krishna, several sakhis, and a vidushaka-like character called "Ramchera". Songs, dances, mime, and drama were all delightfully synthesised in these Rahas performances. He dramatised many other poems such as Darya-i-Tashsq, Afsane-i-Isbaq, and Bhahar-i-Ulfat. It is said that Amanat's Inder Sabha was inspired by these dance-dramas, written, produced and staged by Nawab Wajid Ali Shah
His exile years
In his exile in Metiabruz, he tried to keep the sweet memories of his Lucknow era alive by recreating the musical environments of his Kaisarbagh Baradari. The banished king had been given a number of fine houses with vast grounds stretching along the banks of the River Hooghly 3 or 4 miles south of Kolkata. Because of an Earthen Dome (raised platform), people called it "Matiya Burj". The king spent lavishly out of his income of 12 lakh (1.2 million) rupees per annum and before long a second Lucknow arose in this area.
His legacy: "Babul Mora" Thumri
In a strange manner this sad song epitomises the pain and agony of the poet king himself when he was exiled from his beloved Lucknow.
बाबुल मोरा, नैहर छूटो ही जाए
बाबुल मोरा, नैहर छूटो ही जाए
चार कहार मिल, मोरी डोलिया सजावें (उठायें)
मोरा अपना बेगाना छूटो जाए | बाबुल मोरा ...
आँगना तो पर्बत भयो और देहरी भयी बिदेश
जाए बाबुल घर आपनो मैं चली पीया के देश | बाबुल मोरा ...
بابُل مورا، نیہر چھُوٹو ہی جائے
بابُل مورا، نیہر چھُوٹو ہی جائے
چار کہار مِل، موری ڈولِیا سجاویں (اُٹھایّں)
مورا اَپنا بیگانا چھُوٹو جائے ، بابُل مورا۔۔۔
آںگنا تو پربت بھیو اؤر دیہری بھیی بِدیش
جائے بابُل گھر آپنو میں چلی پیّا کے دیش ، بابُل مورا ۔۔۔
- The thumri refers to his exile. For a translation see Babul.
In Popular Culture
- In Satyajit Ray's Shatranj Ke Khilari, Wajid Ali Shah is shown as very enthusiastic patron of dance and music. He is proud of the fact that songs and poems composed by him are favorite of his subjects. When it is revealed that the British are about to annex his throne, his chief-minister breaks down, but he himself maintains his calm because, according to him only music and poetry can bring a real man to tears ( सिर्फ शायरी और म़ौज़िकी ही मर्द की आँख़ो में आँस़ू ला सकते हैं ). The memorable role was played by Amjad Khan.
- A recent novel, Recalcitrance, throws new light on Wajid Ali Shah's character. The author, Anurag Kumar, uses the "mutiny of 1857" as backdrop and describes the event from the viewpoint of contemporary Indians. It was published in 2008 on 150th anniversary year of The Great Uprising of 1857
Naser ad-Dowla Amjad `Ali Thorayya Jah Shah
|Padshah-e-Oudh, Shah-e Zaman
13 Feb 1847 – 7 Feb 1856
Berjis Qadr (in rebellion)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wajid Ali Shah.|
- Royal line of Nawabs of Oudh, A complete genealogy of the rulers of Awadh
- National Informatics Centre, Lucknow – Rulers of Awadh
- NAWABS OF OUDH & THEIR SECULARISM – Dr. B. S. Saxena
- Annexation of Oudh – Its Affairs – The Truth An Extract from King Wajid Ali Shah of Awadh By Mirza Ali Azhar
- The Literary And Cultural Contributions of Wajid Ali Shah
- HISTORY OF AWADH (Oudh) a princely State of India by Hameed Akhtar Siddiqui
- My Wajid Ali is Not 'Effete And Effeminate'! -Satyajit Ray
- SWANSONG OF A POET-KING, THE STATESMAN MONDAY 5TH JULY, 1982 Calcutta – India
- Wajid Ali Shah, King of Oudh
- A tribute to Wajid Ali Shah, the last and greatest King of Avadh, THE TAJ MAGAZINE – Volume 23 No. 1
- Much of the content here has been extracted from an article by Susheela Mishra.
- "Awadh Under Wajid Ali Shah", Dr. G.D. Bhatnagar
- "Wajid Ali Shah: The Tragic King", Ranbir Sinh
- Baabul Moraa