Wikipedia:Naming conventions (ships)

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This guideline describes Wikipedia's conventions for naming articles about ships and for referring to ships in the body of articles. See Wikipedia:Article titles for more general naming conventions. See WikiProject Ships for more guidance on writing articles about ships.

Ships share names with people, places, animals and other things. Articles about ships must be named to distinguish them from other similarly-named ships, as well as from other things with which they share a name.

Naming articles about civilian ships[edit]

For a full list of ship prefixes, see Ship prefix.

Civilian ship articles should follow standard Wikipedia naming conventions. These rules apply to named boats and yachts as well as to ships.

A typical civilian ship article name has the following form:

<optional prefix> <italicized name> <(optional disambiguation)>[Note 1]
Optional prefix
An article about a ship not known to have a prefix should use only the ship's name, if that name is unambiguous:
Niña
Since the optional prefix is, in fact, optional, it may be omitted for ships with unambiguous names even when common prefixes (e.g. MS or MV) are sometimes used for them in other sources:
Celebrity Equinox instead of MV Celebrity Equinox
However, if a ship is best known in combination with a ship prefix, include the prefix in the article name. Use of the prefix can also provide disambiguation:
SS John W. Brown compared to John W. Brown
PS Waverley compared to Waverley
If a ship has had more than one prefix during its lifetime, choose the best-known for the article and create a redirect from the other prefixed names:
RMS Titanic should have a redirect from SS Titanic
Italicized name
Ship names are always italicized.
Niña not Niña
Optional disambiguation
When the name is ambiguous, append disambiguation information in parentheses. The date of launching can be used if there are several ships with the same name:
Santa Maria (ship) compared to Santa Maria

Naming articles about military ships[edit]

For a full list of ship prefixes, see Ship prefix.

Military ship articles should follow standard Wikipedia naming conventions. These rules apply to both named and unnamed vessels.

A typical military ship article name has the following form:

<prefix> <italicized name> <(hull or pennant number or disambiguation)>[Note 1]

Many military ships and boats were not named and are known only by their hull or pennant number. See §Ships with hull number only.

Some navies don't use standard ship prefixes. See §Ships from navies without ship prefixes

Prefix
For ships of navies that have standard ship prefixes, use the prefix in the article name.
USS Monitor
HMS Queen Mary
SMS Seydlitz
Do not use punctuation within the ship prefix:
USS Monitor not U.S.S. Monitor
Do not use the hull classification symbol as a prefix:
USS Nimitz not CVN Nimitz

Do not use prefixes that predate their use, even though some authors sometimes "backdate" prefixes in this way. In particular, do not use the HMS prefix for English ships from before 1660. The term "His Majesty's Ship" was introduced around 1660 and was routinely abbreviated HMS from about 1780 onwards.

Henry Grace à Dieu not HMS Henry Grace à Dieu.
Italicized name
Ship names are always italicized.
HMS Pinafore not HMS Pinafore
Hull or pennant number or disambiguation See §Disambiguating ships with the same name.
For an article about a modern-day ship, include the ship's hull number (US Navy hull classification symbol) or pennant numbers (Royal Navy, and many European and Commonwealth navies), if it is available, sufficiently unique, and well known.[Note 1]
USCGC Alert (WMEC-127) and USCGC Alert (WMEC-630) (hull number disambiguation)
HMS Illustrious (R87) and HMS Illustrious (R06) (pennant number disambiguation)
HMS Royal Scotsman (only one ship of the name - requires no disambiguation)
For a ship that does not have a hull and pennant number, and especially when more than one ship had the name, disambiguate the article name with the ship's launch year.
HMS Victorious (1785) and HMS Victorious (1895) (launch year disambiguation)
In instances where a ship was captured or otherwise acquired by a navy and the article is placed at that title, use the date of capture or entry to the navy, rather than the date of launch, so the name and prefix are in agreement with the date disambiguation.
HMS Canopus (1798) rather than HMS Canopus (1797)
At Wikipedia, US Navy and US Coast Guard hull numbers are hyphenated (the US Navy itself is not consistent in this respect). Coast Guard hull numbers always start with a "W". Pennant numbers do not have a hyphen nor space (this matches the number as it typically appears on the side of the ship). Note that not all pennant numbers have an initial letter ("flag superior"), for example HMS Ark Royal (91). Also note that in recent decades the Australian and Canadian navies have moved towards American-style three letter pennant number prefixes. These should be written with a space, for example HMCS Vancouver (FFH 331).
If a ship had several hull numbers in her career, use the best-known for an article title. In the article's lead section list all of her hull numbers. Make redirects from the others:
USS Bogue (CVE-9) should have redirects from USS Bogue (ACV-9) and USS Bogue (CVHP-9)
USS Bogue CVE-9/ACV-9/CVHP-9 is best known for her actions in the Second Battle of the Atlantic, when she was CVE-9.
If none of the several hull numbers is clearly the best-known, use the first:
USS Goldsborough (DD-188) should have redirects from USS Goldsborough (AVP-18), USS Goldsborough (AVD-5), and USS Goldsborough (APD-32)

Ships from navies without ship prefixes[edit]

Some navies or nations don't use standard ship prefixes. Titles for articles about these ships have the form:

<nationality> <type> <italicized name>
Nationality
The ship's country in adjective form:
Brazilian
Japanese
Ottoman
German (though early German ships use SMS)
Type
Do not be over-specific about the ship type:
Japanese aircraft carrier Chitose not Japanese light aircraft carrier Chitose
Italicized name
Ship names are always italicized.
Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov
German battleship Bismarck

Do not make up a ship prefix for a navy that did not use one. Thus:

German battleship Bismarck not DKM Bismarck
Japanese battleship Yamato not HIJMS Yamato or IJN Yamato
Italian battleship Giulio Cesare not RM Giulio Cesare
Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov not RFS Admiral Kuznetsov

Some authors use invented prefixes for consistency with "USS", "HMS" etc. It was not a mistake for these authors to do that in their own works, but at Wikipedia we choose not to do so. To forestall attempts to move articles to the wrong place, you might want to add redirects from popular invented ship prefixes.

Japanese battleship Yamato could have redirects from IJN Yamato and HIJMS Yamato.

Ships with hull number only[edit]

Many types of ship, such as American PT boats and German U-boats, are officially known only by a hull number. In these cases, it can be best to spell out the ship type (e.g. German submarine U-238), but be sure the ship type name is correct. In many cases, the designation is not an abbreviation and may not relate directly to a ship's class or even type. For example, PT-109 can be a redirect to the main article Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109, but U-238 must be a disambiguated, because U-238 also refers to Uranium 238.

Articles about vessels with a numerical name should be titled like HMS A1, HMS E11, HMS M1 etc.

Naming articles about ship classes[edit]

Articles about a ship class should follow standard Wikipedia naming conventions.

A typical ship class article name has the following form:

<class name>-class <ship type>
Class name
A ship class may be named for a member of the class (usually the first or lead ship) or the class may be named for an attribute common to all of the ships of the class. When the class is named for a member of the class, the class name is italicized. When the class is named for a common theme or attribute, the class name is not italicized.
Evergreen State is a member of the Evergreen State class
HMT Juniper is a member of the Tree class
not HMT Juniper is a member of the Tree class
Ship type
The type of ship that comprises the class: aircraft carrier, trawler, frigate, icebreaker. Do not be overly specific in the type:
aircraft carrier not light escort fleet assault carrier
Use the singular form of the ship type
submarine not submarines

Uses of the class name as a noun are not hyphenated, while adjectival references are hyphenated. Article names that follow the form just described are adjectival because the compound phrase made up of <class name> and "class" modifies the noun <ship type>. As such, article titles should be hyphenated.

Evergreen State-class ferry not Evergreen State class ferry
Tree-class trawler not Tree class trawler

In article titles and in article text, use a hyphen; do not use an en dash (–) or em dash (—).

Tree-class trawler not Tree–class trawler or Tree—class trawler

Using ship names in articles[edit]

A ship's name is always italicized. Prefixes, hull or pennant numbers, and disambiguation are rendered in normal upright font.

USS Nimitz not USS Nimitz or USS Nimitz

Use the ship's prefix the first time you introduce the ship, thereafter, omit it. You need not give the prefix at all if it is obvious from the context (for example, in a list of ships of the Royal Navy there is no need to repeat "HMS" each time). In case of civilian ships, consider omitting common prefixes (e.g. "MS") from the article body as italicizing the ship's name is often enough to identify it as a ship.

Do not use the definite article ("the") before a prefix or when introducing a ship for the first time; e.g., at the beginning of the lead section:

HMS Victory was ... not The HMS Victory was ...

Generally, a definite article is not needed before a ship's name, although its use is not technically wrong:

Victory was Nelson's flagship ... (preferred)
The Victory was Nelson's flagship ... (not recommended)

Make a link from the first mention of each ship in an article, even if Wikipedia does not yet have an article about that ship. If you do not know how to disambiguate it, link to the index page for its name: this will allow the link to be found and fixed later.

Do not give the hull number or other disambiguation information unless it is immediately relevant. Someone who needs to know can follow the link:

Vanguard was Nelson's ... not Vanguard (1787) was Nelson's ...
Yorktown was sunk ... not Yorktown (CV-5) was sunk ...
"the later Lexington (CV-16) was laid down as Cabot but renamed in honour of the earlier Lexington (CV-2)"—disambiguation information is needed.

Always use the full name of the ship unless there exists a widely used shortening akin to a nickname. Do not omit parts of the name just because they are, for example, common for all ships of a shipping company.

Edward M. Cotter not Cotter

Possessive form of a ship's name[edit]

When using the possessive form of a ship's name in articles, use the {{'}} template to provide proper styling and avoid coding problems that can occur when an apostrophe follows italicized text. The apostrophe and "s" are not italicized:

Linked names: {{USS|Ticonderoga||2}}{{'}}s displays as Ticonderoga '​s
Regular names: ''Ticonderoga''{{'}}s displays as Ticonderoga '​s

Pronouns[edit]

Ships may be referred to by either feminine pronouns ("she", "her") or neuter pronouns ("it", "its"). Either usage is acceptable, but each article should be internally consistent and employ one or the other exclusively. As with all optional styles, articles should not be changed from one style to another unless there is a substantial reason to do so.

Using ship class names in articles[edit]

A ship class can take the name of a class member or it can take a name that is thematically common to all members of the class. When the class takes its name from a member of the class, the name is italicized:

Benjamin Franklin-class submarine

Thematically common class names are rendered in normal font:

Town-class destroyer
Admiral-class battlecruiser

Additionally, ship class names have a noun form and an adjectival form:

Natick class (noun form)
Natick-class fleet tug (adjectival form)

When creating links to ship-class articles, useful editing shortcut templates are: {{sclass}} (italicized font); {{sclass-}} (italicized font, hyphenated); {{sclass2}} (normal font); and {{sclass2-}} (normal font, hyphenated). See the template documentation for usage guidelines.

Use the noun form when the class name does not modify another noun:

Construction of the Natick class began at ...
... last tugboat of the Natick class.

Use the adjectival form when the class name modifies another noun:

Natick-class names ...
... two Natick-class z-drive tugs ...

Disambiguating ships with the same name[edit]

Shortcut:

It is extremely common for many ships to share a name. Therefore disambiguation needs special attention.

For older ships predating the modern pennant/hull number system, the most widely recognisable fact about the ship is its date of launch or construction. This is a unique identifier for a ship with a particular name in navies where names are customarily re-used and is applicable generally to all ships, unlike local naval identification numbers:

HMS Vanguard (1748)
HMS Vanguard (1787)
HMS Vanguard (1835)
In instances where a ship was captured or otherwise acquired by a navy or shipping company, or simply renamed, and the article is placed at that title, use the date that is in agreement with the name and prefix (such as the date capture or entry to the navy or fleet, or the date of the renaming) rather than the date of launch.
HMS Canopus (1798) rather than HMS Canopus (1797)

In a few cases, one ship is so much better-known than her namesakes that she need not be disambiguated:

the article for Horatio Nelson's flagship is HMS Victory; other Victorys are listed at List of ships named HMS Victory.
the article for Charles Darwin's vessel of exploration is HMS Beagle; other Beagles are listed at List of ships named HMS Beagle.

It should be noted that European navies reuse pennant numbers, so ships of the same name may have the same pennant numbers; the second and third RFA Sir Galahad (L3005), for example are disambiguated by launch year:

RFA Sir Galahad (1966)
RFA Sir Galahad (1987)

Make an index page that lists all the ships in a navy with the same name:

USS Enterprise lists 8 USS Enterprises
HMS Vanguard lists 10 HMS Vanguards

For well-known names that are shared between navies, or between military and civilian ships, also disambiguate at the usual Wikipedia disambiguation page for the name:

Nautilus (disambiguation) refers to ships named Nautilus.
Discovery refers to ships named Discovery.

Ships that changed name or nationality[edit]

An article about a ship that changed name or nationality should be placed at the best-known name, with a redirect from the other name:

Article at HMS Royal Charles (1655), with a redirect from Commonwealth ship Naseby
Article at Cutty Sark, with a redirect at Maria do Amparo
Article at Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov, with a redirect from Soviet aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov

But if the ship had significant careers in two navies, it may be best to create two articles with one ending at the transfer and the other beginning then, depending on how long the articles are and how extensive the transformation of the ship.

USS Phoenix (CL-46) became ARA General Belgrano

Ships whose class and designation changed[edit]

If an entire class of ships was reclassified (such as in the 1975 USN ship reclassification), be consistent and make the decision once for all the ships of the class:

The Knox- and Garcia-class frigates are named with the FF (frigate) classification, not DE (destroyer escort). (Justification: known as frigates for the majority of their service.)
The Castle-class corvettes are named with pennant numbers starting K, not F. (Justification: best known for service during World War II.)

Ship class articles[edit]

Articles about a ship class should be named (Lead ship name)-class (type); for example, Ohio-class submarine. Do not be overly specific in the type; for example, use "aircraft carrier", not "light escort fleet assault carrier". Use the singular form of the ship type; for example, "submarine", not "submarines".

Uses of the class as a noun are not hyphenated, while adjectival references are hyphenated, as in Ohio-class submarine: if in doubt, do not hyphenate. Note the separation of submarine as a separate link; this is not required, but does allow the reader to look up the general term directly instead of being plunged into the technical discussion of a ship class.

When the class is named after a member of the class, italicize the class name, for example the Lion class of battlecruisers is named after HMS Lion. But when the class is not named after a member of the class, the class name is not italicized, for example the Battle class of destroyers is named after battles; there is no HMS Battle that is a member of that class.

Ship classes may need to be disambiguated:

By nationality:
United States Porpoise-class submarine
British Porpoise-class submarine
By date:
King George V-class battleship (1911)
King George V-class battleship (1939)

Country and navy-specific articles[edit]

Articles which name the country or navy in the article title should conform to the country-specific guidelines. This states that:

In general, country-specific articles should be named using the form: "(item) of (country)"... This will usually hold true in other geography-specific topics, such as for cities, continents, provinces, states, etc.

Note navies are country or geography-specific.

List of ships of the line of Italy not List of Italian ships of the line
List of naval ships of Portugal not List of Portuguese naval ships
List of ships of the Canadian Navy not List of Canadian Navy ships
Early naval vessels of New Zealand not Early New Zealand naval vessels
Coastal Forces of the Royal Navy not Royal Navy Coastal Forces

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c If there is only one ship of the name, it is wrong to disambiguate, per WP:PRECISE.