Yusufeli Dam

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Yusufeli Dam
Yusufeli dam.jpg
A view of Yusufeli
Yusufeli Dam is located in Turkey
Yusufeli Dam
Location of Yusufeli Dam
Official name Yusufeli Baraji
Country Turkey
Location Yusufeli, Artvin Province
Coordinates 40°49′13″N 41°39′41″E / 40.82028°N 41.66139°E / 40.82028; 41.66139Coordinates: 40°49′13″N 41°39′41″E / 40.82028°N 41.66139°E / 40.82028; 41.66139
Status Under construction
Construction began February 26, 2013
Construction cost Turkish lira symbol 8x10px.png487 million (approx. US$270 million)
Owner(s) State Hydraulic Works
Dam and spillways
Type of dam Arch, double-curvature[1][2][3]
Impounds Çoruh River
Height 270 m (886 ft)
Length 490 m (1,608 ft)
Width (crest) 15 m (49 ft)
Dam volume 2,900,000 m3 (102,412,533 cu ft)
Spillway type Service, controlled chute
Spillway capacity 8,000 m3/s (282,517 cu ft/s)
Reservoir
Creates Yusufeli Reservoir
Total capacity 2,130,000,000 m3 (1,726,819 acre·ft)
Surface area 33 km2 (13 sq mi)
Power station
Turbines 3 x 180 MW Francis turbines
Installed capacity 540 MW
Annual generation 1,705 GWh (est.)

The Yusufeli Dam is an arch dam under construction on the Çoruh River near Yusufeli in Artvin Province within the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. The Yusufeli Dam will be the second largest dam within the larger Çoruh River Development Plan, which plans to build 13 dams, of which two are operational and another two are under construction. The dam's main purpose is hydroelectric power production and it will support a 540 MW power station. The dam is controversial because of its projected impact on the biodiversity within its reservoir area along with the relocation of locals.

On February 26, 2013, the foundation stone was laid in a ceremony attended by Minister of Forestry and Waterworks Veysel Eroğlu and Minister of Labor and Social Security Faruk Çelik. It is expected that the construction of the dam will cost Turkish lira symbol 8x10px.png487 million (approx. US$270 million).[4] The dam's opening date is set to May 29, 2018.[5] When completed, Yusufeli Dam will be Turkey's highest.[6]

History[edit]

The first studies on the Yusufeli Dam were carried out in the 1970s and it was included in the Coruh River Hydropower Development Master Plan in 1982. The feasibility report was completed in 1986 and the project was added to the national plan in 1997.[7]

Design[edit]

Situated 70 km (43 mi) southwest of Artvin, the Yusufeli will be a double-curvature arch dam with a height of 270 m (886 ft) from its foundation and 223 m (732 ft) from the river's thalweg (lowest point of river bed). It will have a crest length of 490 m (1,608 ft) and crest width of 15 m (49 ft) while being composed of 2,900,000 m3 (102,412,533 cu ft) of concrete.[7]

The dam's crest will sit at an altitude of 715 m (2,346 ft) above sea level while the normal operating level of its reservoir will be 710 m (2,329 ft), maximum will be 712 m (2,336 ft) and the minimum 670 m (2,198 ft). The reservoir surface area of 33 km2 (13 sq mi) will have a total storage capacity of 2,130,000,000 m3 (1,726,819 acre·ft) and an active or "useful" storage of 1,080,000,000 m3 (875,570 acre·ft). The dam's spillway will be a service controlled chute type with a maximum discharge capacity of 8,000 m3/s (282,517 cu ft/s).[7]

The dam will have an underground power station that is 110 m (361 ft) long, 21.4 m (70 ft) wide and 45.2 m (148 ft) high. Within the power station will be 3 x 180 MW vertical shaft Francis turbines.[7]

Design activities will be carried out by Su-Yapi Engineering and Consulting Inc.

Construction is to be carried out by a Limak Holding-Cengiz Holding-Kolin consortium.[1]

Projected biological impacts[edit]

If built, the Yusufeli Dam will is expect to have significant biological impacts including:

  • Adversely affecting 21 nationally listed threatened plant species, of which all except one are endemic to Turkey.[8] Of these threatened species 2 taxa are limited to Yusufeli and its surroundings, 8 are limited to the Çoruh Valley, and 6 to the Artvin-Erzurum area. Turkish Red Book for Plants shows that of these, 7 species are critically endangered, 5 are endangered and 9 are vulnerable.[9]
  • Adversely affecting 2 nationally threatened fish species, the Black Sea Salmon (Salmo trutta labrax) and Brown Trout (Salmo trutta macrostigma). The Black Sea Salmon’s migration will be blocked because of this and the other planned and built dams. Existing populations of fish will be adversely affected by the construction of the dam and another 6 species populations may not recover due to the reduction of creek and river habitat needed for breeding.
Nationally rare plants threatened by the Yusufeli Dam
Species Endemic Threat level Distribution in Turkey
Reseda globosa No Critically endangered Coruh Valley
Lathyrus woronowii Endemic Critically endangered Coruh Valley
Ferula mervinii Endemic Critically endangered Yusufeli & its vinicity
Anthemis calcarea var calcarea Endemic Critically endangered Artvin-Erzurum
Anthemis calcarea var discoidea Endemic Critically endangered Artvin-Erzurum
Centaurea straminicephala Endemic Critically endangered Coruh Valley
Centaurea leptophylla Endemic Critically endangered Yusufeli & its vinicity
Clypeola raddeana Endemic Endangered Coruh Valley
Morina persica var decussatifolia Endemic Endangered Artvin-Erzurum
Campanula troegeraeƒ Endemic Endangered Artvin-Erzurum
Verbascum gracilescens Endemic Endangered Coruh Valley
Asperula virgata Endemic Endangered Coruh Valley
Acer divergens var divergens Endemic Vulnerable Coruh Valley
Sempervivum staintonii Endemic Vulnerable Coruh Valley
Seseli andronakii Endemic Vulnerable Artvin-Erzurum
Bupleurum brachiatum Endemic Vulnerable Middle & East Blacksea
Bupleurum schistosum Endemic Vulnerable Coruh Valley
Centaurea pecho Endemic Vulnerable East Blacksea
Centaurea hedgei Endemic Vulnerable Artvin-Erzurum
Linaria genistifolia subsp artivinensis Endemic Vulnerable Coruh Valley
Iris taochia Endemic Vulnerable East Blacksea

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Yusufeli Dam and Hydroelectric Power Plant". Limak. Retrieved 7 May 2013. 
  2. ^ "Yusufely Dam: Dam Structural Calculation Turkey". Poyry. Retrieved 7 May 2013. 
  3. ^ "Regional Office - Artvin". State Hydraulic Works. Retrieved 7 May 2013. 
  4. ^ "Foundation of Turkey's tallest dam, Yusufeli, laid in Artvin". Today's Zaman. 2013-02-26. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  5. ^ "Canlı yayında ilginç pazarlık". Hürriyet Gündem (in Turkish). 2013-02-26. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  6. ^ "Türkiye'nin en yüksek barajının temeli atıldı". Sabah (in Turkish). 2013-02-27. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  7. ^ a b c d "YUSUFELİ BARAJI ve HES" (in Turkish). State Hydraulic Works. Retrieved 15 January 2011. 
  8. ^ Lambourne, M 2006, 'Biological Assessment: the Yusufeli Dam & Hydro-electric Power Project's Environmental Impact Assessment'
  9. ^ Ekim, T, Koyuncu, M, Vural, M, Duman, H, Aytac, Z & Adiguzel, N 2000, Türkiye Bitkileri Kırmızı Kitabi – Red Data Book of Turkish Plants, Türkiye Tabiatını Koruma Derneği – Turkish Association for the Conservation of Nature, Ankara, Turkey.
  10. ^ IUCN 2006, IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
  11. ^ Eken G, Bozdogan M, I˙sfendiyaroglu S, Kılıç DT & Lise Y, (editor) 2006, Key biodiversity areas in Turkey, Doga Dernegi, Ankara, Turkey.