|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|10 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||10 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||744|
|Ancient Greek era||192nd Olympiad, year 3|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||庚戌年 (Metal Dog)|
2687 or 2627
— to —
辛亥年 (Metal Pig)
2688 or 2628
|Coptic calendar||−293 – −292|
|Ethiopian calendar||−17 – −16|
|- Vikram Samvat||47–48|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||3091–3092|
|Iranian calendar||631 BP – 630 BP|
|Islamic calendar||650 BH – 649 BH|
|Julian calendar||10 BC|
|Minguo calendar||1921 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||302/303 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||533–534|
117 or −264 or −1036
— to —
118 or −263 or −1035
Year 10 BC was either a common year starting on Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday or a leap year starting on Tuesday or Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar (the sources differ, see leap year error for further information) and a common year starting on Sunday of the Proleptic Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Maximus and Antonius (or, less frequently, year 744 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 10 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- The Obelisk of Montecitorio is brought from Egypt to Rome by emperor Augustus to be erected as a sundial gnomon of the Solarium Augusti, now in the Piazza Montecitorio.
- The Romans build a bridge across the Rhine near Bonn.
- A Roman military camp is established at Speyer.
- August 1 – Claudius, Roman emperor (d. AD 54)
- Agrippa I, king of Judea (d. AD 44)
- Marcus Verrius Flaccus, Roman grammarian (d. AD 20)
- Domitia Lepida, daughter of Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus and Antonia Major (d. AD 54)