0s

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Millennium: 1st millennium
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Map of the world in 1 AD.

The 0s began on January 1, 1 AD and ended on December 31, 9 AD, covering the first nine years of the Common Era. It is one of two "0-to-9" decade-like timespans that contain nine years, along with the 0s BC. Estimates for the world population by 1 AD range from 150 to 300 million.

In Europe, the 0s saw the continuation of conflict between the Roman Empire and Germanic tribes in the Early Imperial campaigns in Germania. Tiberius, Ahenobarbus, Vinicius and Varus led Roman forces in multiple punitive campaigns, before sustaining a major defeat at the hands of Arminius in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Concurrently, the Roman Empire fought the Bellum Batonianum against an alliance of native peoples in two regions of Illyricum, Dalmatia and Pannonia, led by Bato the Daesitiate. In AD 8, the Breuci of the Sava valley surrendered, but it took a winter blockade and another season of fighting before the surrender in Dalmatia in AD 9. A conflict also took place in Korea, where Daeso, King of Dongbuyeo invaded Goguryeo with a 50,000-man army in 6 AD. He was forced to retreat when heavy snow began to fall, stopping the conflict until the next decade. In China, Wang Mang established the Xin dynasty.

Literary works from the 0s include works from the ancient Roman poet Ovid; the Ars Amatoria, an instructional elegy series in three books, Metamorphoses, a poem which chronicles the history of the world from its creation to the deification of Julius Caesar within a loose mythico-historical framework, and Ibis, a curse poem written during his years in exile across the Black Sea for an offense against Augustus. Nicolaus of Damascus wrote the 15-volume History of the World.

A census was concluded in China in 2 AD: final numbers showed a population of nearly 60 million (59,594,978 people in slightly more than 12 million households). The census is one of the most accurate surveys in Chinese history. Dionysius Exiguus assigned Jesus's birth date in 1 AD, in his anno Domini era according to at least one scholar. However, most scholars think Dionysius placed the birth of Jesus in the previous year, 1 BC. Furthermore, most modern scholars do not consider Dionysius' calculations authoritative, placing the event several years earlier (see Chronology of Jesus).

Events

By place[edit]

Roman Empire[edit]
Asia[edit]

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]
  • Birth of Jesus, as assigned by Dionysius Exiguus in his anno Domini era according to at least one scholar.[4][5] However, most scholars think that Dionysius placed the birth of Jesus in the previous year, 1 BC.[4][5] Furthermore, most modern scholars do not consider Dionysius' calculations authoritative, placing the event several years earlier (see Chronology of Jesus).[6]

By place[edit]

Roman Empire[edit]
Europe[edit]
Africa[edit]
  • Juba II of Mauretania joins Gaius Caesar in Armenia as a military advisor. It is during this period that he meets Glaphyra, a Cappadocian princess and the former wife of Alexandros of Judea, a brother of Herod Archelaus, ethnarch of Judea, and becomes enamoured of her.
China[edit]
  • Wang Mang begins a program of personal aggrandizement, restoring marquess titles to past imperial princes and introducing a pension system for retired officials. Restrictions are placed on the Emperor's mother, Consort Wei and members of the Wei Clan.
  • The first census is concluded in China after having begun the year before: final numbers show a population of nearly 60 million (59,594,978 people in slightly more than 12 million households). The census is one of the most accurate surveys in Chinese history.[7]

By place[edit]

Roman Empire[edit]
  • The rule of Emperor Augustus is renewed for a ten-year period.[8]
Europe[edit]
China[edit]
  • Wang Mang foils a plot by his son, Wang Yu, his brother-in-law, Lu Kuan, and the Wei clan to oust him from the regent's position. Wang Yu and Lu Kuan are killed in the purge that follows.[9]

By place[edit]

Roman Empire[edit]
Middle East[edit]
Korea[edit]
China[edit]

By topic[edit]

Arts and sciences[edit]

By place[edit]

Roman Empire[edit]

By place[edit]

Roman Empire[edit]
China[edit]
  • January – Some Chinese fear for the life of the young, ailing Emperor Ping Di as the planet Mars disappears behind the moon this month.[22]
  • February 3 – The boy emperor, Ping Di, dies of unexpected causes at age 14; Wang Mang alone selects the new emperor, Ruzi Ying, age 2,[22] starting the Jushe era of the Han Dynasty.
  • Candidates for government office must take civil-service examinations.
  • The imperial Liu clan suspect the intentions of Wang Mang and foment agrarian rebellions during the course of Ruzi Ying's reign. The first of these is led by Liu Chong, Marquess of Ang-Zong (a/k/a Marquis of An-chung), with a small force starting in May or June.[22]

By place[edit]

Roman Empire[edit]
China[edit]
  • Zhai Yi, Governor of the Commandery of Dong (modern Puyang, Henan) declares Liu Zin, Marquess of Yang Xiang (modern Tai'an, Shandong), emperor. This proves to be the largest of the rebellions against Emperor Ruzi of Han.
  • Wang Mang puts down the rebellion during the winter. Zhai is captured and executed while Liu Xin escapes.
Persia[edit]

By place[edit]

Roman Empire[edit]
Europe[edit]
Persia[edit]
Judea[edit]
China[edit]
  • Start of Chushi era of the Chinese Han Dynasty.
  • Wang Mang crushes a rebellion by Chai I, and on the winter solstice (which has been dated January 10 of the following year) officially assumes the title emperor, establishing the short-lived Xin Dynasty.[22]

By topic[edit]

Arts[edit]

By place[edit]

China[edit]
  • January 10Wang Mang founds the short-lived Xin Dynasty in China (until AD 25). Wang Mang names his wife, Wang, empress and his son, Wang Lin Crown Prince, heir to the throne.
  • Empress Wang is given the title of Duchess Dowager of Ding'an, while Ruzi Ying, the former Emperor of Han, becomes the Duke of Ding'an. Ruzi Ying is placed under house arrest.
  • Lui Kuai, Marquess of Zuziang, attacks the Dukedom of Fuchong under his brother Liu Ying. Lui Kuai is defeated and killed in the ensuing battle.
Roman Empire[edit]

By topic[edit]

Literature[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Estimates for the world population in 1 AD range from 150 to 300 million. The below table summarizes estimates by various authors.

PRB

(1973–2016)[25]

UN

(2015)[26]

Maddison

(2008)[27]

HYDE

(2010)[28]

Tanton

(1994)[29]

Biraben

(1980)[30]

McEvedy &

Jones (1978)[31]

Thomlinson

(1975)[32]

Durand

(1974)[33]

Clark

(1967)[34]

300M[35] 300M 231M[36] 188M[37] 150M 255M 170M 200M 270–330M 256M[38]

Significant people[edit]

Births[edit]

AD 1

AD 2

AD 3

AD 4

AD 5

AD 6

AD 7

AD 8

AD 9

Deaths[edit]

AD 1

AD 2

AD 3

  • Bao Xuan, Chinese politician of the Han Dynasty

AD 4

AD 6

AD 7

AD 8

AD 9

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jerome (Chronicon 2020) says he died in AD 4 in the 70th year of his life, which would place the year of his birth at 65 BC.
  1. ^ Velleius Paterculus, The Roman History, Book II. p 271.
  2. ^ Thomas A. Wilson, in Xinzhong Yao (Ed.), RoutledgeCurzon Encyclopedia of Confucianism, entry "Baocheng Xuan Ni Gong", 2003, p. 26.
  3. ^ Book of Han, 12.351
  4. ^ a b Declercq 2000.
  5. ^ a b Declercq 2002.
  6. ^ Dunn 2003.
  7. ^ Klingaman 1990, p. 56.
  8. ^ History.com Editors. "Augustus". HISTORY. Retrieved 2021-03-31.
  9. ^ "Wang Mang | emperor of Xin dynasty". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-03-31.
  10. ^ Klingaman 1990, p. 64.
  11. ^ Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 26.
  12. ^ Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 26-27.
  13. ^ Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 25.
  14. ^ a b Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 27.
  15. ^ a b Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 29.
  16. ^ a b Velleius Paterculus, Book 2, Ch 110.
  17. ^ Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 30.
  18. ^ Velleius Paterculus, Book 2, Ch 111.
  19. ^ Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 25-30.
  20. ^ Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Tiberius, ch 9 & ch 16.
  21. ^ Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 28.
  22. ^ a b c d Klingaman 1990.
  23. ^ Radman-Livaja, I., Dizda, M., Archaeological Traces of the Pannonian Revolt 6–9 AD: Evidence and Conjectures, Veröffentlichungen der Altertumskommiion für Westfalen Landschaftsverband Westfalen-Lippe, Band XVIII, p. 49
  24. ^ Luke 2.
  25. ^ Data from Population Reference Bureau. 2016 estimate: (a) "2016 World Population Data Sheet" 2015 estimate: (b) Toshiko Kaneda, 2015, "2015 World Population Data Sheet". 2014 estimate: (c) Carl Haub, 2014, "2014 World Population Data Sheet". 2013 estimate: (d) Carl Haub, 2013, "2013 World Population Data Sheet". 2012 estimate: (e) Carl Haub, 2012, "2012 World Population Data Sheet". 2011 estimate: (f) Carl Haub, 2011, "2011 World Population Data Sheet". 2010 estimate: (g) Carl Haub, 2010, "2010 World Population Data Sheet". 2009 estimate: (h) Carl Haub, 2009, "2009 World Population Data Sheet". 2008 estimate: (i) Carl Haub, 2008, "2008 World Population Data Sheet". 2007 estimate: (j) Carl Haub, 2007, "2007 World Population Data Sheet". 2006 estimate: (k) Carl Haub, 2006, "2006 World Population Data Sheet". 2005 estimate: (l) Carl Haub, 2005, "2005 World Population Data Sheet". 2004 estimate: (m) Carl Haub, 2004, "2004 World Population Data Sheet". 2003 estimate: (n) Carl Haub, 2003, "2003 World Population Data Sheet". 2002 estimate: (o) Carl Haub, 2002, "2002 World Population Data Sheet". 2001 estimate: (p) Carl Haub, 2001, "2001 World Population Data Sheet". 2000 estimate: (q) 2000, "9 Billion World Population by 2050". 1997 estimate: (r) 1997, "Studying Populations". Estimates for 1995 and prior: (s) Carl Haub, 1995, "How Many People Have Ever Lived on Earth?" Population Today, Vol. 23 (no. 2), pp. 5–6.
  26. ^ Data from United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 1950–2100 estimates (only medium variants shown): (a) World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. Estimates prior to 1950: (b) "The World at Six Billion", 1999. Estimates from 1950 to 2100: (c) "Population of the entire world, yearly, 1950 - 2100", 2013. Archived November 19, 2016, at the Wayback Machine 2014: (d) http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/Highlights/WUP2014-Highlights.pdf "2014 World Urbanization Prospects", 2014.] 2015: (e) http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Publications/Files/Key_Findings_WPP_2015.pdf "2015 World Urbanization Prospects", 2015.] Archived March 20, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ Angus Maddison, 2003, The World Economy: Historical Statistics, Vol. 2, OECD, Paris Archived May 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine ISBN 92-64-10412-7. "Statistical Appendix" (2008, ggdc.net) "The historical data were originally developed in three books: Monitoring the World Economy 1820-1992, OECD, Paris 1995; The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective, OECD Development Centre, Paris 2001; The World Economy: Historical Statistics, OECD Development Centre, Paris 2003. All these contain detailed source notes. Figures for 1820 onwards are annual, wherever possible. For earlier years, benchmark figures are shown for 1 AD, 1000 AD, 1500, 1600 and 1700." "OECD countries GDP revised and updated 1991-2003 from National Accounts for OECD Countries, vol. I, 2006. Norway 1820-1990 GDP from Ola Grytten (2004), "The Gross Domestic Product for Norway, 1830-2003" in Eitrheim, Klovland and Qvigstad (eds), Historical Monetary Statistics for Norway, 1819-2003, Norges Bank, Oslo. Latin American GDP 2000-2003 revised and updated from ECLAC, Statistical Yearbook 2004 and preliminary version of the 2005 Yearbook supplied by Andre Hofman. For Chile, GDP 1820-2003 from Rolf Lűders (1998), "The Comparative Economic Performance of Chile 1810-1995", Estudios de Economia, vol. 25, no. 2, with revised population estimates from Diaz, J., R. Lűders, and G. Wagner (2005) Chili 1810-2000: la Republica en Cifras, mimeo, Instituto de Economia, Universidad Católica de Chile. For Peru, GDP 1896-1990 and population 1896-1949 from Bruno Seminario and Arlette Beltran, Crecimiento Economico en el Peru 1896-1995, Universidad del Pacifico, 1998. " "For Asia there are amendments to the GDP estimates for South and North Korea, 1911-74, to correct an error in Maddison (2003). Estimates for the Philippines, 1902-1940 were amended in line with Richard Hooley (2005), 'American Economic Policy in the Philippines, 1902-1940', Journal of Asian Economics, 16. 1820 estimates were amended for Hong Kong, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan and Thailand." "Asian countries GDP revised and updated 1998-2003 from AsianOutlook, April 2005. Population estimates for all countries except China and Indonesia revised and updated 1950-2008 and 2030 from International Data Base, International Programs Center, Population Division, US Bureau of the Census, April 2005 version. China's population 1990-2003 from China Statistical Yearbook 2005, China Statistics Press, Beijing. Indonesian population 1950-2003 kindly supplied by Pierre van der Eng. The figures now include three countries previously omitted: Cook Islands, Nauru and Tuvalu."
  28. ^ Klein Goldewijk, K., A. Beusen, M. de Vos and G. van Drecht (2011). The HYDE 3.1 spatially explicit database of human induced land use change over the past 12,000 years, Global Ecology and Biogeography20(1): 73-86. doi:10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00587.x (pbl.nl). HYDE (History Database of the Global Environment), 2010. HYDE 3.1 gives estimates for 5000 BC, 1000 BC and "AD 0". HYDE estimates are higher than those by Colin McEvedy (1978) but lower than those by Massimo Livi Bacci (1989, 2012). (graphs (itbulk.org)).
  29. ^ John H. Tanton, 1994, "End of the Migration Epoch? Time For a New Paradigm", The Social Contract, Vol. 4 (no 3), pp. 162–173.
  30. ^ Slightly updated data from original paper in French: (a) Jean-Noël Biraben, 1980, "An Essay Concerning Mankind's Evolution", Population, Selected Papers, Vol. 4, pp. 1–13. Original paper in French: (b) Jean-Noël Biraben, 1979, "Essai sur l'évolution du nombre des hommes", Population, Vol. 34 (no. 1), pp. 13–25.
  31. ^ Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones, 1978, Atlas of World Population History, Facts on File, New York, ISBN 0-7139-1031-3.
  32. ^ Ralph Thomlinson, 1975, Demographic Problems: Controversy over population control, 2nd Ed., Dickenson Publishing Company, Ecino, CA, ISBN 0-8221-0166-1.
  33. ^ John D. Durand, 1974, "Historical Estimates of World Population: An Evaluation", University of Pennsylvania, Population Center, Analytical and Technical Reports, Number 10.
  34. ^ Colin Clark, 1967, Population Growth and Land Use, St. Martin's Press, New York, ISBN 0-333-01126-0.
  35. ^ Haub (1995): "By 1 A.D., the world may have held about 300 million people. One estimate of the population of the Roman Empire, from Spain to Asia Minor, in 14 A.D. is 45 million. However, other historians set the figure twice as high, suggesting how imprecise population estimates of early historical periods can be."
  36. ^ "The present figures are a revision and update of those presented on this website in 2003. The most significant changes are in the entries for the year 1, where gaps in previous tables have been filled with the new estimates for the Roman Empire in Maddison (2007). The estimates are in fact for 14 AD"
  37. ^ Data from History Database of the Global Environment. K. Klein Goldewijk, A. Beusen and P. Janssen, "HYDE 3.1: Long-term dynamic modeling of global population and built-up area in a spatially explicit way", from table on pg. 2, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP), Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
  38. ^ The estimates are in fact for 14 AD"
  39. ^ "Ban Biao - Chinese official". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
  40. ^ Sanders, E. P. (1993). The Historical Figure of Jesus (1st ed.). London: Allen Lane. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0713990591.
  41. ^ Mommsen 1996.
  42. ^ Roberts, John. The Oxford dictionary of the classical world. Oxford University Press. p. 799. ISBN 9780192801463.

Sources[edit]

  • Declercq, Georges (2000). Anno Domini: The origins of the Christian Era. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols. pp. 143–147. ISBN 978-2503510507.
  • Declercq, Georges (2002). "Dionysius Exiguus and the introduction of the Christian Era". Sacris Erudiri. Brussels: Brepols. 41: 165–246. doi:10.1484/J.SE.2.300491. ISSN 0771-7776. Annotated version of a portion of Anno Domini
  • Dunn, James D. G. (2003). Jesus Remembered. Christianity in the Making. 1. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 324. ISBN 978-0802839312.