Bonn

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This article is about the city in Germany. For other uses, see Bonn (disambiguation).
Bonn
Beethoven Monument, Villa Hammerschmidt, Old City Hall, Poppelsdorf Palace, panoramic view over Bonn and the Electoral Palace, now seat of the University of Bonn (clockwise from top left).
Beethoven Monument, Villa Hammerschmidt, Old City Hall, Poppelsdorf Palace, panoramic view over Bonn and the Electoral Palace, now seat of the University of Bonn (clockwise from top left).
Flag of Bonn
Flag
Coat of arms of Bonn
Coat of arms
Bonn  is located in Germany
Bonn
Bonn
Coordinates: 50°44′02.37″N 7°5′59.33″E / 50.7339917°N 7.0998139°E / 50.7339917; 7.0998139Coordinates: 50°44′02.37″N 7°5′59.33″E / 50.7339917°N 7.0998139°E / 50.7339917; 7.0998139
Country Germany
State North Rhine-Westphalia
Admin. region Cologne
District Urban district
Founded 1st century BC
Government
 • Lord Mayor Ashok-Alexander Sridharan (CDU)
Area
 • Total 141.06 km2 (54.46 sq mi)
Population (2015-12-31)[1]
 • Total 318,809
 • Density 2,300/km2 (5,900/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 53111–53229
Dialling codes 0228
Vehicle registration BN
Website www.bonn.de

The Federal City of Bonn (German pronunciation: [ˈbɔn]) is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of 311,287. Bonn is in the southernmost part of the Rhine-Ruhr region, Germany's largest metropolitan area, with over 11 million inhabitants.

Founded in the first century BC as a Roman settlement, Bonn is one of Germany's oldest cities. From 1597 to 1794, Bonn was the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and residence of the Archbishops and Prince-electors of Cologne. In 1949, the Parliamentary Council drafted and adopted the German constitution, the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany in Bonn. Though Berlin was symbolically named the de jure capital, from 1949 to 1990 Bonn was the seat of government and de facto capital of West Germany. From 1990 to 1999, Bonn served as the seat of government of reunited Germany. In recognition of its former status as German capital, it holds the name of Federal City (Bundesstadt). Bonn currently shares the status of Germany's seat of government with Berlin, with the President, the Chancellor and many government ministries maintaining substantial presences in Bonn.

The two DAX-listed corporations Deutsche Post DHL and Deutsche Telekom have headquarters in Bonn. The city is also the location of 19 United Nations institutions and the University of Bonn. Bonn is the birthplace of Ludwig van Beethoven (born 1770).

Geography[edit]

View over central Bonn as seen from the Stadthaus, including the Siebengebirge, a hill range on the east bank of the Middle Rhine.

Topography[edit]

Situated in the southernmost part of the Rhine-Ruhr region, Germany's largest metropolitan area with over 11 million inhabitants, Bonn lies within the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, close to the border with Rhineland-Palatinate. Spanning an area of more 141.2 km2 (55 sq mi) on both sides of the river Rhine, almost three quarters of the city lie on the river's left bank.

To the south and to the west, Bonn is bordering the Eifel region which encompasses the Rhineland Nature Park. To the north, Bonn borders the Cologne Lowland. Natural borders are constituted by the river Sieg to the north-east and by the Siebengebirge (also known as the Seven Hills) to the east. The largest extension of the city in north-south dimensions is 15 km (9 mi) and 12.5 km (8 mi) in west-east dimensions. The city borders have a total length of 61 km (38 mi). The geographical centre of Bonn is the Bundeskanzlerplatz (Chancellor Square) in Bonn-Gronau.

Administration[edit]

The German state of North Rhine-Westphalia is divided into five governmental districts (Regierungsbezirk), and Bonn is part of the governmental district of Cologne (Regierungsbezirk Köln). Within this governmental district, the city of Bonn is an urban district in its own right. The urban district of Bonn is then again divided into four administrative municipal districts (Stadtbezirk). These are Bonn, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Bonn-Beuel, and Bonn-Hardtberg. In 1969, the independent towns of Bad Godesberg and Beuel as well as several villages were incorporated into Bonn, resulting in a city more than twice as large as before.

Administrative divisions of the Federal City of Bonn
Municipal district (Stadtbezirk) Coat of arms Population (as of December 2014)[2] Sub-district (Stadtteil)
Bad Godesberg Wappen des Stadtbezirks Bad Godesberg 73.172 Alt-Godesberg, Friesdorf, Godesberg-Nord, Godesberg-Villenviertel, Heiderhof, Hochkreuz, Lannesdorf, Mehlem, Muffendorf, Pennenfeld, Plittersdorf, Rüngsdorf, Schweinheim
Beuel Wappen des Stadtbezirks Beuel 66.695 Beuel-Mitte, Beuel-Ost, Geislar, Hoholz, Holtorf, Holzlar, Küdinghoven, Limperich, Oberkassel, Pützchen/Bechlinghoven, Ramersdorf, Schwarzrheindorf/Vilich-Rheindorf, Vilich, Vilich-Müldorf
Bonn Wappen des Stadtbezirks Bonn 149.733 Auerberg, Bonn-Castell (until 2003: Bonn-Nord), Bonn-Zentrum, Buschdorf, Dottendorf, Dransdorf, Endenich, Graurheindorf, Gronau, Ippendorf, Kessenich, Lessenich/Meßdorf, Nordstadt, Poppelsdorf, Röttgen, Südstadt, Tannenbusch, Ückesdorf, Venusberg, Weststadt
Hardtberg Wappen des Stadtbezirks Hardtberg 33.360 Brüser Berg, Duisdorf, Hardthöhe, Lengsdorf

Climate[edit]

Bonn has an oceanic climate (Cfb). In the south of the Cologne lowland in the Rhine valley, Bonn is in one of Germany's warmest regions.

Climate data for Bonn
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.4
(36.3)
2.8
(37)
6.3
(43.3)
9.7
(49.5)
14.0
(57.2)
16.7
(62.1)
18.8
(65.8)
18.3
(64.9)
14.6
(58.3)
10.5
(50.9)
6.2
(43.2)
3.1
(37.6)
10.3
(50.5)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 61.0
(2.402)
54.0
(2.126)
64.0
(2.52)
54.0
(2.126)
72.0
(2.835)
86.0
(3.386)
78.0
(3.071)
78.0
(3.071)
72.0
(2.835)
63.0
(2.48)
66.0
(2.598)
68.0
(2.677)
816.0
(32.126)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 51.0 76.0 110.0 163.0 190.0 195.0 209.0 194.0 141.0 104.0 55.0 41.0 1,529
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst (Bonn-Rohleber, period 1971- 2010)

History[edit]

Founding and Roman times[edit]

The Sterntor, originally built around 1244, is a gate reconstructed on the remnants of the medieval city wall.

The history of the city dates back to Roman times. In about 12 BC, the Roman army appears to have stationed a small unit in what is presently the historical centre of the city. Even earlier, the army had resettled members of a Germanic tribal group allied with Rome, the Ubii, in Bonn. The Latin name for that settlement, "Bonna", may stem from the original population of this and many other settlements in the area, the Eburoni. The Eburoni were members of a large tribal coalition effectively wiped out during the final phase of Caesar's War in Gaul. After several decades, the army gave up the small camp linked to the Ubii-settlement. During the 1st century AD, the army then chose a site to the north of the emerging town in what is now the section of Bonn-Castell to build a large military installation dubbed Castra Bonnensis, i.e., literally, "Fort Bonn". Initially built from wood, the fort was eventually rebuilt in stone. With additions, changes and new construction, the fort remained in use by the army into the waning days of the Western Roman Empire, possibly the mid-5th century. The structures themselves remained standing well into the Middle Ages, when they were called the Bonnburg. They were used by Frankish kings until they fell into disuse. Eventually, much of the building materials seem to have been re-used in the construction of Bonn's 13th-century city wall. The Sterntor (star gate) in the city center is a reconstruction using the last remnants of the medieval city wall.

To date, Bonn's Roman fort remains the largest fort of its type known from the ancient world, i.e. a fort built to accommodate a full-strength Imperial Legion and its auxiliaries. The fort covered an area of approximately 250,000 square metres (62 acres). Between its walls it contained a dense grid of streets and a multitude of buildings, ranging from spacious headquarters and large officers' quarters to barracks, stables and a military jail. Among the legions stationed in Bonn, the "1st", i.e. the Prima Legio Minervia, seems to have served here the longest. Units of the Bonn legion were deployed to theatres of war ranging from modern-day Algeria to what is now the Russian republic of Chechnya.

The chief Roman road linking the provincial capitals of Cologne and Mainz cut right through the fort where it joined the fort's main road (now,

The Altes Rathaus (old city hall) as seen from Münsterplatz, the central market square. It was built in 1737 in Rococo-style.

Römerstraße). Once past the South Gate, the Cologne–Mainz road continued along what are now streets named Belderberg, Adenauerallee et al. On both sides of the road, the local settlement, Bonna, grew into a sizeable Roman town.

In late antiquity, much of the town seems to have been destroyed by marauding invaders. The remaining civilian population then took refuge inside the fort along with the remnants of the troops stationed here. During the final decades of Imperial rule, the troops were supplied by Franci chieftains employed by the Roman administration. When the end came, these troops simply shifted their allegiances to the new barbarian rulers, the Kingdom of the Franks. From the fort, the Bonnburg, as well as from a new medieval settlement to the South centered around what later became the minster, grew the medieval city of Bonn. Local legends arose from this period that the name of the village came from Saint Boniface via Vulgar Latin *Bonnifatia, but this proved to be a myth.

Middle Ages and Early Modern times[edit]

Founded in 1818, the University of Bonn counts Nietzsche, Marx, and German chancellor Adenauer among its alumni.

Between the 11th and 13th centuries, the Romanesque style Bonn Minster was built, and in 1597 Bonn became the seat of the Archdiocese of Cologne. The city gained more influence and grew considerably. The city was subject to a major bombardment during the Siege of Bonn in 1689. The elector Clemens August (ruled 1723–1761) ordered the construction of a series of Baroque buildings which still give the city its character. Another memorable ruler was Max Franz (ruled 1784–1794), who founded the university and the spa quarter of Bad Godesberg. In addition he was a patron of the young Ludwig van Beethoven, who was born in Bonn in 1770; the elector financed the composer's first journey to Vienna.

In 1794, the city was seized by French troops, becoming a part of the First French Empire. In 1815 following the Napoleonic Wars, Bonn became part of the Kingdom of Prussia. Administered within the Prussian Rhine Province, the city became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the Prussian-led unification of Germany. Bonn was of little relevance in these years.

20th century and time as the capital of West Germany[edit]

During World War II, Bonn acquired military significance because of its strategic location on the Rhine River, which formed a natural barrier to easy penetration into the German heartland from the west. The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Bonn on 7 March 1945, and the US 1st Infantry Division captured the city during the battle of 8–9 March 1945.[3]

French president Charles de Gaulle on state visit to Bonn (1962), the capital of West Germany until German reunification.

Following World War II, Bonn was in the British zone of occupation. Following the advocacy of West Germany's first chancellor, Konrad Adenauer, a former Cologne Mayor and a native of that area, Bonn became the de facto capital of the newly formed Federal Republic of Germany in 1949. This was despite the fact that Frankfurt already had most of the required facilities and using Bonn was estimated to be 95 million DM more expensive than using Frankfurt. However, Adenauer and other prominent politicians intended to make Berlin the capital of the reunified Germany, and felt that locating the capital in a major city like Frankfurt or Hamburg would imply a permanent capital and weaken support in West Germany for reunification.

In 1949, the Parliamentary Council drafted and adopted the German constitution, the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, which is valid in Germany till today. As the political centre of West Germany, Bonn saw six Chancellors and six Presidents of the Federal Republic of Germany. The period of time when Bonn was the capital of West Germany is commonly referred to as the Bonn Republic, in contrast to the Berlin Republic which followed reunification in 1990.[4]

After German reunification in 1990[edit]

Between 1950 and 1994, Villa Hammerschmidt was the official residence of the President of Germany. Today it serves as their second residence.

German reunification in 1990 made Berlin the nominal capital of Germany again. This decision did not mandate that the republic's political institutions would also move. While some argued for the seat of government to move to Berlin, others advocated leaving it in Bonn—a situation roughly analogous to that of the Netherlands, where Amsterdam is the capital but The Hague is the seat of government. Berlin's previous history as united Germany's capital was strongly connected with Imperial Germany, the Weimar Republic and more ominously with Nazi Germany. It was felt that a new peacefully united Germany should not be governed from a city connected to such overtones of war. Additionally, Bonn was closer to Brussels, headquarters of the European Union. Former chancellor Willy Brandt caused considerable offence to the Western Allies during the debate by stating that France wouldn't have kept the seat of government at Vichy after Liberation.

The heated debate that resulted was settled by the Bundestag (Germany's parliament) only on 20 June 1991. By a vote of 338–320,[5] the Bundestag voted to move the seat of government to Berlin. The vote broke largely along regional lines, with legislators from the south and west favouring Bonn and legislators from the north and east voting for Berlin.[6][7] It also broke along generational lines as well; older legislators with memories of Berlin's past glory favoured Berlin, while younger legislators favoured Bonn. Ultimately, the votes of the Ossi legislators tipped the balance in favour of Berlin.[8]

From 1990 to 1999, Bonn served as the seat of government of reunited Germany. In recognition of its former status as German capital, it holds the name of Federal City (Bundesstadt). Bonn currently shares the status of Germany's seat of government with Berlin, with the President, the Chancellor and many government ministries maintaining substantial presences in Bonn. Over 8,000 of the 18,000 federal officials remain in Bonn.[9] A total of 19 United Nations (UN) institutions operate from Bonn today.

Politics[edit]

Son of a German mother and an Indian father, Ashok Alexander Sridharan (CDU) is the mayor of Bonn since 2015.

The city council of Bonn used to be based in the Rococo-style and 1737 built Altes Rauthaus (old city hall) adjacent to Münsterplatz, Bonn's central market square. However, due to the enlargement of Bonn in 1969 through the incorporation of Beuel and Bad Godesberg, it moved into the larger Stadthaus facilities further up north. This was necessary for the city council to accommodate the risen number of representatives. The mayor of Bonn still sits in the Altes Rathaus, which is also used for representative and official purposes.

City council[edit]

As of the 2014-2020 election cycle, the Christian Democrats (CDU) hold the majority of mandates in the city council (27 seats), followed by the Social Democrats (SPD) with 20 seats, the Greens (Bündnis '90/Die Grünen) with 16 seats, the Liberals (FDP) with 7 seats, the Left (Die Linke) with 5 seats, the local Bürgerbund Bonn with 4 seats, the Alternative for Germany (AfD) with 3 seats, and independent candidates with a total of 4 seats. There are currently 86 seats in the city council of Bonn.

The Stadthaus, siège of the city council of Bonn.

The mayor is Ashok-Alexander Sridharan (CDU), directly elected in 2015.[10]

Landtag election[edit]

Four delegates represent the Federal city of Bonn in the Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia. The last election took place in May 2012. The current delegates are Bernhard von Grünberg (SPD),Renate Hendricks (SPD), Joachim Stamp (FDP) and Rolf Beu (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen).

The next Landtag elections take place in May 2017.[11]

German federal election[edit]

Bonn forms the constituency of Bundeswahlkreis Bonn (096). During the German federal election 2013, the residents of Bonn have given their direct mandate in the German Federal parliament, the Bundestag, to Ulrich Kelber (SPD) for the fourth consecutive time. Additionally, Katja Dörner (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen) and Claudia Lücking-Michel (CDU) received a mandate through the regional list of candidates for election to the Federal Parliament.

The next federal election takes place in autumn 2017.

Culture and sights[edit]

Beethoven's birthplace is located in Bonngasse near the market place. Next to the market place is the Old City Hall, built in 1737 in Rococo style, under the rule of Clemens August of Bavaria. It is used for receptions of guests of the city, and as an office for the mayor. Nearby is the Kurfürstliches Schloss, built as a residence for the prince-elector and now the main building of the University of Bonn.

Erected in the 11th and 13th century, the Roman Catholic Minster of Bonn is one of Germany's oldest churches.

The Poppelsdorfer Allee is an avenue flanked by chestnut trees which had the first horsecar of the city. It connects the Kurfürstliches Schloss with the Poppelsdorfer Schloss, a palace that was built as a resort for the prince-electors in the first half of the 18th century, and whose grounds are now a botanical garden (the Botanischer Garten Bonn). This axis is interrupted by a railway line and Bonn Hauptbahnhof, a building erected in 1883/84.

The Beethoven Monument stands on the Münsterplatz, which is flanked by the Bonn Minster, one of Germany's oldest churches.

The three highest buildings in the city are the radio mast of WDR in Bonn-Venusberg (180 m), the headquarters of the Deutsche Post called Post Tower (162.5 m) and the former building for the German members of parliament Langer Eugen (114.7 m) now the new location of the UN Campus.

Churches[edit]

Castles and residences[edit]

Modern buildings[edit]

Museums[edit]

Nature[edit]

Infrastructure[edit]

Air traffic[edit]

Named after German chancellor Konrad Adenauer, Cologne/Bonn Airport is situated 15 km (9 mi) north-east from the city centre of Bonn. The federal motorway A59 connects the airport with the city. Integrated into the railway system of Deutsche Bahn, long distance and regional trains to and from the airport stop at Cologne/Bonn Airport station.

Rail and bus system[edit]

Road network[edit]

Port[edit]

Economy[edit]

Being one of the biggest employers in the region, Deutsche Post DHL have their headquarters in Bonn.

The head offices of Deutsche Telekom, its subsidiary T-Mobile,[26] Deutsche Post, Haribo, German Academic Exchange Service, and SolarWorld are in Bonn.

Education[edit]

Offices of DFG, an important research funding organisation

The Rheinische Friedrich Wilhelms Universität Bonn (University of Bonn) is one of the largest universities in Germany. It is also the location of the German research institute Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) offices and of the German Academic Exchange Service (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst – DAAD).

Private schools[edit]

Winter in Bonn, seen from the International Space Station

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011, Bonn had a population of 327,913. About 70% of the population was entirely of German origin, while about 100,000 people, equating to roughly 30%, were at least partly of non-German origin. The city is one of the fastest-growing municipalities in Germany and the 18th most populous city in the country. Bonn's population is predicted to surpass the populations of Wuppertal and Bochum before the year 2030.[28]

The following list shows the largest groups of foreign residents in Bonn as of 2015 by nationalities.[29]

Rank Nationality Population (2015)
1  Turkey 8,370
2  Poland 7,390
3  Morocco 5,705
4  Syria 4,652
Deutsche Telekom head office

Sports[edit]

Bonn is home of the Telekom Baskets Bonn, the only basketball club in Germany that owns its arena, the Telekom Dome.[30] The club is a regular participant at international competitions such as the Eurocup.

The city also has an amateur football team Bonner SC which was formed in 1965 through the merger of Bonner FV and Tura Bonn.

International relations[edit]

Since 1983, the City of Bonn has established friendship relations with the City of Tel Aviv, Israel, and since 1988 Bonn, in former times the residence of the Princes Electors of Cologne, and Potsdam, Germany, the formerly most important residential city of the Prussian rulers, have established a city-to-city partnership.

Central Bonn is surrounded by a number of traditional towns and villages which were independent up to several decades ago. As many of those communities had already established their own contacts and partnerships before the regional and local reorganisation in 1969, the Federal City of Bonn now has a dense network of city district partnerships with European partner towns.

The city district of Bonn is a partner of the English university city of Oxford, England, UK (since 1947), of Budafok, District XXII of Budapest, Hungary (since 1991) and of Opole, Poland (officially since 1997; contacts were established 1954).

The district of Bad Godesberg has established partnerships with Saint-Cloud in France, Frascati in Italy, Windsor and Maidenhead in England, UK and Kortrijk in Belgium; a friendship agreement has been signed with the town of Yalova, Turkey.

The district of Beuel on the right bank of the Rhine and the city district of Hardtberg foster partnerships with towns in France: Mirecourt and Villemomble.

Moreover, the city of Bonn has developed a concept of international co-operation and maintains sustainability oriented project partnerships in addition to traditional city twinning, among others with Minsk in Belarus, Ulaanbaatar in Mongolia, Bukhara in Uzbekistan, Chengdu in China and La Paz in Bolivia.

Twin towns—Sister cities[edit]

The city Bonn is twinned with:[31]

The city district Bonn has partnerships with:

Further, the city Bonn has subject-specific project partnerships with:

Notable residents[edit]

Up to the 19th century[edit]

  • Johann Peter Salomon *? (baptized 20 February 1745), † 25 November 1815 in London, musician
  • Franz Anton Ries, * November 10, 1755 † 1 November 1846 in Bonn, violinist and violin teacher
  • Ludwig van Beethoven, * December 16, 1770 † 26 March 1827 in Vienna, composer
  • Salomon Oppenheim, Jr., * June 19, 1772 † November 8, 1828 in Mainz, banker
  • Peter Joseph Lenné, * September 29, 1789 † 23 January 1866 in Potsdam, gardener and landscape architect
  • Friedrich von Gerolt, * March 5, 1797 † July 27, 1879 in Linz, German diplomat
  • Karl Joseph Simrock * August 28, 1802, † 18 July 1876 in Bonn, writer and specialist in German
  • Wilhelm Neuland, * July 1806 in Bonn, † December, 28, 1889 in Bonn, composer and conductor
  • Johanna Kinkel, * July 8, 1810 † 15 November 1858 in London, composer and writer
  • Moses Hess, * June 21, 1812, † April 6, 1875 in Paris, philosopher and writer
  • Johann Gottfried Kinkel, * August 11, 1815, † 12 November 1882 in Zürich, theologian, writer and politician
  • Alexander Kaufmann, * May 14, 1817; † 1 May 1893 in Wertheim, author and archivist
  • Leopold Kaufmann, * March 13, 1821, † 27 February 1898 in Bonn, Mayor
  • Julius von Haast, * May 1, 1822 † 16 August 1887 in Christchurch, New Zealand, Professor of Geology
  • Dietrich Brandis, * March 31, 1824 † 28 May 1907 in Bonn, botanist
  • Balduin Möllhausen * 27 January 1825, † 28 May 1905 in Berlin, traveler and writer
  • Maurus Wolter, * June 4, 1825 † July 8, 1890 in Beuron, Benedictine, founder and first abbot of the Abbey of Beuron and Beuronese Congregation
  • August Reifferscheid, * October 3, 1835 in Bonn; † 10 November 1887 in Strasbourg, philologist
  • Antonius Maria Bodewig, * November 2, 1839 † January 8, 1915 in Rome, Jesuit missionary and Founder
  • Nathan Zuntz, * October 7, 1847 † 23 March 1920 in Berlin, physicians
  • Alexander Koenig, * February 20, 1858 in St. Petersburg; † July 16, 1940 in Good Blücherhof, Klocksin, Mecklenburg, German zoologist and founder of today's Museum Koenig in Bonn
  • Alfred Philippson * January 1, 1864, † 28 March 1953 in Bonn, geographer
  • Johanna Elberskirchen, * April 11, 1864, † 17 May 1943 in Rüdersdorf, feminist writer and activist
  • Max Alsberg * October 16, 1877, † 10 September 1933, lawyer
  • Kurt Wolff * March 3, 1887, † 21 October 1963, publisher
  • Hans Riegel (senior), * April 3, 1893 in Friesland village (now part of Bonn), † 31 March 1945, entrepreneur
  • Eduard Krebsbach, * August 8, 1894 † May 28, 1947 in Landsberg am Lech, doctor in the concentration camp Mauthausen
  • Paul Kemp, * May 20, 1896 in Bad Godesberg (now part of Bonn), † 13 August 1953 in Bonn, actor

20th century[edit]

1900-1950[edit]

  • Hermann Josef Abs * October 15, 1901, † February 5, 1994 in Bad Soden am Taunus, Board member of the Deutsche Bank
  • Paul Ludwig Landsberg, born December 3, 1901 † April 2, 1944 in Sachsenhausen concentration camp, philosopher
  • Heinrich Lützeler, born January 27, 1902, † 13 June 1988 in Bonn, philosopher, art historian, literary scholar
  • Theodor Schieffer * June 11, 1910 (Bad Godesberg), † April 9, 1992, historian and medievalist
  • Irene Sänger-Bredt born Bredt, born April 24, 1911 † 20 October 1983 in Stuttgart, mathematician and physicist
  • Ernst Friedrich Schumacher, born August 16, 1911 † 4 September 1977 in the train between Geneva and Lausanne, economist
  • Klaus Barbie * October 25, 1913 (Bad Godesberg), † 25 September 1991 in Lyon, the "Butcher of Lyon"
  • Karl-Theodor Molinari, born February 7, 1915 † 11 December 1993 in Dortmund, General and Founding Chairman of the German Armed Forces Association
  • Karlrobert Kreiten, born June 26, 1916 in Bad Godesberg, † September 7, 1943 in Berlin-Plotzensee, Pianist
  • Hannjo Hasse, born August 31, 1921 † February 5, 1983 in Falkirk, German actor
  • Walter Gotell, March 15, 1924, actor † 5 May 1997
  • Walter Eschweiler, born September 20, 1935 Football Referees
  • Alexandra Cordes, born November 16, 1935 † 27 October 1986 in Châteauneuf-du-Pape, writer
  • Joachim Bißmeier, born November 22, 1936 Actor
  • Roswitha Esser * 18 January 1941, canoeist, gold medal winner at the Olympic Games in 1964 and 1968 Sportswoman of the Year 1964
  • Heide Simonis * July 4, 1943, former Prime Minister of Schleswig-Holstein, since 2005 honorary chairman of UNICEF Germany
  • Paul Alger * August 13, 1943, football player
  • Johannes Mötsch * July 8, 1949, archivist and historian in Meiningen
  • Klaus Ludwig * October 5, 1949, race car driver

1951 up to present[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Amtliche Bevölkerungszahlen". Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW (in German). 18 July 2016. 
  2. ^ "Wohnberechtigte Bevölkerung in der Stadt Bonn am 31.12.2014". bonn.de (in German). Stadt Bonn. Retrieved 2016-02-02. 
  3. ^ Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939–1946 (Revised Edition, 2006), Stackpole Books, p. 76.
  4. ^ Caborn, Joannah (2006). Schleichende Wende. Diskurse von Nation und Erinnerung bei der Konstituierung der Berliner Republik. p. 12. 
  5. ^ "Bonn to Berlin move still controversial", The Local, "Published 11 June 2011". Retrieved 01-02-12.
  6. ^ "Nationalatlas aktuell", "Hauptstadtbeschluss" by Sebastian Lentz, "Published 17 Juni 2011". Retrieved 9-20-12.
  7. ^ Laux, Hans-Dieter, "Berlin oder Bonn? Geographische Aspekte eine Parlamentsentscheidung", "Geographische Rundschau", 43:12, 740–743, 1991.
  8. ^ Thompson, Wayne C. (2008). The World Today Series: Nordic, Central and Southeastern Europe 2008. Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications. ISBN 978-1-887985-95-6. 
  9. ^ Cowell, Alan (2011-06-23). "In Germany's Capitals, Cold War Memories and Imperial Ghosts". The New York Times. 
  10. ^ Germany, SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg. "Neuer Oberbürgermeister: CDU-Kandidat in Bonn gewählt - SPIEGEL ONLINE - Politik". SPIEGEL ONLINE. Retrieved 2017-01-13. 
  11. ^ Bonn, Bundesstadt. "Stadt Bonn - NRW-Landtagswahl 2017 findet am 14. Mai statt". www.bonn.de. Retrieved 2017-01-13. 
  12. ^ "Das Bonner Münster @ Kirche in der City". Bonner-muenster.de. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
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