1660 in science
- November 28 – At Gresham College in London, twelve men, including Christopher Wren, Robert Boyle, John Wilkins, and Robert Moray, meet after a lecture by Wren and resolve to found "a College for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematicall Experimentall Learning", which will become the Royal Society.
- John Ray publishes Catalogus plantarum circa Cantabrigiam nascentium in Cambridge, the first flora of an English county.
- Robert Boyle publishes New Experiments Physico-Mechanicall, Touching the Spring of the Air and its Effects (the second edition in 1662 will contain Boyle's Law).
- February 19 – Friedrich Hoffmann, German physician and chemist (died 1742)
- April 16 – Hans Sloane, Ulster Scots-born collector and physician (died 1753)
- March 15 – Olof Rudbeck the Younger, Swedish naturalist (died 1740)
- May 27 (bapt.) – Francis Hauksbee, English scientific instrument maker and experimentalist (died 1713)
- approx. date – Edward Lhuyd, Welsh naturalist (died 1709)
- Date unknown – Jeanne Dumée, French astronomer (born 1660)
- May 29 – Frans van Schooten, Dutch Cartesian mathematician (born 1615)
- June 30 – William Oughtred, English mathematician who invented the slide rule (born 1574)
- Jean-Jacques Chifflet, French physician and antiquary (born 1588)
- Walter Rumsey, Welsh judge and amateur scientist (born 1584)
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- Egerton, Frank N. (October 2005). "A History of the Ecological Sciences, Part 18: John Ray and His Associates Francis Willughby and William Derham" (PDF). Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America: 301–313.