1876 in Wales
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- Prince of Wales — Albert Edward
- Princess of Wales — Alexandra
- Archdruid of the National Eisteddfod of Wales — Clwydfardd
- January — Argentine government appoints Antonio Oneto as civil authority over the Welsh colony in Patagonia, the population of which numbers 690.
- 9 January — The death of John Russell, Viscount Amberley, leaves Bertrand Russell an orphan.
- June — Francis Kilvert becomes vicar of Saint Harmon, Radnorshire.
- 13 July — Act of Parliament allows the North Wales Narrow Gauge Railways Company to abandon plans for a line between Croesor Junction and Betws-y-Coed.
- 19 August — Judge John Johnes is murdered at his home on Dolaucothi Estate by his butler.
- 2 December — Cardiff RFC plays its first match, against Newport.
- 18 December — In a mining accident at South Wales Pit, Abertillery, twenty men are killed.
Arts and literature
- George Thomas Orlando Bridgeman — History of the Princes of South Wales
- Eos Bradwen — Bugeiles yr Wyddfa
- Joseph Parry composes the hymn tune Aberystwyth (published 1879) which becomes the basis of the pan-African anthem Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika
- February — Llewelyn Kenrick sets up the Football Association of Wales, in response to a challenge issued by The Field magazine, to organize an international match between Wales and Scotland or Ireland.
- 25 March — Wales play first international football match, against Scotland in Glasgow, losing 4–0.
- Formation of Caernarfon athletics club, later Caernarfon Town.
- Rugby union — Aberavon RFC, Cardiff RFC, Cardigan RFC, Llandaff RFC, Merthyr RFC and Pontypridd RFC are established.
- 7 March — Edgar Evans, naval petty officer and Antarctic explorer (died 1912)
- 19 June — Joe Pullman, Wales international rugby union player (died 1955)
- 22 June — Gwen John, artist (died 1939)
- 15 July
- 24 July — Viv Huzzey, Welsh international rugby union player (died 1929)
- 18 September — Charles Kemeys-Tynte, 8th Baron Wharton (died 1934)
- 17 November — Dicky Owen, Welsh international rugby union player (died 1932)
- 24 February — Joseph Jenkins Roberts, President of Liberia, son of a Welsh planter, 66
- April — Frances Bunsen, painter, 84
- 2 May — Daniel Thomas Williams (Tydfylyn), poet and musician (born 1820)
- 19 July — George E. Pugh, Welsh-American politician, 53
- 9 November — John David Jenkins, philanthropist, 58
- 17 November — Thomas Rees (Twm Carnabwth), leader of Rebecca Riots
- 20 November — Robert Herbert Williams (Corfanydd), musician (born 1805)
- 25 December — Adrian Stephens, inventor of the steam whistle, 81