|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|232 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||232 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||522|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXXIII dynasty, 92|
|- Pharaoh||Ptolemy III Euergetes, 15|
|Ancient Greek era||137th Olympiad (victor)¹|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||戊辰年 (Earth Dragon)|
2465 or 2405
— to —
己巳年 (Earth Snake)
2466 or 2406
|Coptic calendar||−515 – −514|
|Ethiopian calendar||−239 – −238|
|- Vikram Samvat||−175 – −174|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2869–2870|
|Iranian calendar||853 BP – 852 BP|
|Islamic calendar||879 BH – 878 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2143 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||80/81 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||311–312|
−105 or −486 or −1258
— to —
−104 or −485 or −1257
Year 232 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Lepidus and Melleolus (or, less frequently, year 522 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 232 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- The Seleucid king Seleucus II Callinicus undertakes an expedition into the interior of Iran to try to regain Parthia, but his efforts come to nothing. According to some sources, he is even taken prisoner for several years by the Parthian king, Arsaces I. Other sources mention that he establishes a peace with Arsaces I by recognising his sovereignty over Parthia.
- Despite the opposition of the Roman Senate and of his own father, the Roman political leader Gaius Flaminius wins the passage of a measure to distribute land among the plebeians. The Romans decide to parcel out land north of Rome (the Ager Gallicus) into small holdings for its poorer citizens whose farms have fallen into ruin during the First Punic War.
- Following the death of his mentor, Cleanthes of Assos, Chrysippus of Soli succeeds him as the third head of the Stoic school. The many writings of Chrysippus, about the Stoic doctrines, will later earn him the title of Second Founder of Stoicism.
- Xiang Yu, Chinese rebel general against the Qin Dynasty, as well as the later nemesis of Liu Bang in the civil war of the Chu-Han contention (d. 202 BC)
- Ashoka, Indian emperor, who has ruled the Maurya Empire across the Indian subcontinent from 273 BC (b. 304 BC)
- Cleanthes of Assos, Stoic philosopher who has been the head of the Stoic school from 263 BC, after the death of Zeno of Citium (b. c. 301 BC)