27 Club

Page semi-protected
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

27 Club street mural in Tel Aviv by John Kiss, depicting several well-known members of the club. Left to right: Brian Jones, Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, Jim Morrison, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Kurt Cobain, and Amy Winehouse.[1]

The 27 Club is an informal list consisting mostly of popular musicians, artists, actors, and other celebrities who died at age 27.[2][3][4][5][6] Although the claim of a "statistical spike" for the death of musicians at that age has been refuted by scientific research, it remains a cultural phenomenon, with many celebrities who die at 27 noted for their high-risk lifestyles.

Cultural phenomenon

Beginning with the deaths of several 27-year-old popular musicians between 1969 and 1971 (such as Brian Jones, Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, and Jim Morrison), dying at the age of 27 came to be, and remains, a perennial subject of popular culture, celebrity journalism, and entertainment industry lore.[2][3] This cultural phenomenon, which came to be known as the "27 Club," attributes special significance to popular musicians, artists, actors, and other celebrities who died at age 27, often as a result of drug and alcohol abuse or violent means such as homicide, suicide, or transportation-related accidents.[7] The cultural phenomenon gave rise to an urban myth that celebrity deaths are more common at 27, a claim that has been refuted by statistical research as discussed in the § Scientific studies section below.[8][5]

History

Jim Morrison, lead singer of the rock band the Doors and among the first people associated with the 27 Club

Brian Jones, Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, and Jim Morrison all died at the age of 27 between 1969 and 1971. At the time, the coincidence gave rise to some comment,[9][10] but, according to Hendrix and Kurt Cobain's biographer, Charles R. Cross, "It wasn't until Kurt Cobain took his own life in 1994 that the idea of the 27 Club arrived in the popular zeitgeist."[11] Cross claims that the "launch of the Club concept" can be traced to the growing influence of the internet and sensational celebrity journalism on popular culture in the years following Cobain's death, as well as media interpretations of a statement by Cobain's mother, Wendy Fradenburg Cobain O'Connor, quoted in the local Aberdeen, Washington, newspaper The Daily World, and subsequently carried worldwide by the Associated Press: "Now he's gone and joined that stupid club. I told him not to join that stupid club."[12]

R. Gary Patterson, chronicler of rock music urban myth, agreed with the interpretations of Cross and some contemporary journalists that Cobain's mother was referring to Hendrix, Joplin, and Morrison.[13][14][15] Others linked her quote to then-recent heroin-related deaths of fellow young Seattle rock musicians, such as Stefanie Sargent of 7 Year Bitch and Andrew Wood of Mother Love Bone.[16] On the other hand, Eric Segalstad, author of The 27s: The Greatest Myth of Rock & Roll, claimed that she was referring to the death of Cobain's two uncles and his great-uncle, all of whom had committed suicide.[17] Cross, himself, dismissed "the absurd notion that Kurt Cobain intentionally timed his death so he could join the 27 Club," noting that Cobain "had nearly died from drug overdoses on at least two dozen occasions in the year before his death... [and] made several previous suicide attempts at various ages.[11]

In 2011, seventeen years after Cobain's death, Amy Winehouse died at the age of 27, prompting a renewed swell of media attention devoted to the 27 Club.[18] Three years earlier, Winehouse's personal assistant, Alex Haines, told the British press that Winehouse, then 25, feared she would join Jim Morrison, Brian Jones, and Kurt Cobain in dying at 27: "She reckoned she would join the 27 Club of rock stars who died at that age. She told me, 'I have a feeling I'm gonna die young'."[19]

Scientific studies

Despite the cultural significance given to musician and celebrity deaths at age 27, the common claim that they are statistically more common at this age is an urban myth, refuted by scientific research.[2][3][4][5]

A study by university academics published in the British Medical Journal in December 2011 concluded that there was no increase in the risk of death for musicians at the age of 27, stating that there were equally small increases at ages 25 and 32. The study noted that young adult musicians have a higher death rate than the general young adult population, surmising that "fame may increase the risk of death among musicians, but this risk is not limited to age 27".[8]

A 2014 article at The Conversation suggested that statistical evidence shows popular musicians are most likely to die at the age of 56 (2.2% compared to 1.3% at 27).[5]

In popular culture

The 27 Club frequently appears by name and reference in popular culture and mass media. Several exhibitions have been devoted to the idea, as well as novels, films, stage plays, songs, video games, and comics.[20][21][6][22]

Music

  • The name of the song "27" by Fall Out Boy from their 2008 album Folie à Deux is a reference to the club. The lyrics explore the hedonistic lifestyles common in rock and roll. Pete Wentz, the primary lyricist of Fall Out Boy, wrote the song because he felt that he was living a similarly dangerous lifestyle.[23]
  • John Craigie's song "28", which appeared on his 2009 album Montana Tale, and 2018 live album Opening for Steinbeck, is written from the perspective of 27 Club members Jim Morrison, Janis Joplin, and Kurt Cobain, as each contemplates their respective mortality and imagines what they would do differently "if I could only make it to twenty eight."[24][25] Craigie wrote the song when he himself was age 27.[26]
  • The theme is referenced in the song "27 Forever" by Eric Burdon, on his 2013 album 'Til Your River Runs Dry.[27]
  • The band Letlive featured a song named "27 Club" on its 2013 album The Blackest Beautiful.[28]
  • Magenta's 2013 studio album The Twenty Seven Club directly references the club. Each track is a tribute to a member of the club.[29]
  • Daughtry's song "Long Live Rock & Roll" from their 2013 album Baptized references the club with the lyrics "they're forever 27 – Jimi, Janis, Brian Jones".[citation needed]
  • Rapper Watsky references the club on his 2014 song "All You Can Do" with the lyric, "I tried to join the 27 Club; they kicked me out." The song then goes on to reference members of the club; Amy Winehouse, Janis Joplin, Jimi Hendrix, Kurt Cobain, Jim Morrison, and Brian Jones.[citation needed]
  • Mac Miller's 2015 song "Brand Name" contains the lyric "To everyone who sell me drugs: Don't mix it with that bullshit; I'm hoping not to join the 27 Club".[citation needed] Miller died aged 26, after consuming counterfeit oxycodone pills that contained fentanyl.[30]
  • The song "27 Club" by Ivy Levan, released as a promotional single for her 2015 album No Good, refers to the club.[31]
  • Halsey's song "Colors," from her 2015 debut album, Badlands, includes the line "I hope you make it to the day you're 28 years old."[32]
  • JPEGMafia's 2016 album Black Ben Carson includes a song titled "The 27 Club", which the song refers to the club. He references members Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, and Kurt Cobain.[33]
  • Frank Ocean's 2016 song "Nights" features the lyric "No white lighters 'til I fuck my 28th up", referencing the white lighter myth associated with some members of the 27 club.[citation needed]
  • Adore Delano released a song called "27 Club" on her 2017 studio album Whatever, with the repeated lyric "All of the legends die at twenty seven." Delano was aged 27 at the time of release.[34]
  • In 2017, the MonaLisa Twins released "Club 27", a song on their album "Orange", about the 27 Club.[35]
  • Juice Wrld referenced the club on his 2018 song "Legends", where he says "What's the 27 Club? We ain't making it past 21." The song was dedicated to XXXTentacion, who was killed at 20, and Lil Peep, who died from an overdose at 21.[36]
  • The Pretty Reckless released a song titled "Rock and Roll Heaven" on their 2021 studio album Death by Rock and Roll. The song is about the club and mentions in the lyrics Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin and Jim Morrison. Frontwoman Taylor Momsen wrote the song after falling into a depressive state from the deaths of her producer Kato Khandwala and Chris Cornell, the latter of whom her band had opened for the night before his death.[37]
  • The Blind Channel song "Dark Side", the Finnish entry for the Eurovision Song Contest 2021, includes the lyrics "Like the 27 Club, headshot, we don't wanna grow up".[38]

Video games

  • In the 2016 video game Hitman, one of the in-game missions, Club 27, involves killing an indie musician who is celebrating his 27th birthday.[39]

Comics

  • A central plot device in the manga Shiori Experience, first published in 2013 by Yuko Osada, is a demonic ritual by which a person can make contact with the spirit of a musician from the 27 Club. In exchange, they must become a legend of similar caliber by their 28th birthday to avoid death. The series features characters haunted by members of the club, including Jimi Hendrix, Kurt Cobain, and Janis Joplin.
  • Cartoonist Luke McGarry created The 27 Club comic series for MAD Magazine, debuting in 2018.[40] The comics featured Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, Brian Jones, Robert Johnson, Amy Winehouse, Jim Morrison, and Kurt Cobain as paranormal pop stars descending from Rock & Roll Heaven to save the planet with the aid of mortal medium Keith Richards.

Identified members

Because the 27 Club is entirely notional, there is no official membership. The table below lists individuals explicitly described as "members" of the 27 Club by journalists and writers in various books and publications.

Some deaths linked to the 27 Club pre-date its emergence as a cultural phenomenon. Blues musician Robert Johnson, who died in 1938, is one of the earliest popular musicians included by various sources.[41][42]

Despite the club's original association with the deaths of popular musicians, later sources began to link actors, artists, athletes, and other celebrities to the 27 Club. Rolling Stone included television actor Jonathan Brandis, who committed suicide in 2003, in a list of 27 Club members.[42] Anton Yelchin, who had played in a punk rock band but was primarily known as a film actor, was also described as a member of the club upon his death in 2016.[43] Likewise, Jean-Michel Basquiat has been linked to the club despite being known primarily as a painter, with his music career being relatively brief and obscure.[44]

Purported 27 Club members
Name Date of birth Date of death Cause of death Fame Age Sources
Alexandre Levy November 10, 1864 January 17, 1892 Not recorded Composer, pianist and conductor 27 years, 68 days [45]
Louis Chauvin March 13, 1881 March 26, 1908 Neurosyphilitic sclerosis Ragtime musician 27 years, 13 days [45]
Rupert Brooke August 3, 1887 April 23, 1915 Sepsis Poet 27 years, 263 days [46]
Robert Johnson May 8, 1911 August 16, 1938 Unknown Blues singer and musician 27 years, 100 days [45][41]
Ghazi of Iraq March 21, 1912 April 4, 1939 Traffic accident, probable murder. King of Iraq 1933-1939 27 years, 14 days [47]
Nat Jaffe January 1, 1918 August 5, 1945 Complications from high blood pressure Swing jazz pianist 27 years, 216 days [45]
Jesse Belvin December 15, 1932 February 6, 1960 Car crash, suspected foul play R&B singer, pianist and songwriter 27 years, 53 days [45][48]
Rudy Lewis August 23, 1936 May 20, 1964 Drug overdose Vocalist of the Drifters 27 years, 271 days [49]
Joe Henderson April 24, 1937 October 24, 1964 Heart attack R&B and gospel singer 27 years, 183 days [50]
Malcolm Hale May 17, 1941 October 30, 1968 Carbon monoxide poisoning Original member and lead guitarist of Spanky and Our Gang 27 years, 166 days [45]
Dickie Pride October 21, 1941 March 26, 1969 Drug overdose Rock and roll singer 27 years, 156 days [51]
Brian Jones February 28, 1942 July 3, 1969 Drowning Rolling Stones founder, guitarist and multi-instrumentalist 27 years, 125 days [45][52][53][54]
Alan "Blind Owl" Wilson July 4, 1943 September 3, 1970 Drug overdose Leader, singer and primary composer of Canned Heat 27 years, 61 days [45]
Jimi Hendrix November 27, 1942 September 18, 1970 Asphyxia due to drug use Pioneering electric guitarist, singer and songwriter of the Jimi Hendrix Experience and Band of Gypsys 27 years, 295 days [45][55]
Janis Joplin January 19, 1943 October 4, 1970 Drug overdose Lead vocalist and songwriter of Big Brother and the Holding Company, the Kozmic Blues Band and Full Tilt Boogie Band 27 years, 258 days [45][56][57]
Arlester "Dyke" Christian June 13, 1943 March 13, 1971 Murder Frontman, vocalist and bassist of Dyke and the Blazers 27 years, 273 days [45]
Jim Morrison December 8, 1943 July 3, 1971 Heart failure Singer, lyricist, and leader of the Doors 27 years, 207 days [45][58]
Leslie Harvey September 14, 1944 May 3, 1972 Electrocution Guitarist in several Scottish bands, most notably Stone the Crows. 27 years, 232 days [45][59]
Ron "Pigpen" McKernan September 8, 1945 March 8, 1973 Gastrointestinal hemorrhage Founding member, keyboardist and singer of the Grateful Dead 27 years, 181 days [45]
Roger Lee Durham February 14, 1946 July 27, 1973 Horseriding accident Singer and percussionist of Bloodstone 27 years, 163 days [45]
Pamela Courson December 22, 1946 April 25, 1974 Drug overdose Long-term companion of Jim Morrison and heir to his estate 27 years, 124 days [42][60][61]
Wallace "Wally" Yohn January 12, 1947 August 12, 1974 Plane crash Organ player of Chase 27 years, 212 days [45]
Dave Alexander June 3, 1947 February 10, 1975 Pulmonary edema Bassist of the Stooges 27 years, 252 days [45]
Pete Ham April 27, 1947 April 24, 1975 Suicide Singer, songwriter, keyboardist and guitarist, leader of Badfinger 27 years, 362 days [45]
Gary Thain May 15, 1948 December 8, 1975 Drug overdose Former bassist of Uriah Heep and the Keef Hartley Band 27 years, 205 days [45]
Cecilia October 11, 1948 August 2, 1976 Car accident Singer-songwriter 27 years, 296 days [62][63]
Helmut Köllen March 2, 1950 May 3, 1977 Carbon monoxide poisoning Bassist of 1970s prog rock band Triumvirat 27 years, 62 days [45]
André Paiement June 28, 1950 January 23, 1978 Suicide Playwright and musician, member of progressive rock band CANO 27 years, 209 days [64][65]
Chris Bell January 12, 1951 December 27, 1978 Car accident Singer-songwriter and guitarist of power pop band Big Star and solo 27 years, 349 days [45]
Zenon De Fleur September 9, 1951 March 17, 1979 Car accident Guitarist of the Count Bishops 27 years, 189 days [50][66]
D. Boon April 1, 1958 December 22, 1985 Car accident Guitarist, lead singer of punk band Minutemen 27 years, 266 days [45]
Alexander Bashlachev May 27, 1960 February 17, 1988 Defenestration, possible suicide Poet, rock musician and songwriter 27 years, 266 days [62]
Amar Singh Chamkila July 21, 1960 March 8, 1988 Murder Singer, songwriter, musician, and composer 27 years, 231 days [67]
Jean-Michel Basquiat December 22, 1960 August 12, 1988 Drug overdose Painter and graffiti artist; formed the band Gray 27 years, 234 days [49]
Pete de Freitas August 2, 1961 June 14, 1989 Motorcycle accident Drummer of Echo & the Bunnymen 27 years, 316 days [45]
Finbarr Donnelly April 25, 1962 June 18, 1989 Drowning Singer of Five Go Down to the Sea? 27 years, 50 days [68]
Chris Austin February 24, 1964 March 16, 1991 Plane crash Country singer and guitarist/fiddle player for Reba McEntire 27 years, 20 days [69]
Dimitar Voev May 21, 1965 September 5, 1992 Cancer Poet, founder of the Bulgarian new wave band New Generation 27 years, 107 days [70]
Mia Zapata August 25, 1965 July 7, 1993 Murder Lead singer of the Gits 27 years, 316 days [45]
Kurt Cobain February 20, 1967 April 5, 1994 c. Suicide Founding member, lead singer, guitarist and songwriter of Nirvana 27 years, 44 days c. [45][56][71]
Kristen Pfaff May 26, 1967 June 16, 1994 Drug overdose Bass guitarist of Hole and Janitor Joe 27 years, 21 days [45]
Andrés Escobar March 13, 1967 July 2, 1994 Murder Footballer 27 years, 111 days [72][73][74]
Richey Edwards December 22, 1967 February 1, 1995 Disappeared; later declared legally dead Lyricist and guitarist of Manic Street Preachers 27 years, 41 days [45]
Stretch April 8, 1968 November 30, 1995 Murder Rapper 27 years, 236 days [75]
Fat Pat December 4, 1970 February 3, 1998 Murder American rapper and member of Screwed Up Click 27 years, 61 days [45]
Freaky Tah May 14, 1971 March 28, 1999 Murder American rapper and member of the hip-hop group Lost Boyz 27 years, 318 days [45]
Kami February 1, 1972 June 21, 1999 Subarachnoid hemorrhage Drummer of Malice Mizer 27 years, 140 days [76]
Sean Patrick McCabe November 13, 1972 August 28, 2000 Asphyxia Lead singer of Ink & Dagger 27 years, 289 days [45]
Rodrigo Bueno May 24, 1973 June 24, 2000 Car accident Cuarteto singer 27 years, 31 days [62]
María Serrano Serrano November 26, 1973 November 24, 2001 Plane crash Singer of Passion Fruit 27 years, 363 days [45]
Thuy Trang December 14, 1973 September 3, 2001 Car crash Vietnamese-American actress, known for her role as Trini Kwan on Mighty Morphin Power Rangers 27 years, 263 days [77]
Rico Yan March 14, 1975 March 29, 2002 Acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis Filipino actor 27 years, 15 days [45]
Jeremy Ward May 5, 1976 May 25, 2003 Drug overdose The Mars Volta and De Facto sound manipulator 27 years, 20 days [45]
Jonathan Brandis April 13, 1976 November 12, 2003 Suicide American actor 27 years, 213 days [42]
Andrea Absolonová December 26, 1976 December 9, 2004 Glioblastoma Porn actress 27 years, 349 days [47]
Bryan Ottoson March 18, 1978 April 19, 2005 Drug overdose Guitarist of American Head Charge 27 years, 32 days [45]
Valentín Elizalde February 1, 1979 November 25, 2006 Murder Mexican banda singer 27 years, 297 days [45]
Damien "Damo" Morris May 22, 1980 December 19, 2007 Bus accident Member of Australian deathcore band the Red Shore 27 years, 211 days [78]
Orish Grinstead June 2, 1980 April 20, 2008 Kidney failure Founding member of the R&B group 702 27 years, 323 days [79]
Jade Goody June 5, 1981 March 22, 2009 Cervical cancer Reality-television personality 27 years, 290 days [43][80]
Dash Snow July 27, 1981 July 13, 2009 Drug overdose Artist 27 years, 351 days [81][82]
Amy Winehouse September 14, 1983 July 23, 2011 Alcohol poisoning Singer-songwriter 27 years, 312 days [52][56][83][84]
Richard Turner July 30, 1984 August 11, 2011 Heart attack Trumpet player, collaborator with Friendly Fires 27 years, 12 days [85]
Sahara Davenport December 17, 1984 October 1, 2012 Heart failure Drag queen 27 years, 289 days [86]
Christian Benítez May 1, 1986 July 29, 2013 Respiratory failure Footballer 27 years, 89 days [87]
Tomas Lowe May 1988 February 13, 2016 Car accident bassist of Viola Beach 27 years, 9 months [88]
Thomas Fekete July 1, 1988 May 31, 2016 Cancer Guitarist of Surfer Blood 27 years, 335 days [89]
Anton Yelchin March 11, 1989 June 19, 2016 Car accident Actor, Chekov in the Star Trek reboot series 27 years, 100 days [43][90]
Shot December 1, 1989 September 21, 2017 Diabetes Russian rapper 27 years, 294 days [91]
Kim Jong-hyun April 8, 1990 December 18, 2017 Suicide Vocalist and lyricist of Shinee 27 years, 254 days [92][93]
Fredo Santana July 4, 1990 January 19, 2018 Idiopathic epilepsy American rapper 27 years, 199 days [94][95]
Tyler Skaggs July 13, 1991 July 1, 2019 Asphyxia due to drug use American professional baseball starting pitcher 27 years, 353 days [83]
Benjamin Keough October 21, 1992 July 12, 2020 Suicide Elvis Presley's grandson, son of Lisa Marie Presley and brother of Riley Keough 27 years, 265 days [83]
Murda Killa [ru] March 9, 1993 July 13, 2020 Asthma attack provoked by the use of alcohol and antidepressants Russian rapper 27 years, 127 days [96]
Yoo Ju-eun [ko] May 3, 1995 August 29, 2022 Suicide Korean actress 27 years, 118 days [97]
Walkie May 24, 1995 September 30, 2022 Suicide Russian battle rapper 27 years, 129 days [98]
Yung Trappa [ru] August 14, 1995 February 2, 2023 Overdose Russian rapper 27 years, 172 days [99]
Julián Figueroa [es] May 27, 1995 April 2, 2023 Myocardial infarction and Ventricular fibrillation Singer, actor, and composer 27 years, 310 days [100][101]
MohBad January 3, 1996 September 12, 2023 Undetermined Nigerian rapper 27 years, 252 days [102]

See also

Bibliography

  • Howell, Michael; Ford, Peter (1992) [1980], The True History of the Elephant Man (3rd ed.), London: Penguin Books, ISBN 0-14-016515-0

References

  1. ^ Peterson, Sydney (March 8, 2017), 12 Must-See Works Of Israeli Street Art, Forward Magazine, retrieved October 1, 2017
  2. ^ a b c McKinney, Kelsey. "Despite the huge myth, musicians don't die at 27 — they die at 56". Vox. Retrieved August 13, 2022.
  3. ^ a b c Butler, Jack (July 7, 2021). "The Myth of the 27 Club". National Review. Retrieved August 13, 2022.
  4. ^ a b Mick, McStarkey (October 4, 2021). "Debunking the central myths of the '27 Club'". Far Out Magazine. Retrieved August 13, 2022.
  5. ^ a b c d Kenny, Dianna Theadora (November 18, 2014). "The 27 Club is a myth: 56 is the bum note for musicians". The Conversation. Retrieved February 8, 2024.
  6. ^ a b Segalstad, Eric (2008). The 27s: The Greatest Myth of Rock & Roll. Samadhi Creations, LLC. ISBN 978-0-615-18964-2.
  7. ^ Weiss, David. "Amy Winehouse & The 27 Club". Life Goes Strong. Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. Retrieved August 18, 2011.
  8. ^ a b Wolkewitz M, Allignol A, Graves N, Barnett A (December 20, 2011). "Christmas 2011: Death's Dominion Is 27 really a dangerous age for famous musicians? A retrospective cohort study". The BMJ. 343: d7799. doi:10.1136/bmj.d7799. PMC 3243755. PMID 22187325.
  9. ^ Roberts, Nesta (September 10, 1971). "Flower Bower". The Guardian. UK. p. 13.
  10. ^ Riordan, James; Prochnicky, Jerry (1992). Break on Through: The Life and Death of Jim Morrison. It Books. pp. 416, 467. ISBN 978-0-688-11915-7.
  11. ^ a b Charles R. Cross (February 22, 2007). "P-I's Writer in Residence Charles R. Cross explores the darker side of 'only the good die young'". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Archived from the original on October 18, 2022. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
  12. ^ Charles R. Cross (2002). Heavier Than Heaven: A Biography of Kurt Cobain (2nd ed.). Hyperion. p. 357. ISBN 978-0-7868-8402-5.
  13. ^ R. Gary Patterson. Take a Walk on the Dark Side: Rock and Roll Myths, Legends, and Curses. p. 259.
  14. ^ Dee Norton; Peyton Whitely; Dave Birkland; Barbara Serrano (April 8, 1994). "Nirvana's Cobain Dead -- Suicide Note, Shotgun Near Body Of Musician At His Seattle Home -- Mother: 'Now He's Gone And Joined That Stupid Club'". The Seattle Times. Retrieved August 1, 2023.
  15. ^ Egan, Timothy (April 9, 1994). "Kurt Cobain, Hesitant Poet Of 'Grunge Rock,' Dead at 27". The New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2023.
  16. ^ Harrington, Lei (April 9, 1994). "Nirvana Singer Found Dead". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 1, 2023.
  17. ^ Josh Hunter; Eric Segalstad (2008). The 27s: The Greatest Myth of Rock & Roll. Berkeley Lake: Samadhi Creations. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-615-18964-2. Retrieved September 20, 2010.
  18. ^ "Amy Winehouse, Jimi Hendrix, Kurt Cobain and the 27 Club". No. July 23, 2011. The Washington Post. July 24, 2015.
  19. ^ "The Inquisitr: Stating the Obvious, Amy Winehouse". Inquisitr.com. December 28, 2008. Archived from the original on June 13, 2019. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  20. ^ Sounes (2013).
  21. ^ Owen, Michael (February 2012). The 27 Club: Why Age 27 Is Important. Kahurangi Press. ISBN 978-0-473-20684-0.
  22. ^ The Curse of 27: They Have Three Things in Common. Talent, Fame... and a Tragic Death at the Age of 27. the 27 Club. Forever 27. Pillar Box Red Publishing Limited. August 2011. ISBN 978-1-907823-22-0.
  23. ^ Chick, Stevie (October 23, 2008). "Chemical brothers". The Guardian. Retrieved October 15, 2011.
  24. ^ "What is the Rock and Roll 27 Club?". Mental Itch. December 13, 2017. Retrieved December 7, 2021.
  25. ^ "Fringe Review: 'The 27 Club' at Warehouse". Maryland Theatre Guide. July 15, 2014. Retrieved December 7, 2021.
  26. ^ John Craigie - Full Performance (Live on KEXP), retrieved February 8, 2024
  27. ^ "Eric Burdon Speaks His Mind on New LP". Rolling Stone. February 5, 2013. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
  28. ^ "The Blackest Beautiful". sputnikmusic.com.
  29. ^ Menshikov, Vitaly (November 21, 2013). "Review: The Twenty Seven Club". Progressor. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
  30. ^ Murphy, Heather (September 4, 2019). "Man Faces Drug Charge in Mac Miller's Death". The New York Times. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
  31. ^ "No Good By Ivy Levan | High Voltage Magazine". iamhighvoltage.com.
  32. ^ Davis, Elizabeth (May 4, 2021). "The joy we take in watching colours fade: Our fascination with Kurt Cobain and The 27 Club". The Glitter and Gold. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
  33. ^ "A conversation with JPEGMAFIA, the MC who raps like the internet feels". Dazed Digital. March 28, 2019. Retrieved December 7, 2021.
  34. ^ "Adore Delano Talks New Punk Album 'Whatever', the '27 Club' & Being Nonbinary: 'Gender Isn't a Real Thing'". Billboard. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  35. ^ "Club 27 – Lyrics". MonaLisa Twins.
  36. ^ Mamo, Heran (December 19, 2019). "Here Are the Lyrics to Juice WRLD's 'Legends'". Billboard. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
  37. ^ Ruskell, Nick (January 27, 2021). "Life After Death: How Taylor Momsen survived her downward spiral". Kerrang. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
  38. ^ ""If life is darker and harsher, you can still have fun" -- Blind Channel's "Dark Side" lyrics shirk a grim reality in favour of anarchy". wiwibloggs. February 18, 2021. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
  39. ^ "We Help a Rock Star Join Club 27 in Hitman's Bangkok Level". Outside Xbox. Archived from the original on March 6, 2019. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
  40. ^ "SNEAK PEEK: THE 27 CLUB". www.madmagazine.com. April 27, 2018. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  41. ^ a b Sullivan, James (May 27, 2011). "Robert Johnson Founds the '27 Club' With Devil Pact – Twisted Tales". Spinner. Archived from the original on August 25, 2011. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  42. ^ a b c d "The 27 Club: A Brief History". Rolling Stone. December 8, 2019. Retrieved June 30, 2022.
  43. ^ a b c "The curse of the '27 Club' strikes again after Star Trek actor Anton Yelchin dies". BBC News. June 20, 2016. Retrieved February 8, 2024.
  44. ^ O'Connor, Rob (July 23, 2011). "Twenty-Seven Members of the 27 Club". Yahoo Music. Archived from the original on October 13, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai "The Greatest Myth of Rock & Roll". The27s.com. Archived from the original on January 20, 2018. Retrieved September 9, 2011.
  46. ^ Bell, Virginia (November 17, 2011). "Dear Lindsay, Please Don't Join the 27 Club". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on April 16, 2021. Retrieved July 30, 2021.
  47. ^ a b Parra, Eduardo (March 1, 2023). "Muertos a los 27: Las 30 celebridades integrantes del fatídico Club de los 27" [Dead at 27: The 30 Celebrities Members of the Fateful 27 Club]. Cinconoticias (in Spanish). Archived from the original on April 12, 2023. Retrieved April 19, 2023.
  48. ^ Segalstad, Eric; Hunter, Josh (2008). The 27s: The Greatest Myth of Rock & Roll. United Kingdom: Samadhi Creations. p. 308. ISBN 978-0-615-18964-2.
  49. ^ a b Thom Geier (February 20, 2020). "27 Club: Stars Who Died at Age 27, From Jimi Hendrix to Kurt Cobain". TheWrap. Retrieved May 22, 2020.
  50. ^ a b Sounes (2013), p. 304.
  51. ^ "British Dickie Pride AKA Richard Charles Kneller, Dead At 27". Archived from the original on November 20, 2012.
  52. ^ a b Clements, Paul (July 24, 2011). "Amy Winehouse joins the 'Forever 27' club". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on January 11, 2022.
  53. ^ Anthony Bruno (July 10, 1969). "All about Brian Jones". Crime Library. Archived from the original on May 26, 2012. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
  54. ^ "Jones Drowned While 'Drunk and Drugged'". The Guardian. July 8, 1969. Retrieved September 12, 2019.
  55. ^ Brown, Tony (1997). "The Doctor's Story". Jimi Hendrix: The Final Days. Retrieved February 8, 2024.
  56. ^ a b c Schillaci, Sophie A. (July 23, 2011). "Amy Winehouse Joins Kurt Cobain, Janis Joplin in '27 Club'". The Hollywood Reporter.
  57. ^ Hendrickson, Paul (May 5, 1992). "Janis Joplin: A Cry Cutting Through Time". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  58. ^ Walt, Vivienne (July 19, 2007). "Postcard: Paris". Time. Archived from the original on April 12, 2010. Retrieved April 23, 2010.
  59. ^ Tobler, John (1992). NME's Rock 'n' Roll Years, 1992. London: Hamlyn. p. 238. ISBN 0-600-57602-7.
  60. ^ "Musicians in the '27 Club'". Chron. Hearst. July 23, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2022.
  61. ^ "15 Members of the "Forever 27 Club"". Verbicide. May 23, 2014. Retrieved June 30, 2022.
  62. ^ a b c Saunders, Christian (January 2012). "The Forever 27 Club". Fortean Times. Archived from the original on November 20, 2014. Retrieved May 1, 2023.
  63. ^ "El coche nos los arrebató" [The car took them from us]. Con Plomo (in Spanish). Archived from the original on June 11, 2012. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
  64. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016. Retrieved January 10, 2024.
  65. ^ "From the ashes of tragedy CANO goes international | Maclean's | SEPTEMBER 25, 1978". February 18, 2022. Archived from the original on February 18, 2022. Retrieved January 10, 2024.
  66. ^ Simmonds, Jeremy (2012). The Encyclopedia of Dead Rock Stars: Heroin, Handguns, and Ham Sandwiches. Chicago Review Press. pp. 1221–122. ISBN 978-1-61374-478-9.
  67. ^ Khan, Murtaza Ali (January 25, 2019). "In search of Chamkila". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved February 8, 2024.
  68. ^ O’Driscoll, Des (June 13, 2014). "Recalling the great nights of Cork's Arcadia". Irish Examiner. Retrieved February 8, 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  69. ^ "The Curse of 27". www.angelfire.com. Retrieved February 8, 2024.
  70. ^ "Show Dimitar Voev its pig! "Voev is the Bulgarian representative in mythologizing "Club 27""". TEMADaily. October 17, 2012. Retrieved June 25, 2015.
  71. ^ van Gelder, Lawrence (March 3, 1998). "Footlights". The New York Times. Retrieved August 29, 2011.
  72. ^ Isabel García, Maria (July 2, 1994). "Escobar muere a manos de unos fanáticos". El País. Retrieved December 20, 2022. Requiere registrarse para poder acceder a la información.
  73. ^ Parra, Eduardo (March 1, 2022). "Muertos a los 27: Las 30 celebridades integrantes del fatídico Club de los 27". Cinconoticias. Retrieved February 11, 2023. Entre las muertes de famosos más impactantes se cuenta la del futbolista colombiano Andrés Escobar, no sólo por la violencia con la que se ejecutó, sino también por la enorme injusticia que supuso su asesinato.
  74. ^ Güimil, Eva (October 31, 2022). ""Al tío lo van a matar": la herida por el asesinato del futbolista Andrés Escobar intenta cerrarse 28 años después". El País. Retrieved December 20, 2022.
  75. ^ Stanley-Ayre, Sarah (February 27, 2015). "The Myth of the 27 Club | City Pages". Archived from the original on July 11, 2015.
  76. ^ Griffen, Brendan (March 28, 2014). "Music and Mortality". brendangriffen.com. Archived from the original on June 21, 2014.
  77. ^ Kantor, Jonathan H. (November 30, 2022). "All The Unfortunate Members Of The 27 Club". Nicki Swift. Retrieved February 8, 2024.
  78. ^ Rockers Who Died At age 27, September 18, 2015
  79. ^ H, Jim (January 21, 2010). "The 27 Club". Historic Mysteries. Retrieved June 29, 2017.
  80. ^ Mercury, Sunday (October 23, 2012) [Originally published March 25, 2009]. "Is Jade Goody the latest victim of Club 27?". Birmingham Mail. Retrieved May 1, 2023.
  81. ^ Marche, Stephen (July 18, 2009). "Messy life, clichéd death for prince of hipsters". Toronto Star. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  82. ^ Carlson, Jen (July 15, 2009). "Dash Snow Remembered By New York". Gothamist. Archived from the original on December 9, 2019. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  83. ^ a b c Chelsea Duff (July 16, 2021). "The 27 Club Is Tragic—See All the Stars Who Died at the Young Age". In Touch Weekly. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  84. ^ Davies, Caroline (October 26, 2011). "Amy Winehouse inquest records verdict of misadventure". The Guardian. London. Retrieved October 26, 2011.
  85. ^ Smith, K. Alexander. "Richard Turner of Friendly Fires: 1984–2011 (Archived)". Archived from the original on August 21, 2011. Retrieved August 29, 2011.
  86. ^ "What is the 27 Club?". The Scotsman. Retrieved May 30, 2023.
  87. ^ "Benítez: La 'maldición' de los 27 ataca los atletas" [Benítez: The 'curse' of 27 attacks athletes]. Diario Libre (in Spanish). July 31, 2013. Archived from the original on April 28, 2021. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
  88. ^ Staff (June 20, 2016). "The curse of the '27 Club' strikes again after Star Trek actor Anton Yelchin dies". BBC News. Retrieved January 8, 2024.
  89. ^ Hartmann, Graham. "27 Rockers Who Died At The Age of 27". Loudwire.com. Retrieved June 23, 2022.
  90. ^ Mather, Kate (June 19, 2016). "Anton Yelchin, actor in 'Star Trek' films, dies in freak car accident at age 27". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  91. ^ "Klub 27, spisok izvestnykh muzykantov, prichiny smerti, videoposvyashcheniye" Клуб 27, список известных музыкантов, причины смерти, видеопосвящение [Club 27, list of famous musicians, causes of death, video dedication]. FTimes.ru (in Russian). May 2, 2020. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  92. ^ "K-pop star Kim Jong Hyun joins the ill-fated '27 Club'". The Straits Times. Agence France-Presse. December 19, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
  93. ^ Frater, Patrick (December 18, 2017). "Jonghyun of Korean Pop Group Shinee Dies at 27". Variety. Retrieved December 22, 2017.
  94. ^ Duff, Seamus (January 20, 2018). "As Rapper Fredo Santana 'Dies Aged 27', Other Stars Who Make Up Tragic Club 27 – Including Amy Winehouse, Jimi Hendrix and Kurt Cobain". Daily Mirror. Retrieved January 20, 2018.
  95. ^ "The cause of Chicago rapper Fredo Santana's death has been determined". The FADER.
  96. ^ "Stala izvestna prichina smerti rossiyskogo repera Murda Killa" Стала известна причина смерти российского рэпера Murda Killa [The cause of death of the Russian rapper Murda Killa became known]. Газета.Ru (in Russian). July 16, 2020. Archived from the original on October 6, 2021. Retrieved October 6, 2021.
  97. ^ "Diduga Tewas Bunuh Diri, Yoo Joo Eun Menambah Deretan Club 27" [Allegedly Dead by Suicide, Yoo Joo Eun Adds to List of Club 27]. kumparan.com (in Indonesian). August 29, 2022. Retrieved August 29, 2022.
  98. ^ "Sotsseti soobshchili o gibeli repera Walkie v Krasnodare" Соцсети сообщили о гибели рэпера Walkie в Краснодаре [Social networks reported the death of rapper Walkie in Krasnodar]. Bloknot-krasnodar.ru (in Russian). Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  99. ^ "Treki na grani i lyubov' po prinuzhdeniyu: chem zapomnitsya umershiy v Peterburge reper Yung Trappa" Треки на грани и любовь по принуждению: чем запомнится умерший в Петербурге рэпер Yung Trappa [Tracks on the verge and love under compulsion: how will the rapper Yung Trappa, who died in St. Petersburg, be remembered]. Nevnov.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on April 1, 2023. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  100. ^ "Julián Figueroa se suma al 'Club de los 27'; ellos son los artistas que murieron a esta edad" [Julián Figueroa joins the 'Club of 27'; they are the artists who died at this age]. Milenio (in Spanish). April 10, 2023. Archived from the original on April 12, 2023. Retrieved April 14, 2023.
  101. ^ "El Club de los 27: ¿Por qué se relaciona con Julián Figueroa?" [The Club of 27: Why is it related to Julián Figueroa?]. Fox Sports (in Spanish). April 10, 2023. Archived from the original on April 12, 2023. Retrieved April 14, 2023.
  102. ^ Itodo, Sunny Green (September 16, 2023). "Mohbad: Light Dims for a Rising Star". Daily Post Nigeria. Retrieved September 24, 2023.

General sources