Year 37 BC was either a common year starting on Monday, Tuesday or Wednesday or a leap year starting on Monday or Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar (the sources differ, see leap year error for further information) and a leap year starting on Monday of the Proleptic Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Agrippa and Gallus (or, less frequently, year 717 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 37 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Consuls: Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Titus Statilius Taurus.
- Agrippa created the harbour "Portus Julius" in the today submersed town of Puteoli (the modern Pozzuoli, close to Naples). The port is used to train the warships for naval battles, a new fleet is built, with 20,000 oarsmen gathered by freeing slaves. He also incorporated on quinqueremes a technical innovation the harpax ("snatcher"); a combination ballista and grappling hook, based on the corvus.
- Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian engineered the "Second Pact of Tarentum" which renewed the Triumvirate for an additional five years. Mark Antony exchanged 120 ships, for service against Sextus Pompeius. Octavian Caesar gives 1,000 troops from the Praetorian Guard and 20,000 legionaries for the Parthian campaign in Syria.
- Antony reorganized Asia Minor under strongmen loyal to him. He raised troops from his allies Amyntas and Archelaus, kings of Galatia and Cappadocia. The old kingdom of Pontus is restored, from Armenia to the River Halys under Polemon I.
- Romans conquer Jerusalem from the Parthians. Herod the Great becomes king of Judea and Ananelus is installed as High Priest, both positions seized from Antigonus II Mattathias after a five-month siege. Thousands of Jews slaughtered by Roman troops supporting Herod.
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