|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|37 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||37 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||717|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXXIII dynasty, 287|
|- Pharaoh||Cleopatra VII, 15|
|Ancient Greek era||185th Olympiad, year 4|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||癸未年 (Water Goat)|
2660 or 2600
— to —
甲申年 (Wood Monkey)
2661 or 2601
|Coptic calendar||−320 – −319|
|Ethiopian calendar||−44 – −43|
|- Vikram Samvat||20–21|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||3064–3065|
|Iranian calendar||658 BP – 657 BP|
|Islamic calendar||678 BH – 677 BH|
|Julian calendar||37 BC|
|Minguo calendar||1948 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||275/276 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||506–507|
90 or −291 or −1063
— to —
91 or −290 or −1062
Year 37 BC was either a common year starting on Monday, Tuesday or Wednesday or a leap year starting on Monday or Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar (the sources differ, see leap year error for further information) and a leap year starting on Monday of the Proleptic Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Agrippa and Gallus (or, less frequently, year 717 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 37 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Consuls: Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Titus Statilius Taurus.
- Agrippa created the harbour "Portus Julius" in the today submersed town of Puteoli (the modern Pozzuoli, close to Naples). The port is used to train the warships for naval battles, a new fleet is built, with 20,000 oarsmen gathered by freeing slaves. He also incorporated on quinqueremes a technical innovation the harpax ("snatcher"); a combination ballista and grappling hook, based on the corvus.
- Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian engineered the "Second Pact of Tarentum" which renewed the Triumvirate for an additional five years. Mark Antony exchanged 120 ships, for service against Sextus Pompeius. Octavian Caesar gives 1,000 troops from the Praetorian Guard and 20,000 legionaries for the Parthian campaign in Syria.
- Antony reorganized Asia Minor under strongmen loyal to him. He raised troops from his allies Amyntas and Archelaus, kings of Galatia and Cappadocia. The old kingdom of Pontus is restored, from Armenia to the River Halys under Polemon I.
- Romans conquer Jerusalem from the Parthians. Herod the Great becomes king of Judea and Ananelus is installed as High Priest, both positions seized from Antigonus II Mattathias after a five-month siege. Thousands of Jews slaughtered by Roman troops supporting Herod.
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- Antigonus II Mattathias (Antigonus the Hasmonean) (executed by order of Mark Antony)
- Aristobulus II, king and high priest of Judea (66–63 BC; assassinated)
- Empress Shangguan (b. 89 BC)
- Jing Fang (b. 78 BC), Chinese mathematician and music theorist