400 metres at the World Championships in Athletics

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400 metres
at the World Championships in Athletics
Montsho Felix Daegu 2011.jpg
Amantle Montsho and Allyson Felix at the finish of the 2011 women's final
Overview
GenderMen and women
Years heldMen: 19832017
Women: 19832017
Championship record
Men43.18 Michael Johnson (1999)
Women47.99 Jarmila Kratochvílová (1983)
Reigning champion
Men Wayde van Niekerk (RSA)
Women Phyllis Francis (USA)

The 400 metres at the World Championships in Athletics has been contested by both men and women since the inaugural edition in 1983. It is the second most prestigious title in the discipline after the 400 metres at the Olympics. The competition format typically has two or three qualifying rounds leading to a final between eight athletes.

The championship records for the event are 43.18 seconds for men, set by Michael Johnson in 1999, and 47.99 seconds for women, set by Jarmila Kratochvílová in 1983. The men's world record has been broken at the competition on one occasion and Johnson's championship record remains the world record as of 2015.[1] The current women's championship record stood as the women's world record for two years and remains the only time that feat has been accomplished at the championships.

Michael Johnson is the most successful athlete of the World Championships 400 m, having won four straight titles from 1993 to 1999. He is the only sprint athlete to have won that many individual titles in an event. The second most successful is LaShawn Merritt – a two-time champion and the only other athlete to have won four medals. The most successful women are Marie-José Pérec, Cathy Freeman and Christine Ohuruogu, all of whom have won two world titles. Jeremy Wariner is the only other person to have won two titles, and also has three medals to his name.

The United States is comfortably the most successful nation in the discipline – American men have topped the podium ten times and taken 23 medals in total. American women also top the table with two golds among seven medals. Jamaica is the only other nation to have won more than one medal in the men's race, and has won eleven medals in total across the sexes. Great Britain has had two winners and two runners-up. Australia, France and Bahamas are the only other nations to have won multiple gold medals.

Jerome Young is the only athlete to be stripped of a medal in the event, as he lost his 2003 gold medal due to a doping ban.

Age[edit]

  • All information from IAAF[2]
Distinction Male athlete Age Female athlete Age
Youngest champion Kirani James 18 years, 363 days Christine Ohuruogu 23 years, 104 days
Youngest medalist Kirani James 18 years, 363 days Grit Breuer 19 years, 192 days
Youngest participant Kerth Gumbs 16 years, 183 days Dijana Kojić 15 years, 7 days
Oldest champion Michael Johnson 31 years, 347 days Jarmila Kratochvílová 32 years, 196 days
Oldest medalist Michael Johnson 31 years, 347 days Jarmila Kratochvílová 32 years, 196 days
Oldest participant Kelsey Nakanelua 36 years, 98 days Sandrine Thiébaud-Kangni 35 years, 128 days

Doping[edit]

Antonio Pettigrew, the 1991 champion, was the first have his results annulled due to doping, although this ban affected his finalist placings from 1997 to 2001 only. His fellow American Jerome Young became the first and thus far only 400 m athlete to be stripped of their world title. His ban covered his 2003 win, a 2001 semi-finalist placing, and a fourth-place finish in 1999.[3]

Natalya Sologub of Belarus became the first female 400 m runner to be disqualified from the championships, having originally been a 2001 semi-finalist. The 2003 sixth-place finish of Calvin Harrison was annulled for doping, as weer the semi-finalist runs of Amaka Ogoegbunam in 2009 and Antonina Yefremova in 2011.[3]

Medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Bert Cameron (JAM)  Michael Franks (USA)  Sunder Nix (USA)
1987 Rome
details
 Thomas Schönlebe (GDR)  Innocent Egbunike (NGA)  Harry Reynolds (USA)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Antonio Pettigrew (USA)  Roger Black (GBR)  Danny Everett (USA)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Michael Johnson (USA)  Butch Reynolds (USA)  Samson Kitur (KEN)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Michael Johnson (USA)  Butch Reynolds (USA)  Greg Haughton (JAM)
1997 Athens
details
 Michael Johnson (USA)  Davis Kamoga (UGA)  Tyree Washington (USA)
1999 Seville
details
 Michael Johnson (USA)  Sanderlei Parrela (BRA)  Alejandro Cárdenas (MEX)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Avard Moncur (BAH)  Ingo Schultz (GER)  Greg Haughton (JAM)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Tyree Washington (USA)  Marc Raquil (FRA)  Michael Blackwood (JAM)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Jeremy Wariner (USA)  Andrew Rock (USA)  Tyler Christopher (CAN)
2007 Osaka
details
 Jeremy Wariner (USA)  LaShawn Merritt (USA)  Angelo Taylor (USA)
2009 Berlin
details
 LaShawn Merritt (USA)  Jeremy Wariner (USA)  Renny Quow (TRI)
2011 Daegu
details
 Kirani James (GRN)  LaShawn Merritt (USA)  Kevin Borlée (BEL)
2013 Moscow
details
 LaShawn Merritt (USA)  Tony McQuay (USA)  Luguelín Santos (DOM)
2015 Beijing
details
 Wayde van Niekerk (RSA)  LaShawn Merritt (USA)  Kirani James (GRN)
2017 London
details
 Wayde van Niekerk (RSA)  Steven Gardiner (BAH)  Abdalelah Haroun (QAT)

Multiple medalists[edit]

Rank Athlete Nation Period Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Michael Johnson  United States (USA) 1991–1999 4 0 0 4
2 LaShawn Merritt  United States (USA) 2007–2013 2 3 0 5
3 Jeremy Wariner  United States (USA) 2005–2009 2 1 0 3
4 Wayde van Niekerk  South Africa (RSA) 2015–2017 2 0 0 2
5 Tyree Washington  United States (USA) 1997–2003 1 0 1 2
6 Butch Reynolds  United States (USA) 1987–1995 0 2 1 3
7 Greg Haughton  Jamaica (JAM) 1995–2001 0 0 2 2

Medalists by country[edit]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States (USA) 10 8 5 23
2  South Africa (RSA) 2 0 0 2
3  Bahamas (BAH) 1 1 0 2
4  Jamaica (JAM) 1 0 3 4
5=  East Germany (GDR) 1 0 0 1
5=  Grenada (GRN) 1 0 0 1
7=  Brazil (BRA) 0 1 0 1
7=  France (FRA) 0 1 0 1
7=  Germany (GER) 0 1 0 1
7=  Great Britain (GBR) 0 1 0 1
7=  Nigeria (NGR) 0 1 0 1
7=  Uganda (UGA) 0 1 0 1
13=  Belgium (BEL) 0 0 1 1
13=  Canada (CAN) 0 0 1 1
13=  Dominican Republic (DOM) 0 0 1 1
13=  Kenya (KEN) 0 0 1 1
13=  Mexico (MEX) 0 0 1 1
13=  Trinidad and Tobago (TRI) 0 0 1 1

Women[edit]

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Jarmila Kratochvílová (TCH)  Taťána Kocembová (TCH)  Mariya Pinigina (URS)
1987 Rome
details
 Olga Bryzgina (URS)  Petra Muller (GDR)  Kirsten Emmelmann (GDR)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Marie-José Pérec (FRA)  Grit Breuer (GER)  Sandra Myers (ESP)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Jearl Miles (USA)  Natasha Kaiser-Brown (USA)  Sandie Richards (JAM)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Marie-José Pérec (FRA)  Pauline Davis (BAH)  Jearl Miles (USA)
1997 Athens
details
 Cathy Freeman (AUS)  Sandie Richards (JAM)  Jearl Miles Clark (USA)
1999 Seville
details
 Cathy Freeman (AUS)  Anja Rücker (GER)  Lorraine Graham-Fenton (JAM)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Amy Mbacké Thiam (SEN)  Lorraine Fenton (JAM)  Ana Guevara (MEX)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Ana Guevara (MEX)  Lorraine Fenton (JAM)  Amy Mbacké Thiam (SEN)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Tonique Williams-Darling (BAH)  Sanya Richards (USA)  Ana Guevara (MEX)
2007 Osaka
details
 Christine Ohuruogu (GBR)  Nicola Sanders (GBR)  Novlene Williams (JAM)
2009 Berlin
details
 Sanya Richards (USA)  Shericka Williams (JAM)  Antonina Krivoshapka (RUS)
2011 Daegu
details
 Amantle Montsho (BOT)  Allyson Felix (USA)  Anastasiya Kapachinskaya (RUS)
2013 Moscow
details
 Christine Ohuruogu (GBR)  Amantle Montsho (BOT)  Antonina Krivoshapka (RUS)
2015 Beijing
details
 Allyson Felix (USA)  Shaunae Miller (BAH)  Shericka Jackson (JAM)
2017 London
details
 Phyllis Francis (USA)  Salwa Eid Naser (BHR)  Allyson Felix (USA)

Multiple medalists[edit]

Rank Athlete Nation Period Gold Silver Bronze Total
1= Marie-José Pérec  France (FRA) 1991–1995 2 0 0 2
1= Cathy Freeman  Australia (AUS) 1997–1999 2 0 0 2
1= Christine Ohuruogu  Great Britain (GBR) 2007–2013 2 0 0 2
4= Sanya Richards  United States (USA) 2005–2009 1 1 0 2
4= Allyson Felix  United States (USA) 2011–2015 1 1 0 2
4= Amantle Montsho  Botswana (BOT) 2011–2013 1 1 0 2
6= Jearl Miles Clark  United States (USA) 1993–1997 1 0 2 3
6= Ana Guevara  Mexico (MEX) 2001–2005 1 0 2 3
8 Amy Mbacke Thiam  Senegal (SEN) 2001–2003 1 0 1 2
9 Lorraine Fenton  Jamaica (JAM) 1999–2003 0 2 1 3
10 Sandie Richards  Jamaica (JAM) 1993–1997 0 1 1 2
11 Antonina Krivoshapka  Russia (RUS) 2009–2013 0 0 2 2

Medalists by country[edit]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States (USA) 4 3 3 10
2  Great Britain (GBR) 2 1 0 3
3=  Australia (AUS) 2 0 0 2
3=  France (FRA) 2 0 0 2
5=  Bahamas (BAH) 1 2 0 3
5=  Botswana (BOT) 1 1 0 2
5=  Czechoslovakia (TCH) 1 1 0 2
8  Mexico (MEX) 1 0 2 3
9=  Senegal (SEN) 1 0 1 2
9=  Soviet Union (URS) 1 0 1 2
11  Jamaica (JAM) 0 4 4 8
12  Germany (GER) 0 2 0 2
13  East Germany (GDR) 0 1 1 2
14  Russia (RUS) 0 0 2 2
15  Spain (ESP) 0 0 1 1

Championship record progression[edit]

Men[edit]

Men's 400 metres World Championships record progression[4]
Time Athlete Nation Year Round Date
46.19 Sunder Nix  United States (USA) 1983 Heats 7 August 1983
46.11 Bert Cameron  Jamaica (JAM) 1983 Heats 7 August 1983
45.74 Hartmut Weber  West Germany (FRG) 1983 Heats 7 August 1983
45.57 Michael Franks  United States (USA) 1983 Quarter-finals 8 August 1983
45.44 Michael Franks  United States (USA) 1983 Semi-finals 9 August 1983
45.05 Bert Cameron  Jamaica (JAM) 1983 Final 10 August 1983
45.03 Derek Redmond  Great Britain (GBR) 1987 Quarter-finals 1987-08-31
44.81 Thomas Schönlebe  East Germany (GDR) 1987 Quarter-finals 1987-08-31
44.26 Innocent Egbunike  Nigeria (NGR) 1987 Semi-finals 1987-09-01
43.65 Michael Johnson  United States (USA) 1993 Final 1993-08-17
43.39 Michael Johnson  United States (USA) 1995 Final 1995-08-09
43.18 WR Michael Johnson  United States (USA) 1997 Final 1999-08-26

Women[edit]

Women's 400 metres World Championships record progression[5]
Time Athlete Nation Year Round Date
52.42 Jarmila Kratochvílová  East Germany (GDR) 1983 Heats 1983-08-07
51.05 Mariya Pinigina  Soviet Union (URS) 1983 Quarter-finals 1983-08-08
50.07 Mariya Pinigina  Soviet Union (URS) 1983 Semi-finals 1983-08-09
47.99 WR Jarmila Kratochvílová  East Germany (GDR) 1983 Finals 1983-08-10

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

Specific[edit]

  1. ^ IAAF World Championships: IAAF Statistics Handbook Daegu 2011, pp. 595–6 (archived). IAAF. Retrieved on 2015-07-06.
  2. ^ Butler 2013, p. 34–7.
  3. ^ a b Butler 2013, p. 67–9.
  4. ^ Main > Men, 400 m > World Championships Records Progression. Track and Field Brinkster. Retrieved on 2015-07-07.
  5. ^ Main > Women, 400 m > World Championships Records Progression. Track and Field Brinkster. Retrieved on 2015-07-07.

External links[edit]