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|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|444 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||444 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||310|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXVII dynasty, 82|
|- Pharaoh||Artaxerxes I of Persia, 22|
|Ancient Greek era||84th Olympiad (victor)¹|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||丙申年 (Fire Monkey)|
2253 or 2193
— to —
丁酉年 (Fire Rooster)
2254 or 2194
|Coptic calendar||−727 – −726|
|Ethiopian calendar||−451 – −450|
|- Vikram Samvat||−387 – −386|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2657–2658|
|Iranian calendar||1065 BP – 1064 BP|
|Islamic calendar||1098 BH – 1097 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2355 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||99–100|
−317 or −698 or −1470
— to —
−316 or −697 or −1469
Year 444 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Tribunate of Atratinus, Siculus and Luscus and the Year of the Consulship of Mugillanus and Atratinus (or, less frequently, year 310 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 444 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- The conservative and democratic factions in Athens confront each other. The ambitious new leader of the conservatives, Thucydides, accuses the leader of the democratic faction, Pericles, of profligacy and criticises the way Pericles is spending money on his ambitious building plans for the city. Thucydides manages, initially, to gain the support of the ecclesia. Pericles responds by proposing to reimburse the city for all the expenses from his private property, on the condition that he would make the inscriptions of dedication in his own name. His stance is supported by the ecclesia, so Thucydides' efforts to dislodge Pericles from power are defeated.
- Nehemiah, the Jewish cupbearer to Artaxerxes I at Susa, is given permission by Artaxerxes to return to Jerusalem as governor of Judea, in order to rebuild parts of it.
- Udayin, king of Magadha in ancient India.