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|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|458 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||458 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||296|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXVII dynasty, 68|
|- Pharaoh||Artaxerxes I of Persia, 8|
|Ancient Greek era||80th Olympiad, year 3|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||壬午年 (Water Horse)|
2239 or 2179
— to —
癸未年 (Water Goat)
2240 or 2180
|Coptic calendar||−741 – −740|
|Ethiopian calendar||−465 – −464|
|- Vikram Samvat||−401 – −400|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2643–2644|
|Iranian calendar||1079 BP – 1078 BP|
|Islamic calendar||1112 BH – 1111 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2369 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||85–86|
−331 or −712 or −1484
— to —
−330 or −711 or −1483
Year 458 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Rutilus and Carvetus (or, less frequently, year 296 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 458 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Pleistoanax succeeds Pleistarchus as king of Sparta.
- Pericles continues Ephialtes' democratising activities by making the archonship a paid office and the lower class of Athenian citizens eligible to hold the office.
- The Athenians start constructing the Long Walls to protect the route from their city to the port city of Piraeus.
- Aegina joins the Peloponnesian alliance, but their combined fleet is defeated by the Athenians in the Battle of Aegina. The Athenians, under the command of Leocrates, land on the island of Aegina and besiege and defeat the city. Aegina is forced to pay tribute to Athens.
- The Roman general Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus is summoned by the Roman Senate to defend the city from attack by the approaching Aequi. He is named dictator of Rome for six months. He goes on to defeat the enemy in a single day at the Battle of Mount Algidus and celebrates a triumph in Rome. Sixteen days after the battle, he resigns his dictatorship and returns to his farm.
- The Athenian playwright Aeschylus completes his trilogy The Oresteia (which comprise Agamemnon, Choephoroi (The Libation Bearers) and The Eumenides).