Abraham Isaac Kook

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Rabbi

Abraham Isaac Kook
אברהם יצחק הכהן קוק
Abraham Isaac Kook 1924.jpg
Abraham Isaac Kook in 1924
TitleFirst Chief Rabbi of British Mandatory Palestine
Personal
Born7 September 1865
Died1 September 1935 (aged 69)
ReligionJudaism
DenominationOrthodox
BuriedMount of Olives Jewish Cemetery, Israel

Abraham Isaac Kook (Hebrew: אַבְרָהָם יִצְחָק הַכֹּהֵן קוּק; 7 September 1865 – 1 September 1935) also known by the acronym הראי״ה‎ (HaRaAYaH);[1] was an Orthodox rabbi, and the first Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of British Mandatory Palestine in the Land of Israel. He is considered to be one of the fathers of religious Zionism, and is known for founding the Mercaz HaRav Yeshiva.[2]

Biography[edit]

Childhood[edit]

Abraham Isaac Kook was born in Griva (also spelled Geriva)[3] in the Courland Governorate of the Russian Empire in 1865, today a part of Daugavpils, Latvia, the oldest of eight children. His father, Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Ha-Cohen Kook, was a student of the Volozhin yeshiva, the "mother of the Lithuanian yeshivas",[4] whereas his maternal grandfather was an avid follower of the Kapust branch of the Hasidic movement, founded by the son of the great Rabbi of Chabad, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneersohn of Lubavitch, known as the "Tzemach Tzedek".[5] Rabbi Kook's mother's name was Zlata Perl.[3]:p.56

As a child he gained a reputation of being an ilui (prodigy). He entered the Volozhin Yeshiva in 1884 at the age of 18, where he became close to the rosh yeshiva, Rabbi Naftali Zvi Yehuda Berlin (the Netziv). Although he stayed at the yeshiva for only a year and a half, the Netziv has been quoted as saying that if the Volozhin yeshiva had been founded just to educate Rav Kook, it would have been worthwhile. During his time in the yeshiva, he studied under Rabbi Eliyahu David Rabinowitz-Teomim (also known as the Aderet), the rabbi of Ponevezh (today's Panevėžys, Lithuania) and later Chief Ashkenazi Rabbi of Jerusalem. In 1886 he married Batsheva, the daughter of the Aderet.[6][7][8]

Early career[edit]

In 1887, at the age of 23,[9] Kook entered his first rabbinical position as rabbi of Zaumel, Lithuania.[3]:p.18[10] In 1888, his wife died, and his father-in-law convinced him to marry her cousin, Raize-Rivka, the daughter of the Aderet's twin brother. Rabbi Kook's only son, Zvi Yehuda Kook, was born in 1891 to Rabbi Kook and his second wife.[11] In 1895, Rav Kook became the rabbi of Bauska.[3]:p.22[12][13]

Between 1901 and 1904, he published three articles which anticipate the philosophy that he later more fully developed in the Land of Israel. Kook personally refrained from eating meat except on the Sabbath and Festivals; and a compilation of extracts from his writing, compiled by his disciple David Cohen, known as "Rav HaNazir" (or "the Nazir of Jerusalem")[14] and titled by him "A Vision of Vegetarianism and Peace," depicts a progression, guided by Torah law, towards a vegetarian society.[15][16]

Jaffa[edit]

In 1904,[17] Rav Kook was invited by the Bnei Moshe sect to become their Rabbi in Jaffa, Ottoman Palestine. The Bnei Moshe formed the majority of Jaffa's 2000 Jewish population. They were not accepted by the other Jewish communities in Palestine due to their emphasis on the Torah rather than the Talmud and their ties with the Subbotniks. The appointment of Rav Kook, their first rabbi, brought them closer to the mainstream.[18] During these years he wrote a number of works, mostly published posthumously, notably a lengthy commentary on the Aggadot of Tractates Berakhot and Shabbat, titled Eyn Ayah, and a brief book on morality and spirituality, titled Mussar Avicha. Another book, a collection of his letters called Igrot Hareiyah, incorporated the acronym of his name, Abraham Isaac.

It was in 1911 that Rav Kook also maintained a correspondence with the Jews of Yemen, addressing some twenty-six questions to "the honorable shepherds of God's congregation" (Heb. כבוד רועי עדת ד‎) and sending his letter via the known Zionist emissary, Shemuel Yavneʼeli. Their reply was later printed in a book published by Yavneʼeli.[19][20] Rav Kook's influence on people in different walks of life was already noticeable, as he engaged in kiruv ("Jewish outreach"), thereby creating a greater role for Torah and Halakha in the life of the city and the nearby settlements. In 1913 Rav Kook led a delegation of rabbis, including several leading rabbinic figures such as Rabbi Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld, to the many newly established secular "moshavot" (settlements) in Samaria and Galilee. Known as the "Journey of the Rabbis" the rabbis' goal was to strengthen Shabbat observance, Torah education, and other religious observances, with an emphasis on the giving of 'terumot and ma'asrot' (agricultural tithes) as these were farming settlements.[21]

London and World War I[edit]

The outbreak of the First World War caught Rav Kook in Europe, and he was forced to remain in Switzerland and London for the remainder of the war. In 1916, he became rabbi of the Spitalfields Great Synagogue (Machzike Hadath, "upholders of the law"), an immigrant Orthodox community located in Brick Lane, Spitalfields, London, living at 9 Princelet Street Spitalfields.[22][23]

Chief Rabbi of Jerusalem[edit]

Proclamation by 80 rabbis in support of Kook after the printing of Kol Ha-Shofar in 1921
Kook with Mayor of New York John F. Hylan (1924)

Upon returning from Europe in 1919,[3]:44 he was appointed the Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Jerusalem, and soon after, as first Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Palestine in 1921.

Despite the fact that many of the new settlers were hostile to religion, Kook defended their behaviour in theological terms. His stance was deemed heretical by the traditional religious establishment[24] and in 1921 his detractors bought up the whole edition of his newly published Orot to prevent its circulation, plastering the offending passages on the walls of Meah Shearim.[25] Soon later, an anonymous pamphlet entitled Kol Ha-Shofar appeared containing a declaration signed by rabbis Sonnenfeld, Diskin and others saying: “We were astonished to see and hear gross things, foreign to the entire Torah, and we see that which we feared before his coming here, that he will introduce new forms of deviance that our rabbis and ancestors could not have imagined …. It is to be deemed a sorcerer’s book? If so, let it be known that it is forbidden to study [let alone] rely on all his nonsense and dreams.”[26] It also quoted Aharon Rokeach of Belz who stated "And know that the rabbi from Jerusalem, Kook - may his name be blotted out - is completely wicked and has already ruined many of our youth, entrapping them with his guileful tongue and impure books."[27] Returning to Poland after a visit to Palestine in 1921, Avraham Mordechai Alter of Ger wrote that he endeavoured to calm the situation by getting Kook to renounce any expressions which may have unwittingly resulted in a profanation of God's name. He then approached the elder rabbis of the Yishuv asking them to withdraw their denunciation. The rabbis claimed that their intention had been to reach a consensus on whether Kook's writings were acceptable, but their letter had been surreptitiously inserted by Kook's critics in to their inflammatory booklet without their knowledge.[24] A harsh proclamation issued against Kook in 1926 contained letters from three European rabbis in which Yosef Rosin referred to him as an "ignorant bore", Shaul Brach intimated that his Hebrew initials spelt the word "vomit" and likened him to King Jeroboam known for seducing the masses to idolatry, and Eliezer David Greenwald declared him an untrustworthy authority on Jewish law adding that his books should be burnt. When Jewish prayers at the Western Wall were broken up by the British in 1928, Kook called for a fast day, but as usual, the ultra-Orthodox community ignored his calls.[28] As a 16-year-old student in 1932, Menachem Porush was expelled from Etz Chaim Yeshiva for shooting and burning an effigy of Kook.[29] There were nevertheless other rabbis within Orthodoxy who spoke out in support of Kook, including the Chofetz Chaim and Isser Zalman Meltzer.[30][31]

In March 1924, in an effort to raise funds for Torah institutions in Palestine and Europe, Kook travelled to America with Rabbi Moshe Mordechai Epstein of the Slabodka Yeshiva and the Rabbi of Kaunas, Avraham Dov Baer Kahana Shapiro. In the same year, Kook founded the Mercaz HaRav yeshiva in Jerusalem.

Kook died in Jerusalem in 1935 and his funeral was attended by an estimated 20,000 mourners.[32]

Thought[edit]

Proclamation against Kook by rabbis Rosin, Brach and Greenwald (1926)

Rav Kook was a master of Halakha in the strictest sense, while at the same time possessing an unusual openness to new ideas. This drew many religious and nonreligious people to him, but also led to widespread misunderstanding of his ideas. He wrote prolifically on both Halakha and Jewish thought, and his books and personality continued to influence many even after his death.

Rav Kook tried to build and maintain channels of communication and political alliances between the various Jewish sectors, including the secular Jewish Zionist leadership, the Religious Zionists, and more traditional non-Zionist Orthodox Jews. He believed that the modern movement to re-establish a Jewish state in the land of Israel had profound theological significance and that the Zionists were agents in a heavenly plan to bring about the messianic era. Per this ideology, the youthful, secular and even anti-religious Labor Zionist pioneers, halutzim, were a part of a grand Divine process whereby the land and people of Israel were finally being redeemed from the 2,000-year exile (galut) by all manner of Jews who sacrificed themselves for the cause of building up the physical land, as laying the groundwork for the ultimate spiritual messianic redemption of world Jewry.

Inauguration of Hebrew University[edit]

Students of Mercaz Harav Yeshiva

In 1928, Rav Kook wrote a letter to Rav Joseph Messas (Chief Rabbi in Algeria), addressing certain misquotes which were erroneously being repeated in his name regarding a speech he gave at the inauguration of Hebrew University. The following are translated excerpts from the letter Rav Kook wrote to Rav Messas:

"...from the time that I came to the Holy Land, it has been my goal to the best of my ability to draw also those who are estranged and speak to their heart, so that they will come close to Torah and mitzvot – including even those young people who want to develop their physical health so that they will have the strength to protect our holy nation in times of violence, Heaven forbid, at a time when vicious enemies rise up against us...in regard to Hebrew University, Heaven forbid that I should say regarding secular studies that 'From Zion will come forth Torah.'

To the contrary, I told them explicitly that I am afraid lest there come forth, Heaven forbid, a stumbling block from their hands if they reject the Torah and the fear of G-d and 'please themselves in the brood of aliens' [i.e., studies antithetical to Torah such as Biblical Criticism]. I brought them examples of this from the past, from the incidents that took place due to people’s sins [during the Berlin Enlightenment], from which came forth groups that turned away from G-d and abandoned the source of living waters. But they must guard the holiness of Israel, teachers and students alike, and not follow foreign ideas nor turn aside from the Torah and the mitzvos. And even then, it is not from secular subjects that Torah will come forth, but rather when we support the holy yeshivas, which are dedicated solely to the holiness of the Torah.

Together with this, [I told them that] they should elevate the power of the tzaddikim and Torah giants who fear G-d. And the Central Yeshiva [Mercaz HaRav] in our holy and beautiful city, which we are toiling to establish and expand with G-d’s help, will stand in its great glory. Then, upon the foundation of the holy yeshivas, I said that the verse 'From Zion will come forth Torah' will be fulfilled.

These words are explicit in my speech that I spoke at that time before the people, before all of the important officials who came to the celebration, and to the entire great crowd of thousands who came from the far ends of the Holy Land and from the lands of the Diaspora. So how can malicious people come to distort the words of the living G-d in a way that is so filled with wickedness and folly?..."

Theodor Herzl eulogy[edit]

In 1904, Rav Kook wrote a letter to his father-in-law, addressing certain misquotes which were erroneously being repeated in his name regarding a speech he gave after Theodor Herzl's passing:

...Now, two gentlemen came to me… and requested me … since they were planning to gather in the bank building here to honor the memory of Dr. Herzl and it was their finding that even those opposed to Zionism would not deny that there were in his heart thoughts concerning the betterment of Israel. Although unfortunately [Herzl] did not find the straight path, nevertheless, 'The Holy One does not withhold credit for even good talk.' It would be poor manners not to arrange a memorial in his honor in a public meeting place, such as the Anglo-Palestine Bank here. Therefore I promised them I would attend.

Understandably, once I agreed to come, I did not want to refuse to speak some words. I assessed that, God willing, benefit would derive from my words, inasmuch as the other speakers would not have the audacity to belittle God, His Torah, and the sages of Israel.

Thank God, this assessment proved correct. Of course, I spoke pleasantly and politely, but I did reveal the fundamental failure of their [the Zionists’] entire enterprise, namely the fact that they do not place at the top of their list of priorities the sanctity of God and His great name, which is the power that enables Israel to survive ... In my remarks, I offered no homage to Dr. Herzl per se.

What I did say was that such a thought of improving the situation of Israel in Eretz Israel would be worthwhile if we would rise to the occasion. It would require a return to G-d by observing and honoring the Torah, and a consensus that the foundation of all must be the power of Torah. Repenting of baseless hatred, and wholehearted peace-seeking as obligated [by Torah] would result in success because it would be close to G-d’s will. We must make amends toward the future that the power of the sanctity of Torah be at the top of our list of priorities, that "the son of Yishai lead." If the will to improve materially will rest on Torah – then God will shine His face upon us and crown our every deed with success. At first, the salvation will be gradual, as our holy Rabbis remarked upon witnessing daybreak over the valley of Arbel, but after it will gain momentum, appearing as a great and wondrous light, as in the days of our Exodus from Egypt.

After [the address], others came to me and reported that some people read into my words ideas that I never intended ...

His empathy towards the non-religious elements aroused the suspicions of many opponents,[33] particularly that of the traditional rabbinical establishment that had functioned from the time of Turkey's control of greater Palestine, whose paramount leader was Rabbi Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld. However, Sonnenfeld and Kook deeply revered each other, evidenced by their respectful way of addressing each other in correspondence.

Kook remarked that he was fully capable of rejecting, but since there were enough practicing rejection, he preferred to fill the role of one who embraces. However, Kook was critical of the secularists on certain occasions when they violated Halacha (Jewish law), for instance, by not observing the Sabbath or kosher laws, or ascending the Temple Mount.

Kook wrote rulings presenting his strong opposition to people ascending the Temple Mount, due to the Jewish Laws of impurity. He felt that Jews should wait until the coming of the Messiah when it will be encouraged to enter the Temple Mount. However, he was very careful to express the fact that the Kotel and the Temple Mount were holy sites that belong to the Jewish people.

Kook also opposed the secular spirit of the Hatikvah anthem and penned another anthem with a more religious theme entitled haEmunah.

Rav Kook handwriting
Rav Isser Zalman Meltzer and Rav Moshe Mordechai Epstein writing in support and defense of Rav Kook

Attitude toward Zionism[edit]

While Kook is considered one most important thinkers in modern Religious Zionism, his attitude towards the "Zionism" of his time was complex.

Kook enthusiastically supported the settlement of the land which Zionists of his time were carrying out. In addition, his philosophy "la[id] a theological foundation for marrying Torah study to Zionism, and for an ethos of traditional Judaism engaged with Zionism and with modernity".[34]:234 And unlike many of his religious peers, he showed respect towards secular Zionists, and willingly engaged in joint projects with them (for instance, his participation in the Chief Rabbinate).

At the same time, he was critical of the religious-Zionist Mizrachi movement of his time for "tamping down religious fervor and willingly accepting secondary status within the Zionist movement".[34]:150 In 1917 he issued a proclamation entitled Degel Yerushalayim, where he distinguished between "Zion" (representing political sovereignty) and "Jerusalem" (representing holiness), and arguing that Zion (i.e. Zionism) must take a cooperative but eventually subservient role in relation to Jerusalem.[34]:150 He then went on to found a "Degel Yerushalayim" movement separate from the Zionist movement, though this initiative had little success.[34]:149–152

Legacy[edit]

The Israeli moshav Kfar Haroeh, a settlement founded in 1933, was named after Rav Kook, "Haroah" being a Hebrew acronym for "HaRav Avraham HaCohen". His son Zvi Yehuda Kook, who was also his most prominent student, took over teaching duties at Mercaz HaRav after his death, and dedicated his life to disseminating his father's writings. Many students of Rav Kook's writings and philosophy eventually formed Hardal Religious Zionist movement which is today led by rabbis who studied under Rav Kook's son at Mercaz HaRav.

In 1937, Yehuda Leib Maimon established Mossad Harav Kook, a religious research foundation and notable publishing house, based in Jerusalem. It is named after Rabbi Kook.[35]

Support from rabbinic scholars[edit]

With the sudden public display of rare letters from the greatest Jewish scholars to Rav Kook, many questions have emerged. Rav Kook wrote that he was not part of any party – he simply viewed himself as a follower of God and the laws of the Torah. His relationship with many different types of leaders and laymen, was a part of his general worldview – that all Jews must work together in serving God and bringing the redemption. Also, one could see from the published letters, that the "Chareidi" leadership was firm in its support of Rav Kook, and in fact had an apparent fond relationship with him. The vast majority of the "Chareidi" leaders publicized handwritten letters in support of Rav Kook, when a few individuals were publicly disrespectful towards him. Rav Kook embraced the support, but made clear that any insults were accepted by him without anger, for he viewed himself "as a servant of G-d," without interest in his personal honor.

Some examples of greetings in letters written by Jewish leaders to Rav Kook:

Rav Chaim Ozer Grodzinski: "Our friend, the gaon, our master and teacher, Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak Kook, shlita" and "The Glory of Honor, My Dear Friend, Ha-Rav Ha-Gaon, Ha-Gadol, the Famous One... The Prince of Torah, Our Teacher, Ha-Rav Avraham Yitzchak Ha-Cohen Kook Shlita..."[36]

Rav Boruch Ber Leibowitz: "The true gaon, the beauty, and glory of the generation, the tzaddik, his holiness, Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak, may his light shine, may he live for length of good days and years amen, the righteous Cohen, head of the beis din [court] in Jerusalem, the holy city, may it soon be built and established"

Rav Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn of Lubavitch: "The Gaon who is renowned with splendor among the Geonim of Ya’akov, Amud HaYemini, Patish HaChazak..."

Rav Chatzkel Abramsky: "The honored man, beloved of Hashem and his nation, the rabbi, the gaon, great and well-known, with breadth of knowledge, the glory of the generation, etc., etc., our master Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak Hacohen Kook, shlita, Chief Rabbi of the Land of Israel and the head of the Beis Din in the holy city of Jerusalem"

Rav Yitzchok Hutner: "The glorious honor of our master, our teacher and rabbi, the great gaon, the crown and sanctity of Israel, Maran [our master] Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak Hacohen Kook, shlita!"

Rav Isser Zalman Meltzer and Rav Moshe Mordechai Epstein: "Our honored friend, the great gaon and glory of the generation, our master and teacher, Avraham Yitzchak Hacohen, shlita"

Resources[edit]

Writings[edit]

Orot ("Lights") books[edit]

  • Orot – organized and published by Rabbi Zvi Yehuda Kook, 1920. English translation by Bezalel Naor (Jason Aronson, 1993). ISBN 1-56821-017-5
  • Orot HaTeshuvah – English translation by Ben-Zion Metzger (Bloch Pub. Co., 1968). ASIN B0006DXU94
  • Orot HaEmuna
  • Orot HaKodesh - four volumes, organized and published by Rabbi David Cohen
  • Orot HaTorah - organized and published by Rabbi Zvi Yehuda Kook, 1940.

Jewish thought[edit]

  • Chavosh Pe'er – on the mitzvah of tefillin. First printed in Warsaw, 1890.
  • Eder HaYakar and Ikvei HaTzon - essays about the new generation and a philosophical understanding of God. First printed in Jaffa in 1906.
  • Ein Ayah – commentary on Ein Yaakov the Aggadic sections of the Talmud. Printed in Jerusalem, 1995.
  • Ma'amarei HaRe'iyah (two volumes) – a collection of articles and lectures, many originally published in various periodicals. Printed in Jerusalem, 1984.
  • Midbar Shur – sermons written by Rav Kook while serving as a rabbi in Zaumel and Boisk in 1894–1896.
  • Reish Millin – Kabbalistic discussion of the Hebrew alphabet and punctuation. Printed in London, 1917.[37][38]

Halacha[edit]

  • Be'er Eliyahu – on Hilchos Dayanim
  • Orach Mishpat – Shu"t on Orach Chayim
  • Ezrat Cohen – Shu"t on Even HaEzer
  • Mishpat Kohen – Shu"t on issues relating to Eretz Yisrael
  • Zivchei R'Iyah- Shu"t and Chidushim on Zvachim and Avodat Beit HaBchira
  • Shabbat Haaretz hilchot shevi'it (shemittah)

Unedited and other[edit]

  • Shmoneh Kvatzim – volume 2 of which was republished as Arpilei Tohar[39]
  • Olat Raiyah – Commentary on the Siddur
  • Igrot HaRaiyah – Collected letters of Rav Kook

Translation and commentary[edit]

  • (translation), Abraham Isaac Kook: The Lights of Penitence, The Moral Principles, Lights of Holiness, Essays, Letters, and Poems, Ben Zion Bokser, Paulist Press 1978. ISBN 0-8091-2159-X [Includes complete English translations of Orot ha-Teshuva ("The Lights of Penitence"), Musar Avicha ("The Moral Principles"), as well as selected translations from Orot ha-Kodesh ("The Lights of Holiness") and miscellaneous essays, letters, and poems.]
  • Samson, David; Tzvi Fishman (1996). Lights Of Orot. Jerusalem: Torat Eretz Yisrael Publications. ISBN 965-90114-0-7.
  • Samson, David; Tzvi Fishman (1997). War and Peace. Jerusalem: Torat Eretz Yisrael Publications. ISBN 965-90114-2-3.
  • Samson, David; Tzvi Fishman (1999). The Art of T'Shuva. Jerusalem: Beit Orot Publications. ISBN 965-90114-3-1. Online edition.
  • (translation), The Essential Writings of Abraham Isaac Kook, Ben Yehuda Press 2006 (reprint). ISBN 0-9769862-3-X
  • Rabbi Chanan Morrison, Gold from the Land of Israel: A New Light on the Weekly Torah Portion From the Writings of Rabbi Abraham Isaac HaKohen Kook, Urim Publications 2006. ISBN 965-7108-92-6.
  • Rabbi Chanan Morrison, Silver from the Land of Israel: A New Light on the Sabbath and Holidays From the Writings of Rabbi Abraham Isaac HaKohen Kook, Urim Publications 2010. ISBN 965-524-042-8.
  • Rabbi Chanan Morrison, The Splendor of Tefillin: Insights into the Mitzvah of Tefillin from the Writings of Rabbi Abraham Isaac HaKohen Kook, CreateSpace 2012. ISBN 148-001-997-6.
  • Rabbi Chanan Morrison, Sapphire from the Land of Israel: A New Light on the Weekly Torah Portion From the Writings of Rabbi Abraham Isaac HaKohen Kook, CreateSpace 2013. ISBN 149-090-936-2.
  • Rabbi Gideon Weitzman, Sparks of Light: Essays on the Weekly Torah Portions Based on the Philosophy of Rav Kook, Jason Aronson. ISBN 0-7657-6080-0 ISBN 978-0765760807.
  • Rabbi Gideon Weitzman, Light of Redemption: A Passover Haggadah Based on the Writings of Rav Kook, Urim Publications. ISBN 978-965-7108-71-0.

Also there is now a musical project that presents Rav Kook's poetry with musical accompaniment. HA'OROT-THE LIGHTS OF RAV KOOK by Greg Wall's Later Prophets Featuring Rabbi Itzchak Marmorstein – released on Tzadik Records, April 2009.[40][41][42]

Analysis[edit]

  • The Philosophy of Rabbi Kook, Zvi Yaron, Eliner Library, 1992.
  • Essays on the Thought and Philosophy of Rabbi Kook, ed. Ezra Gellman, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1991. ISBN 0-8386-3452-4
  • The World of Rav Kook's Thought, Shalom Carmy, Avi-Chai Publishers, 1991. ISBN 0-9623723-2-3
  • Rav Avraham Itzhak HaCohen Kook: Between Rationalism and Mysticism, Benjamin Ish-Shalom, translation Ora Wiskind Elper, SUNY Press, 1993. ISBN 0-7914-1369-1
  • Religious Zionism of Rav Kook Pinchas Polonsky, Machanaim, 2009, ISBN 978-965-91446-0-0
  • Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook and Jewish Spirituality Lawrence J. Kaplan & David Shatz, NYU Press, 1994, ISBN 978-0814746530
  • Ephraim Chamiel, The Dual Truth - Studies in Nineteenth-Century Modern Religious Thought and its Influence on Twentiest-Century Jewish Philosophy, Academic Studies Press, Boston 2019, Vol II, pp. 449–499.
  • Ephraim Chamiel, Between Religion and Reason - The Dialectic Position in Contemporary Jewish Thought, Academic Studies Press, Boston 2020, part I, pp. 7–15.

Biography[edit]

Quotes[edit]

  • Therefore, the pure righteous do not complain of the dark, but increase the light; they do not complain of evil, but increase justice; they do not complain of heresy, but increase faith; they do not complain of ignorance, but increase wisdom.[43]
  • There could be a freeman with the spirit of the slave, and there could be a slave with a spirit full of freedom; whoever is faithful to himself – he is a freeman, and whoever fills his life only with what is good and beautiful in the eyes of others – he is a slave.[44]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ And by his followers, simply as HaRav.
  2. ^ Rozenaḳ, Avinoʻam (2007-01-01). "Hidden Diaries and New Discoveries: The Life and Thought of Rabbi A. I. Kook". Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies. 25 (3): 111–147. doi:10.1353/sho.2007.0085. ISSN 1534-5165. S2CID 170098496.
  3. ^ a b c d e Friedman, Masha (1988). Stories From the Life of Rav Kook. Beit Shamai Publications. ISBN 0-944921-00-0.
  4. ^ William B. Helmreich (February 2000). The World of the Yeshiva: An Intimate Portrait of Orthodox Jewry. KTAV Publishing House, Inc. pp. 6–8. ISBN 978-0-88125-641-3. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
  5. ^ "Chazon Hageulah," p. 11, Jerusalem 1941 (Hebrew)
  6. ^ "Rabbi Eliyahu David Rabinowitz-Teomim • "The Aderet"". www.hevratpinto.org. Retrieved 2018-09-12.
  7. ^ "The Hasidism of Rav Kook | The Lehrhaus". www.thelehrhaus.com. Retrieved 2018-09-12.
  8. ^ "Rabbi Abraham Isaac HaKohen Kook (1865-1935)". www.ravkooktorah.org. Retrieved 2018-09-12.
  9. ^ Fendel, Hillel. "Rav Kook, From The Pages Of The Jewish Press In 1961".
  10. ^ also spelled Zoimel, described in the book as a village
  11. ^ "The Life of Tzadikim: Harav Tzvi Yehuda Kook". yeshiva.co.
  12. ^ "BAUSK or BAUSKE". Jewish Encyclopedia (1906, public domain).
  13. ^ also spelled Boisk; described as a city
  14. ^ "The Nazir of Jerusalem". Israel National News. Retrieved 2018-09-12.
  15. ^ "Full text of "A Vision of Vegetarianism and Peace"". Archive.org. 1985-04-20. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
  16. ^ "A Vision of Vegetarianism and Peace". Jewish Vegetarians of North America. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2018-12-28.
  17. ^ "After serving as rabbi in the small town of Zoimel and later in the city of Boisk (Bauska), Latvia, in 1904 Rabbi Kook accepted the invitation of the port city of Jaffa ...""Rav Kook - Orot". orot.com.
  18. ^ Blincoe, Nicholas (2019) More Noble Than War. The Story of Football in Israel and Palestine. Constable. London ISBN 978-1-47212-439-5 p. 32
  19. ^ Aharon Gaimani, "Scholars of Yemen Answer Questions of Rabbi A.I. Kook", in: Ascending the Palm Tree – An Anthology of the Yemenite Jewish Heritage, Rachel Yedid & Danny Bar-Maoz (ed.), E'ele BeTamar: Rehovot 2018, pp. 88–125 OCLC 1041776317
  20. ^ "Masa le-Teiman," by Shmuel Yavne'eli, pp. 187–188; 196–199, Tel-Aviv 1952 (Hebrew)
  21. ^ "1913: Rabbi Kook Leads Rabbis' Tour of the Moshavot". Israel National News. Retrieved 2018-09-12.
  22. ^ "Blog Archive » Rav Kook in London". OzTorah.com. 2013-12-22. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
  23. ^ "Rav Kook on Psalm 43: The London Bomb Shelter". Ravkooktorah.org. 1915-01-19. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
  24. ^ a b Ben Zion Bokser (1981). "A letter by the Gerer Rebbe". Conservative Judaism. 35 (1-3 ed.). Rabbinical Assembly. pp. 26–30. Many of them were not ritually observant; some were openly hostile to religion. Despite this, Rabbi Kook defended them, and even hailed them as playing a role, by their labors, in hastening the messianic deliverance. For the religious establishment of the old yishuv this was a heretical distortion which imperiled everything holy in Judaism, and they denounced Rabbi Kook as a misleader of his people.
  25. ^ Shalom Carmy (1995). "Dialectic, Doubters, and a Self-Erasing Letter (Notes)". In Lawrence J. Kaplan; David Shatz; Kayann Short; Abouali Farmanfarmaian (eds.). Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook and Jewish Spirituality. NYU Press. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-8147-4653-0.
  26. ^ Yehudah Mirsky (February 11, 2014). Rav Kook: Mystic in a Time of Revolution. Yale University Press. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-300-16424-4. There quickly followed a pamphlet banning Orot, which included frontal attacks on Rav Kook and Charlap, and a declaration signed by Zonnenfeld, Diskin, and others: “We were astonished to see and hear gross things, foreign to the entire Torah, and we see that which we feared before his coming here, that he will introduce new forms of deviance that our rabbis and ancestors could not have imagined… He turns light to darkness, and darkness to light... It is to be deemed a sorcerer’s book, and let it be known that it is forbidden to study [let alone] rely on all his nonsense and dreams.
  27. ^ Rivka Schatz Uffenheimer (2005). הרעיון המשיחי מאז גירוש ספרד (in Hebrew). Magnes Press. p. 234. בקונטרס זה מופיע בפעם הראשונה דימויו של הרב קוק לשבתי צבי "וקאי באיסורא כיחידאי דאיהו נמי שיטתיה כיחידאי הש״ץ״. ולפני שהוא מביא ממאמרי הרב באות ׳תעודות׳ כגון מכתב בנו של הרבי מבלז, המזכיר את דברי הרבי: "וידוע דהרב דשם מירושלים ושמו קוק ימ"ש הוא רשע גמור וכבר טימא כמה צעירי עמנו ע"י מצודתו של חלקות לשונו ובספרים הטמאים, וד' יזכנו ויעביר רוח הטומאה מכל נפוצות עמו, ונזכה לעלות לציון ברנה, וכשנזכה שיהי' עת רצון מהש"י ולא עתה על ידיהם
  28. ^ Yehudah Mirsky (February 11, 2014). Rav Kook: Mystic in a Time of Revolution. Yale University Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-300-16555-5. When Rav Kook called for public fasts on October 22, 1928, to protest the indignities at the Kotel, the ultra-Orthodox ignored him, as they studiously ignored every prayer meeting and fast day that he called.
  29. ^ Ronald B. Sobel; Sidney Wallach (1975). Justice, Justice Shalt Thou Pursue: Papers Assembled on the Occasion of the 75th Birthday of the Reverend Dr. Julius Mark, as an Expression of Gratitude of the Jewish Conciliation Board with Whose Services and Leadership Dr. Mark Has Long Been Identified. Ktav Publishing House. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-87068-458-6. The late Chief Rabbi Kook, whom Rabbi Parush likewise attacked and whose effigy he shot and burned...
  30. ^ Yehudah Mirsky (February 11, 2014). Rav Kook: Mystic in a Time of Revolution. Yale University Press. p. 202. ISBN 978-0-300-16555-5. A major scholar of impeccable ultra-Orthodox credentials, Meltzer resolutely defended Kook against attackers on the right. He was wont to say, "Let them, any of us, pray on Yom Kippur the way Rav Kook prays on an average weekday."
  31. ^ Anna Szalai; Rita Horváth; Gábor Balázs (2007). Previously unexplored sources on the Holocaust in Hungary: a selection from Jewish periodicals, 1930-1944. International Institute for Holocaust Research, Yad Vashem. p. 32. ISBN 978-965-308-300-4. According to the report, Chofetz-Chaim condemned the pamphlet against Kook as well.
  32. ^ Jewish Affairs, in Report by His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Council of the League of Nations on the Administration of Palestine and Trans-Jordan for the year 1935 by His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Council of the League of Nations on the administration of Palestine and Trans-Jordan for the year 1935, The Office of High Commissioner for Palestine and Trans-Jordan, Jerusalem, 1935
  33. ^ "אזמרך בלאמים - התיחסות גדולי ישראל לראיה קוק ולספרו אורות". Yoel-ab.com. 1996-06-19. Archived from the original on 2015-12-08. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
  34. ^ a b c d Yehudah Mirsky, Rav Kook: Mystic in a Time of Revolution
  35. ^ "מוסד הרב קוק | בית היוצר הגדול לספר התורני". Mosadharavkook.com. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
  36. ^ Bisdeh Ha-Re'eiyah p. 236, Chayei Ha-Re'eiyah pp. 388-389, Igrot Le-Re'eiyah #316 and Melachim Kivnei Adam pp. 106-107. Maran Ha-Rav's response is found in Shut Da'at Cohain #223
  37. ^ he:כתבי הראי"ה
  38. ^ Morrison, Chanan (2006). Gold from the Land of Israel: A New Light on the Weekly Torah Portion - From the Writings of Rabbi Abraham Isaac HaKohen Kook'. Urim Publications. pp. 353–356. ISBN 965-7108-92-6.
  39. ^ [1][dead link]
  40. ^ "HA'OROT - Listen and Stream Free Music, Albums, New Releases, Photos, Videos". Myspace.
  41. ^ "美肌になるために". www.haorot.org. Archived from the original on 2017-12-30. Retrieved 2018-09-30.
  42. ^ "HAOROTRAVKOOK". YouTube.
  43. ^ From "Arpilei Tohar", p. 27–28. Hebrew: על-כן הצדיקים הטהורים אינם קובלים על החושך, אלא מוסיפים אור; אינם קובלים על הרשעה, אלא מוסיפים צדק; אינם קובלים על הכפירה, אלא מוסיפים אמונה; אינם קובלים על הבערות, אלא מוסיפים חכמה.
  44. ^ From "Olat Reiyah". Hebrew: יש בן חורין שרוחו רוח של עבד, ויש עבד שרוחו מלאה חירות; הנאמן לעצמיותו – בן חורין הוא, ומי שכל חייו הם רק במה שטוב ויפה בעיני אחרים – הוא עבד.

External links[edit]

Jewish titles
New title Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Mandatory Palestine
1921–35
Succeeded by
Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog
Rosh Yeshiva of
Yeshivat Mercaz HaRav Kook

1921–35
Succeeded by
Zvi Yehuda Kook