Action of 19 August 1916

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Action of 19 August 1916
Part of World War I
North Sea map-en.png
North Sea
Date 18–20 August 1916
Location North Sea
56°N 03°E / 56°N 3°E / 56; 3 (North Sea)Coordinates: 56°N 03°E / 56°N 3°E / 56; 3 (North Sea)
Result inconclusive
Belligerents
 Royal Navy  Kaiserliche Marine
Commanders and leaders
Sir John Jellicoe
Sir David Beatty
Reinhard Scheer
Franz von Hipper
Strength
29 battleships
6 battlecruisers
armoured cruisers
light cruisers
destroyers
minelayer
seaplane carrier
1 Submarine
18 battleships
2 battlecruisers
light cruisers
torpedo-boats
2 Zeppelins
3 U-Boats
Casualties and losses
2 light cruisers sunk 1 battleship damaged

The Action of 19 August 1916 was one of two attempts made by the German High Seas Fleet in 1916 to engage elements of the British Royal Navy, following the mixed results of the Battle of Jutland in World War I. The lesson of Jutland for Germany had been the vital need for reconnaissance, to avoid the unexpected arrival of the British Grand Fleet during a raid. On this occasion four Zeppelins were deployed to scout the North Sea between Scotland and Norway for signs of British ships and four more scouted immediately ahead of German ships. Twenty-four German submarines participated off the English coast, in the southern North Sea and off the Dogger Bank.[1]

Background[edit]

Although Jutland had been officially hailed as a success, the German commander Admiral Reinhard Scheer felt it important that another raid should be mounted as quickly as possible, to maintain morale in his severely battered fleet. It was decided that the raid should follow the pattern of previous ones, with the battlecruisers carrying out a dawn artillery bombardment of an English town, in this case Sunderland. Only two battlecruisers were still serviceable after Jutland, Moltke and Von der Tann, so the force was bolstered by three battleships, Bayern, Markgraf and Grosser Kurfürst. The remainder of the High Seas Fleet, comprising 16 dreadnought battleships, was to carry out close support 20 miles behind. The fleet set sail at 9:00 p.m. on 18 August from the Jade river.[2]

The attack[edit]

Intelligence[edit]

Information about the upcoming raid was obtained by British Intelligence in Room 40 through intercepted and decoded radio messages. Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, commander of the British fleet, was on leave so had to be recalled urgently and boarded the light cruiser Royalist at Dundee to meet his fleet in the early hours of 19 August off the river Tay. In his absence, Admiral Cecil Burney took the fleet to sea on the afternoon of 18 August. Vice-Admiral David Beatty left the Firth of Forth with his squadron of six battlecruisers to meet the main fleet in the Long Forties. The Harwich Force of 20 destroyers and 5 light cruisers commanded by Commodore Tyrwhitt was ordered out, as were 25 British submarines which were stationed in likely areas to intercept German ships. The battlecruisers together with the 5th Battle Squadron of five fast battleships were stationed 30 miles ahead of the main fleet to scout for the enemy. The assembled fleet now moved south seeking the German fleet, but suffered the loss of one of the light cruisers screening the battlecruiser group, HMS Nottingham, which was hit by three torpedoes from submarine U-52 at 6:00 a.m.

Finding the opposition[edit]

Town-class cruiser HMS Falmouth, sunk after torpedo attacks from two submarines

At 6:15 a.m. Jellicoe received information from the Admiralty that one hour earlier the enemy had been 200 miles to his south east. However, the loss of the cruiser caused him to first head north for fear of endangering his other ships. No torpedo tracks or submarines had been seen, so it was unclear whether the cause had been a submarine or entering an unknown minefield. He did not resume a south-easterly course until 9:00 a.m. when William Goodenough, commanding the light cruisers, advised that the cause had been a submarine attack.[3] Further information from the admiralty indicated that the battlecruisers would be within 40 miles of the main German fleet by 2:00 p.m.. and Jellicoe increased to maximum speed. Weather conditions were good, and there was still plenty of time still for a fleet engagement before dark.[4]

The German force had received reassurances about Jellicoe's position, when a zeppelin had spotted the Grand Fleet heading north away from Scheer, at the time it had been avoiding the possible minefield. Unfortunately for the British, the Zeppelin L 13 sighted the Harwich force approximately 75 miles east-north-east of Cromer, mistakenly identifying the cruisers as battleships. This was precisely the sort of target Scheer was seeking, so he changed course at 12:15 p.m. also to the south-east and away from the approaching British fleet. No further reports were received from zeppelins about the British fleet, but it was spotted by a U-boat just 65 miles north of Scheer. Scheer turned for home at 2:35 p.m. abandoning his potential target. By 4:00 p.m. Jellicoe had been advised that Scheer had abandoned the operation and so turned north himself.[5]

The attack[edit]

Nassau-class battleship SMS Westfalen damaged by torpedo from HMS E23

A second cruiser attached to the battlecruiser squadron, HMS Falmouth, was hit by two torpedoes from U-66 at 4:52 p.m. and sank the following day while being towed to the Humber, when hit by two more torpedoes fired by U-63. By 5:45 p.m. the Harwich force had sighted German ships but was too far behind for any prospect of an attack before nightfall so abandoned the chase. The British submarine HMS E23 (Lieutenant-Commander R. R. Turner) managed to hit the German battleship SMS Westfalen at 5:05 a.m. on 19 August but the ship was able to return home.

Aftermath[edit]

This was the last occasion on which the German fleet travelled so far west into the North Sea. On 6 October, a decision was made in Germany to resume attacks against merchant vessels by submarine, which meant the submarine fleet was no longer available for combined attacks against surface vessels. On 13 September, a conference took place on the flagship to discuss recent events and it was decided that it was unsafe to conduct fleet operations south of latitude 55.5° North (approximately level with Horns reef and where the battle of Jutland had taken place), except in an emergency such as a German invasion force.[6] Scheer was unimpressed by the efficiency of the Zeppelin reconnaissance. Only three Zeppelins had spotted anything and from seven reports four had been wrong.[7]

From 18–19 October, Scheer led a brief sortie into the North Sea and British intelligence gave warning; the Grand Fleet declined to prepare an ambush, staying in port with steam raised ready to sail. The German sortie was abandoned after a few hours when SMS München was hit by a torpedo fired by E38 (Lieutenant-Commander J. de B. Jessop) and it was feared other submarines might be in the area. Scheer suffered further difficulties when in November he sailed with Moltke and a division of dreadnoughts to rescue U-20 and U-30, which had become stranded on the Danish coast. British submarine J1, Commander J. Laurence, managed to hit the battleships Grosser Kurfürst and Kronprinz. The failure of these operations reinforced the belief, created at Jutland, that the risks involved in such operations were not justified by the outcomes. Both sides feared the loss of their capital ships to submarines or mines.[8]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Roskill pp.196–197
  2. ^ Bennett p. 226
  3. ^ Massie p. 683
  4. ^ Roskill pp. 197–198
  5. ^ Massie p. 683
  6. ^ Roskill pp. 198–199
  7. ^ Massie pp. 683–684
  8. ^ Bennett pp. 227–228

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]