Allies of World War I
|Allies of World War I|
Principal Allied Powers:
|Historical era||World War I|
The Allies of World War I or Entente Powers is the term commonly used for the coalition that opposed the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria during the 1914-1918 First World War. The Allies were further divided into so-called Principal and Associated or Affiliated Powers.
In 1907, the French Third Republic, the British Empire and the Russian Empire formed the Triple Entente; entry into the war in 1914 automatically involved their respective colonies, while Japan was added to the Entente in August 1914. Originally part of the 1882 Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary, Italy remained neutral in 1914 before joining the Entente in 1915. Affiliated or Associated members of the Entente included Belgium, Serbia, Greece, Montenegro and Romania.
In April 1917, the United States declared war on Germany, then on Austria in December; the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria broke off diplomatic relations with the US but neither declared war. The US joined the Entente as a Co-belligerent, due to the long-standing American opposition to formal alliances.
- 1 Background
- 2 Statistics
- 3 Principal Powers
- 4 Affiliated state combatants
- 5 Co-belligerents; the United States
- 6 Non-state combatants
- 7 Leaders
- 7.1 Serbia
- 7.2 Montenegro
- 7.3 Russia (1914–1917)
- 7.4 Belgium
- 7.5 France
- 7.6 British Empire
- 7.7 Japan
- 7.8 Italy (1915–1918)
- 7.9 Romania (1916–1918)
- 7.10 Portugal (1916–1918)
- 7.11 Greece (1916/17–1918)
- 7.12 United States (1917–1918)
- 7.13 Siam (Thailand) (1917–1918)
- 7.14 Brazil (1917–1918)
- 7.15 Armenia (1918)
- 8 Personnel and casualties
- 9 See also
- 10 Footnotes
- 11 References
- 12 Sources
- 13 Bibliography
Fighting commenced when Austria invaded Serbia on 28 July 1914, purportedly in response to the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to Emperor Franz Joseph; this brought Serbia's ally Montenegro into the war on 8 August and it attacked the Austrian naval base at Cattaro, modern Kotor. At the same time, German troops entered neutral Belgium and Luxembourg as dictated by the Schlieffen Plan; over 95% of Belgium was occupied but the Belgian Army held their lines on the Yser Front throughout the war. This allowed Belgium to be treated as an Ally, in contrast to Luxembourg which retained control over domestic affairs but was occupied by the German military.
In the East, between 7-9 August the Russians entered German East Prussia on 7 August, Austrian Eastern Galicia. Japan joined the Entente by declaring war on Germany on 23 August, then Austria on 25 August. On 2 September, Japanese forces surrounded the German Treaty Port of Tsingtao (now Qingdao) in China and occupied German colonies in the Pacific, including the Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands.
Despite its membership of the Triple Alliance, Italy remained neutral until 23 May 1915 when it joined the Entente, declaring war on Austria but not Germany. On 17 January 1916, Montenegro capitulated and left the Entente; this was offset when Germany declared war on Portugal in March 1916, while Romania commenced hostilities against Austria on 27 August.
On 6 April 1917, the United States entered the war as a co-belligerent, along with the associated allies of Liberia, Siam and Greece. After the 1917 October Revolution, Russia left the Entente and and agreed a separate peace with the Central Powers with the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918. Romania was forced to do the same in the May 1918 Treaty of Bucharest but on 10 November, it repudiated the Treaty and once more declared war on the Central Powers.
These changes meant the Allies who negotiated the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 included France, Britain, Italy, Japan and the US; Part One of the Treaty agreed to the establishment of the League of Nations on 25 January 1919. This came into being on 16 January 1920 with Britain, France, Italy and Japan as permanent members of the Executive Council; the US Senate voted against ratification of the Treaty of Versailles on 19 March, thus preventing American participation.
|First Wave: 1914|
|Russian Empire||Russia (inc. Poland)||173.2||21.7||257.7||12,000,0003|
|British Empire||United Kingdom||46.0||0.3||226.4||6,211,9222|
|Empire of Japan||Japan||55.1||0.4||76.5||800,0003|
|Second Wave (1915–16)|
|Kingdom of Italy||Italy||35.6||0.3||91.3||5,615,0003|
|Kingdom of Romania||7.7||0.1||11.7||750,0003|
|Third Wave (1917–18)|
|United States of America||United States||96.5||7.8||511.6||4,355,0003|
|Central American states||9.0||0.6||10.6|
|Republic of the United States of Brazil||25.0||8.5||20.3||1,71312|
|Kingdom of Greece||4.8||0.1||7.7||230,0003|
|Kingdom of Siam||8.4||0.5||7.0||1,2842|
|Republic of China||441.0||11.1||243.7|
|Republic of Liberia||1.5||0.1||0.9|
|UK, France and Russia only||259.0||22.6||622.8|
|UK, France and Russia only||259.0||22.6||622.8|
|Percentage of world||70%||61%||64%|
|UK, France and USA only||182.3||8.7||876.6|
|Percentage of world||10%||7%||32%|
The British Empire
In response to the invasion of Belgium, the British Empire declared war on Germany on 4 August 1914. This automatically involved all members of the Empire, many of whom made significant contributions to the Allied war effort, both in the provision of troops and civilian labourers.
The Empire was split into Crown Colonies that were administered by the Colonial Office in London, such as Nigeria, [a] and the self-governing Dominions. These consisted of Canada, Newfoundland, New Zealand, Australia and South Africa, which controlled their own domestic policies and military expenditure but not foreign policy.
The anomaly was British India or the Empire of India, which then included modern India, Pakistan, Myanmar and Bangladesh; this was governed directly by British officials on behalf of George V, rather than the Colonial Office. Over one million members of the British Indian Army served in different theatres of the war, primarily France and the Middle East.
From 1914-1916, overall Imperial diplomatic, political and military strategy was controlled by the British War Cabinet in London; in 1917 it was superseded by the Imperial War Cabinet, which included representatives from the Dominions. Under the War Cabinet were the Chief of the Imperial General Staff or CIGS, responsible for all Imperial ground forces, and the Admiralty that did the same for the Royal Navy. Theatre commanders like Douglas Haig on the Western Front or Edmund Allenby in Palestine then reported to the CIGS.
Apart from the Indian Army, the largest individual units were the Australian Corps and Canadian Corps in France, which by 1918 were commanded by their own generals, John Monash and Arthur Currie. Contingents from South Africa, New Zealand and Newfoundland served in theatres including France, Gallipoli, German East Africa and the Middle East. Australian troops separately occupied German New Guinea, with the South Africans doing the same in German South West Africa; this resulted in the Maritz rebellion by former Boers, which was quickly suppressed. After the war, New Guinea and South-West Africa became Protectorates, held until 1975 and 1990 respectively.
The Russian Empire
In response to Austria-Hungary's invasion of Serbia in 1914, Russian government officials denounced the Austro-Hungarian invasion as an "ignoble war" on a "weak country". Russian government official Nikolaĭ N. Shebeko stated: "the attack on Serbia by a powerful empire such as Austria, supposedly in order to defend its existence, cannot be understood by anyone in my country; it has been considered simply as a means of delivering a death-blow to Serbia." Russia held close diplomatic relations with Serbia, and Russian foreign minister Sergey Sazonov suspected the events were a conspiracy between Austria-Hungary and Germany to expel Russian influence in the Balkans. On 30 July 1914, Russia enacted a general mobilization. The day after general mobilization was enacted, Austria-Hungary's ally Germany declared war on Russia prior to expected Russian intervention against Austria-Hungary.
Following a raid by Ottoman warships on the Russian port of Odessa, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire in November 1914.
The French Republic
After Germany declared war on Russia, France with its alliance with Russia prepared a general mobilization in expectation of war. On 3 August 1914, Germany declared war on France.
Empire of Japan
Prior to the Meiji Restoration in 1868, Japan was a semi-feudal, largely agrarian state with few natural resources and limited technology. By 1914, it had transformed itself into a modern industrial state, with a powerful military; by defeating China in the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894-1895, it established itself as the primary power in East Asia and acquired the then-unfied Korea and Formosa, now modern Taiwan.
Concerned by Russian expansion in Korea and Manchuria, Britain and Japan signed the Anglo-Japanese Alliance on January 30, 1902, agreeing if either were attacked by a third party, the other would remain neutral and if attacked by two or more opponents, the other would come to its aid. This meant Japan could rely on British support in a war with Russia, if either France or Germany, which also had interests in China, decided to join them. This gave Japan the reassurance needed to take on Russia in the 1905 Russo-Japanese War; victory established Japan in the Chinese province of Manchuria.
With Japan as an ally in the Far East, John Fisher, First Sea Lord from 1904-1910, was able to re-focus British naval resources in the North Sea to counter the threat from the Imperial German Navy. The Alliance was renewed in 1911; in 1914, Japan joined the Entente in return for German territories in the Pacific, greatly annoying the Australian government which also wanted them.
On 7 August, Britain officially asked for assistance in destroying German naval units in China and Japan formally declared war on Germany on 23 August, followed by Austria-Hungary on 25th. On 2 September 1914, Japanese forces surrounded the German Treaty Port of Qingdao, then known as Tsingtao, which surrendered on 7 November. The Imperial Japanese Navy simultaneously occupied German colonies in the Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands, while in 1917, a Japanese naval squadron was sent to support the Allies in the Mediterranean.
Japan's primary interest was in China and in January 1915, the Chinese government was presented with a secret ultimatum of Twenty-One Demands, demanding extensive economic and political concessions. While these were eventually modified, the result was a surge of anti-Japanese nationalism in China and an economic boycott of Japanese goods. In addition, the other Allies now saw Japan as a threat, rather than a partner, lead to tensions first with Russia, then the US after it entered the war in April 1917. Despite protests from the other Allies, after the war Japan refused to return Qingdao and the province of Shandong to China.
Kingdom of Italy
While the 1882 Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy was renewed at regular intervals, it was fatally compromised by the clash between Italian ambitions in the Adriatic and the Aegean with those of Austria-Hungary. Italian nationalists referred to Austrian-held Trieste and South Tyrol as 'the lost territories,' making an Alliance with Austria so controversial that its terms were kept secret until it expired in 1915.
Alberto Pollio, Chief of Staff of the Italian Army was very pro-Austria but when he died on 1 July 1914, most of the prospects for Italian support died with him. Prime Minister Antonio Salandra argued since the Alliance was defensive in nature, Austria's aggression against Serbia and Italy's exclusion from the decision-making process meant it was not obliged to join them.
Italian caution made sense since France and Britain supplied or controlled the import of most of Italy's raw materials, including 90% of its coal. Salandra described the process of determining which side Italy would take as "sacred egoism;' all sides expected the war to end before mid-1915 at the latest, making decision urgent. He ordered Pollio's replacement, General Luigi Cadorna to begin moving Italian troops away from the frontier with France to the North-Eastern one with Austria.
Under the April 1915 Treaty of London, Italy agreed to join the Entente in return for Italian-populated territories of Austria-Hungary and other concessions; in return, it declared war on Austria-Hungary in May 1915 as required, although not on Germany until 1916. Italian resentment at the difference between the promises of 1915 and the actual results of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles would be powerful factors in the rise of Mussolini.
Affiliated state combatants
Kingdom of Belgium
In 1830, the southern provinces of the Netherlands broke away to form the Kingdom of Belgium and their independence was confirmed by the 1839 Treaty of London. Article VII of the Treaty required Belgium to remain perpetually neutral and committed Austria, France, Germany and Russia to guarantee that against aggression by any other state, including the signatories.
It was accepted Germany would probably violate Belgian neutrality in the event of war with France; what wasn't clear was the extent. The original Schlieffen Plan required only a limited incursion into the Belgian Ardennes, rather than a full scale invasion; in September 1911, the Belgian Foreign Minister told a British Embassy official they would not call for assistance if the Germans limited themselves to that. While neither Britain or France could allow Germany free passage through Belgium, a Belgian refusal to ask for help would complicate matters for the British Liberal government, which contained a significant isolationist element.
However, Russian military expansion and fears of a two front war meant the German High Command now viewed a quick victory over France as imperative; the huge increase in military spending in 1913 meant that to accommodate the extra troops, the 'incursion' became a full-scale invasion. The Germans accepted the risk of British intervention; in common with most of Europe, they expected it to be a short war while their London Ambassador claimed civil war in Ireland would prevent Britain from assisting its Entente partners.
On 3 August, the Belgian government received an ultimatum demanding they allow the Germans unimpeded progress through any part of Belgium, which was refused. Early on the morning of 4 August, the German Army invaded and the Belgians called for assistance under the 1839 Treaty, bringing Britain into the war; by the end of 1914, over 95% of the country was occupied but the Belgian Army held their lines on the Yser Front throughout the war.
In 1916, 25,000 Congolese troops plus an estimated 260,000 porters from the Belgian Congo joined British forces in the East African Campaign. By 1917, they controlled the western part of German East Africa which would become the Belgian League of Nations Mandate of Ruanda-Urundi or modern-day Rwanda and Burundi.
Brazil entered the war in 1917 after the United States intervened on the basis of Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare sinking its merchant ships, which Brazil also cited as a reason to enter the war fighting against Germany and the Central Powers. The First Brazilian Republic sent the Naval Division in War Operations that joined the British fleet in Gibraltar and made the first Brazilian naval effort in international waters. In compliance with the commitments made at the Inter-American Conference, held in Paris from November 20 to December 3, 1917, the Brazilian Government sent a medical mission composed of civilian and military surgeons to work in field hospitals of the European theater, a contingent of sergeants and officers to serve with the French army; Airmen from the Army and Navy to join the Royal Air Force, and the employment of part of the Fleet, primarily in the anti-submarine war.
The disagreement between the pro-German King Constantine I of Greece and the liberal Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos, regarding the country's stance, caused a National Schism, but eventually a united Greece joined the Allies in 1917, while Greek units were fighting at the Macedonian Front since 1916.
Montenegro had very close cultural and political connections with Serbia and cooperated with Serbia in the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913. Montenegro joined the war against Austria-Hungary.
Nejd and Hasa
Idrisid Emirate of Asir
Kingdom of Serbia
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Serbia was invaded by Austria-Hungary after Austria-Hungary placed a stringent ultimatum to the Serbian government demanding full compliance to an Austro-Hungarian investigation of complicity by the Serbian government in the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand. Serbia agreed to most of Austria-Hungary's demands but because it did not fully comply, Austria-Hungary invaded.
Serbia had the diplomatic support of Russia, and both Serbia and Russia resented Austria-Hungary's absorption of Bosnia and Herzegovina that held a substantial Serb population. Serbia had expanded in size through its actions in the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913 when the Ottoman Empire's control in the Balkans collapsed.
During the war, Serbia justified the war as being the result of Austro-Hungarian imperialism towards Serbs and South Slavs, Serbia cooperated with Yugoslavists including the Yugoslav Committee who sought pan-South-Slav unification, particularly through liberating South Slavs from Austria-Hungary. In the Corfu Declaration in 1917, the Serbian government officially declared its intention to form a state of Yugoslavia.
The first two allied victories in the war were won by the Serbian army, on the mountains of Cer and Kolubara, in western Serbia. The Austro-Hungarian army was expelled from the country, suffering heavy losses. Serbia suffered great losses during the war, almost 50% of all men and around 30% of its entire population were killed.
Kingdom of Romania
Equal status with the main Allied Powers was one of the primary conditions for Romania's entry into the War. The Powers officially recognized this status through the 1916 Treaty of Bucharest. Romania fought on 3 of the 4 European Fronts: Eastern, Balkan and Italian, fielding in total over 1,200,000 troops.
Romanian military industry was mainly focused on converting various fortification guns into field and anti-aircraft artillery. Up to 334 German 53 mm Fahrpanzer guns, 93 French 57 mm Hotchkiss guns, 66 Krupp 150 mm guns and dozens more 210 mm guns were mounted on Romanian-built carriages and transformed into mobile field artillery, with 45 Krupp 75 mm guns and 132 Hotchkiss 57 mm guns being transformed into anti-aircraft artillery. The Romanians also upgraded 120 German Krupp 105 mm howitzers, the result being the most effective field howitzer in Europe at that time. Romania even managed to design and build from scratch its own model of mortar, the 250 mm Negrei Model 1916.
Other Romanian technological assets include the building of Vlaicu III, the world's first aircraft made of metal. The Romanian Navy possessed the largest warships on the Danube. They were a class of 4 river monitors, built locally at the Galați shipyard using parts manufactured in Austria-Hungary, and the first one launched was Lascăr Catargiu, in 1907. The Romanian monitors displaced almost 700 tons, were armed with three 120 mm naval guns in 3 turrets, two 120 mm naval howitzers, four 47 mm anti-aircraft guns and two 6.5 machine guns. The monitors took part in the Battle of Turtucaia and the First Battle of Cobadin. The Romanian-designed Schneider 150 mm Model 1912 howitzer was considered one of the most modern field guns on the Western Front.
Romania's entry into the War in August 1916 provoked major changes for the Germans. General Erich von Falkenhayn was dismissed and sent to command the Central Powers forces in Romania, which enabled Hindenburg's subsequent ascension to power. Due to having to fight against all of the Central Powers on the longest front in Europe (1,600 km) and with little foreign help (only 50,000 Russians aided 650,000 Romanians in 1916), the Romanian capital was conquered that December. Vlaicu III was also captured and shipped to Germany, being last seen in 1942. The Romanian administration established a new capital at Iași and continued to fight on the Allied side in 1917. Despite being relatively short, the Romanian campaign of 1916 provided considerable respite for the Western Allies, as the Germans ceased all their other offensive operations in order to deal with Romania. After suffering a tactical defeat against the Romanians (aided by Russians) in July 1917 at Mărăști, the Central Powers launched two counterattacks, at Mărășești and Oituz. The German offensive at Mărășești was soundly defeated, with German prisoners later telling their Romanian captors that German casualties were extremely heavy, and that they "had not encountered such stiff resistance since the battles of Somme and Verdun". The Austro-Hungarian offensive at Oituz also failed. On 22 September, the Austro-Hungarian Enns-class river monitor SMS Inn was sunk by a Romanian mine near Brăila. After Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and dropped out of the War, Romania was left surrounded by the Central Powers and eventually signed a similar treaty on 7 May 1918. Despite being forced to cede land to Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria, Romania ended up with a net gain in territory due to the Union with Bessarabia. On 10 November, Romania re-entered the War and fought a war with Hungary that lasted until August 1919.
Co-belligerents; the United States
The United States declared war on Germany in April 1917 on the grounds that Germany violated U.S. neutrality by attacking international shipping with its unrestricted submarine warfare campaign. The remotely connected Zimmermann Telegram of the same period, within which the Germans promised to help Mexico regain some of its territory lost to the U.S nearly seven decades before, was also a contributing factor. The U.S. entered the war as an "associated power", rather than a formal ally of France and the United Kingdom, in order to avoid "foreign entanglements". Although the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria severed relations with the United States, neither declared war, as did Austria-Hungary. Eventually, however, the United States also declared war on Austria-Hungary in December 1917, predominantly to help hard-pressed Italy.
Three non-state combatants, which voluntarily fought with the Allies and seceded from the constituent states of the Central Powers at the end of the war, were allowed to participate as winning nations to the peace treaties:
- Armenian irregulars and volunteers: seceded from Soviet Russia in the aftermath of the Russian Revolution and fought against the Ottoman Empire.
- Polish Legions
- Czechoslovak Legions: armed by France, Italy and Russia
- Peter I – King of Serbia
- Crown Prince Alexander – Regent, Commander-in-Chief
- Nikola Pašić – Prime Minister of Serbia
- Field Marshal Radomir Putnik – Chief of the General Staff of the Serbian Army (1914–1915)
- General / Field Marshal Živojin Mišić – Deputy Chief of General Staff (1914), Commander of First Army (1914–1915; 1917), later Chief of General Staff (1918)
- General / Field Marshal Petar Bojović – Commander of First Army (1914), Deputy Chief of General Staff (1915–1916), Chief of General Staff (1916–1917) later Commander of First Army (1918)
- General / Field Marshal Stepa Stepanović – Commander of Second Army (1914–1918)
- General Pavle Jurišić Šturm – Commander of Third Army (1914–1916)
- Colonel Dušan Stefanović – Minister of War (1914)
- Colonel Radivoje Bojović – Minister of War (1914–1915)
- Colonel / General Božidar Terzić – Minister of War (1915–1918)
- General Mihailo Rašić – Minister of War (1918)
- Colonel / General Miloš Vasić – Commander of First Army (1916; 1917), Commander of Third Army (1916)
- Nicholas I – King of Montenegro, Commander-in-Chief
- General Serdar Janko Vukotić – Prime Minister, Commander of 1st Montenegrin Army
- General Božidar Janković – Chief of the General Staff of the Montenegrin Army (1914–1915)
- Colonel Petar Pešić – Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the Montenegrin Army (1914–1915), later Chief of the General Staff of the Montenegrin Army (1915–1916)
- Crown Prince Danilo II Petrović-Njegoš – In the staff of the 1st Montenegrin Army
- Brigadier Krsto Popović – In the staff of the 1st Montenegrin Army, Aide-de-camp to Serdar Janko Vukotić
- General Anto Gvozdenović – King's Aide-de-camp
- General Mitar Martinović – Commander of several detachments in the Montenegrin army ( Drina and Herzegovina detachments together in 1914–1915, Kotor detachment in 1916 )
- Nicholas II — Russian Emperor, King of Poland, and Grand Prince of Finland. (Until 15 March 1917)
- Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich – Commander-in-chief (1 August 1914 – 5 September 1916) and viceroy in the Caucasus
- Ivan Goremykin – Chairmen of Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire (1 August 1914 – 2 February 1916)
- Boris Stürmer – Chairmen of Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire (2 February 1916 – 23 November 1916)
- Alexander Trepov – Chairmen of Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire (23 November 1916 – 27 December 1916)
- Nikolai Golitsyn – Chairmen of Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire (27 December 1916 – 9 January 1917)
- General of the Cavalry Alexander Samsonov – Commander of the Russian Second Army for the invasion of East Prussia (1 August 1914 – 29 August 1914)
- General of the Cavalry Paul von Rennenkampf – Commander of the Russian First Army for the invasion of East Prussia (1 August 1914 – November 1914)
- General of the Artillery Nikolay Ivanov – Commander of the Russian army on the Southwestern Front, (1 August 1914 – March 1916) responsible for much of the action in Galicia
- General Adjutant Aleksei Brusilov – Commander of the South-West Front, then provisional Commander-in-Chief after the Tsar's abdication (February 1917 – August 1917)
- General of the Infantry Lavr Georgievich Kornilov – Commander of the South-West Front, then Commander-in-Chief (August 1917)
- General of the Infantry Aleksey Kuropatkin – Commander of the Northern Front (October 1915 – 1917)
- General of the Infantry Nikolai Yudenich – Commander of the Caucasus (January 1915 – May 1917)
- Admiral Andrei Eberhardt – Commander of Black Sea Fleet (1914–16)
- Admiral Alexander Kolchak – Commander of Black Sea Fleet (1916–17)
- Admiral Nikolai Essen – Commander of Baltic Fleet (1913 – May 1915)
- Albert I of Belgium – King of the Belgians (23 December 1909 – 17 February 1934) and Commander-in-chief of the Belgian army
- Charles de Broqueville – Prime Minister (1912–1918); replaced by Gérard Cooreman in June 1918 shortly before the end of the war.
- Félix Wielemans – Chief of Staff of the Belgian Army
- Gérard Leman – general commanding the defense of Liège
- Théophile Figeys – general in the Hundred Days' Offensive
- Charles Tombeur – commander of the colonial Force Publique in the East African theater
- Raymond Poincaré – President of France
- René Viviani – Prime Minister of France (13 June 1914 – 29 October 1915)
- Aristide Briand – Prime Minister of France (29 October 1915 – 20 March 1917)
- Alexandre Ribot – Prime Minister of France (20 March 1917 – 12 September 1917)
- Paul Painlevé – Prime Minister of France (12 September 1917 – 16 November 1917)
- Georges Clemenceau – Prime Minister of France (From 16 November 1917)
- Divisional General / Marshal Joseph Joffre – Commander-in-Chief of the French Army (3 August 1914 – 13 December 1916)
- Divisional General Robert Nivelle – Commander-in-Chief of the French Army (13 December 1916 – April 1917)
- Divisional General / Marshal Philippe Pétain – Commander-in-Chief of the French Army (April 1917 – 11 November 1918)
- Divisional General / Marshal Ferdinand Foch – Supreme Allied Commander (26 March 1918 – 11 November 1918)
- Divisional General Maurice Sarrail – Commander of the Allied armies at Salonika Front (1915–1917)
- Army General Adolphe Guillaumat – Commander of the Allied armies at Salonika Front (1917–1918)
- Divisional General / Marshal Louis Franchet d'Espèrey – Commander of the Allied armies at Salonika Front (1918)
- Brigadier General Milan Rastislav Štefánik – General of French Army, Commander of Czechoslovak Legions
- George V – King of the United Kingdom, Emperor of India
- H. H. Asquith – Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (Until 5 December 1916)
- David Lloyd George – Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (From 7 December 1916)
- Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener – Secretary of State for War (5 August 1914 – 5 June 1916)
- General William Robertson – Chief of the Imperial General Staff (23 December 1915 – February 1918)
- General Henry Wilson – Chief of the Imperial General Staff (February 1918 – February 1922)
- General John French – Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force (4 August 1914 – 15 December 1915)
- General / Field Marshal Douglas Haig – Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force (15 December 1915 – 11 November 1918)
- General Sir David Henderson - Director-General of Military Aeronautics
- General Hugh Trenchard – Commander of Royal Flying Corps – (August 1915 – January 1918)
- Winston Churchill – First Lord of the Admiralty – (1911 – May 1915)
- Arthur Balfour- First Lord of the Admiralty – (May 1915 – December 1916)
- Edward Carson – First Lord of the Admiralty – (10 December 1916 – 17 July 1917)
- Eric Geddes – First Lord of the Admiralty – (July 1917 – January 1919)
- Admiral of the Fleet John "Jackie" Fisher – First Sea Lord – (1914 – May 1915)
- Admiral Henry Jackson – First Sea Lord – (May 1915 – November 1916)
- Admiral John Jellicoe – Commander of the Grand Fleet (August 1914 – November 1916); First Sea Lord (November 1916 – December 1917)
- Admiral Rosslyn Wemyss – First Sea Lord (December 1917 – November 1919)
- Admiral David Beatty – Commander of the Grand Fleet (November 1916 – April 1919)
- General Archibald Murray – Commander of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (January 1916 – June 1917)
- General Edmund Allenby – Commander of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (June 1917 – November 1918)
- Eric John Eagles Swayne – commander of the British forces in the Somaliland Campaign
- William Peyton - commander and military secretary to the British Expeditionary Force
Dominion of Canada
- Robert Borden – Prime Minister of Canada (1914–18)
- Sam Hughes – Minister of Militia and Defence (1914 – January 1915)
- Joseph Flavelle – Chairman of Imperial Munitions Board (1915–19)
- Lieutenant-General Edwin Alderson – Commander of the unified Canadian Corps of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (26 January 1915 – September 1915)
- General Julian Byng – Commander of the unified Canadian Corps of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (June 1916 – June 1917)
- General Arthur Currie – Commander of the unified Canadian Corps of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (June 1917 –)
Commonwealth of Australia
- Joseph Cook – Prime Minister of Australia (until 17 September 1914)
- Andrew Fisher – Prime Minister of Australia (17 September 1914 – 27 October 1915)
- Billy Hughes – Prime Minister of Australia (from 27 October 1915)
- General William Birdwood – Commander of the Australian Corps (all five Australian infantry divisions serving on the Western Front) (November 1917 – May 1918)
- General John Monash – Commander of the Australian Corps (May 1918 –)
- Major General William Holmes – Commander of the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force (August 1914 – February 1915)
- General Harry Chauvel – Commander of Desert Mounted Corps (Sinai and Palestine) (August 1917 –)
Empire of India
- Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst – Viceroy of India 1910–1916
- Frederic Thesiger, 1st Viscount Chelmsford – Viceroy of India 1916–1921
- Robert Crewe-Milnes, 1st Marquess of Crewe – Secretary of State for India (May 1911 – May 1915)
- Austen Chamberlain – Secretary of State for India (May 1915 – July 1917)
- Edwin Samuel Montagu – Secretary of State for India (July 1917 – March 1922)
- Beauchamp Duff - Commander-in-Chief, India (March 1914 - October 1916)
- Charles Monro - Commander-in-Chief, India (October 1916 - November 1920)
- Lieutenant-General John Nixon commander of the British Indian Army (active in the Middle East)
Union of South Africa
- General Louis Botha – Prime Minister of South Africa
- General Jan Smuts – Led forces in South-West Africa Campaign and East African Campaign, later member of the Imperial War Cabinet
Dominion of New Zealand
- William Massey – Prime Minister of New Zealand
- General Sir Alexander Godley – Commandant of New Zealand Military Forces (to October 1914); Commander of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force
- Major General Sir Alfred William Robin – Quartermaster-General and Commandant of New Zealand Military Forces (from October 1914)
- Major General Sir Andrew Hamilton Russell – Commander of the New Zealand Division
Dominion of Newfoundland
- Sir Edward Morris – Prime Minister of Newfoundland (1909–1917)
- Sir John Crosbie – Prime Minister of Newfoundland (1917–1918)
- Sir William Lloyd – Prime Minister of Newfoundland (1918–1919)
- Emperor Taishō – Emperor of Japan
- Ōkuma Shigenobu – Prime Minister of Japan (16 April 1914 – 9 October 1916)
- Terauchi Masatake – Prime minister of Japan (9 October 1916 – 29 September 1918)
- Hara Takashi – Prime minister of Japan (29 September 1918 – 4 November 1921)
- Katō Sadakichi - Commander-in-chief of the Second Fleet deployed to the Siege of Tsingtao
- Kōzō Satō – Commander of the Second Special Task Fleet
- Kamio Mitsuomi – Commander of Allied land forces at Tsingtao
- Victor Emmanuel III – King of Italy
- Antonio Salandra – Prime Minister (until 18 June 1916)
- Paolo Boselli – Prime Minister (18 June 1916 – 29 October 1917)
- Vittorio Emanuele Orlando – Prime Minister (from 29 October 1917)
- Luigi Cadorna – Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Italian Army
- Armando Diaz – Chief of General Staff of the Royal Italian army
- Luigi, Duke of Abruzzi – Commander-in-Chief of the Adriatic Fleet of Italy (1914–17)
- Paolo Thaon di Revel – Admiral of the Royal Italian Navy
- Ferdinand I – King of Romania
- General Constantin Prezan – Chief of the General Staff of Romania
- Ion I. C. Brătianu – Prime Minister of Romania
- Vintilă Brătianu – Secretary of War
- Field Marshal Alexandru Averescu – Commander of the 2nd Army, 3rd Army, then Army Group South
- General Eremia Grigorescu – Commander of the 1st Army
- Bernardino Machado – President of Portugal (until 12 December 1917)
- Afonso Costa – Prime Minister of Portugal (until 15 March 1916; then again 25 April 1917 – 10 December 1917)
- António José de Almeida – Prime Minister of Portugal (15 March 1916 – 25 April 1917)
- Sidónio Pais – Prime Minister of Portugal and War Minister (11 December 1917 – 9 May 1918) and President of Portugal (from 9 May 1918)
- José Norton de Matos – War Minister (until 10 December 1917)
- João Tamagnini Barbosa – Interim War Minister (9 May 1918 – 15 May 1918)
- Amílcar Mota – Secretary of State for War (15 May 1918 – 8 October 1918)
- Álvaro de Mendonça – Secretary of State for War (from 8 October 1918)
- Fernando Tamagnini de Abreu – Commander of the Portuguese Expeditionary Corps (CEP)
- José Augusto Alves Roçadas – Commander of the Portuguese Forces in Southern Angola
- José Luís de Moura Mendes – Commander of the Portuguese Forces in Eastern Africa (until June 1916)
- José César Ferreira Gil – Commander of the Portuguese Forces in Eastern Africa (from June 1916)
- Sousa Rosa – Commander of the Portuguese Forces in Eastern Africa (from 1917)
- Constantine I: King of Greece, he retired from the throne, due to Allied pressure, without formally resigning.
- Alexander: King of Greece, he became King in 1917 after his father and brother retired from the throne.
- Eleftherios Venizelos: Prime minister of Greece after 13 June 1917.
- Panagiotis Danglis: Greek general of the Hellenic Army.
United States (1917–1918)
- Woodrow Wilson – President of the United States/Commander-In-Chief of the U.S. armed forces
- Newton D. Baker – U.S. Secretary of War
- Josephus Daniels – United States Secretary of the Navy
- Major General / General John J. Pershing – Commander of the American Expeditionary Force
- Rear Admiral / Vice Admiral William Sims – Commander of U.S. Naval Forces in European Waters
- Brigadier General Mason Patrick – Commander of the United States Army Air Service
Siam (Thailand) (1917–1918)
See main Article: Siam in World War I
- Rama VI – King of Siam
- Field Marshal Chao Phraya Bodindechanuchit – Minister of Defence
- Prince Chakrabongse Bhuvanath – Supreme Commander of the Siamese Expeditionary Forces in World War I
- General Phraya Bijai Janriddhi – Commander of the Siamese Expeditionary Forces in the Western Front
See main Article: Brazil during World War I
- Venceslau Brás – President of Brazil
- Pedro Frontin, Chief of DNOG (Brazilian Expeditionary Fleet)
- José Pessoa Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, Lieutenant of the Brazilian Army in France
- Napoleão Felipe Aché, Chief of Brazilian Military Mission in France (1918–1919)
- M.D. Nabuco Gouveia – Chief of Brazilian Military Medical Commission
- Hovhannes Kajaznuni - first Prime Minister of First Republic of Armenia
- Andranik – military commander and statesman of the Caucasus Campaign
- Aram Manukian – Minister of Internal Affairs of First Republic of Armenia
- Drastamat Kanayan – Military commander and member of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation
- Tovmas Nazarbekian – Commander-in-chief of the First Republic of Armenia
- Movses Silikyan – Army general and National hero
Personnel and casualties
These are estimates of the cumulative number of different personnel in uniform 1914–1918, including army, navy and auxiliary forces. At any one time, the various forces were much smaller. Only a fraction of them were frontline combat troops. The numbers do not reflect the length of time each country was involved. (See also: World War I casualties)
|Allied power||Mobilized personnel||Military Fatalities||Wounded in action||Total casualties||Casualties as % of total mobilized|
|New Zealand||128,5251||18,050 (14.04%)||41,317||59,367||46%|
|South Africa||136,0701||9,463 (6.95%)||12,029||21,492||16%|
|United Kingdom||6,211,9222||886,342 (14.26%)||1,665,749||2,552,091||41%|
|United States||4,355,0003||53,402 (1.23%)||205,690||259,092||5.9%|
- Diplomatic history of World War I
- Triple Entente
- Participants in World War I
- Central Powers
- Home front during World War I, covering all major countries involved
- Belgium in World War I
- History of France during World War I
- History of Germany during World War I
- British home front during the First World War
- United States home front during World War I
- Allies of World War II
- Albania in the Twentieth Century, A History: Volume I: Albania and King Zog ... By Owen Pearson
- Karel Schelle, The First World War and the Paris Peace Agreement, GRIN Verlag, 2009, p. 24
- Tucker&Roberts p. 1559
- Tucker&Roberts pp. 1232, 1264
- Gilbert, Martin (1994). First World War (1995 ed.). Harper Collins. p. 44. ISBN 9780006376668.
- Mizokami, Kyle, "Japan’s baptism of fire: World War I put country on a collision course with West", The Japan Times, 27 July 2014
- Gilbert, Martin (1994). First World War (1995 ed.). Harper Collins. p. 225. ISBN 9780006376668.
- Gilbert, Martin (1994). First World War (1995 ed.). Harper Collins. p. 282. ISBN 9780006376668.
- Magliveras, Konstantin (1999). Exclusion from Participation in International Organisations: The Law and Practice Behind Member States' Expulsion and Suspension of Membership. Brill. pp. 8–12. ISBN 9041112391.
- S.N. Broadberry; Mark Harrison (2005). The Economics of World War I. illustrated. Cambridge University Press. p. 7. Retrieved 2015-03-16.
- Indian Army only
- Baker, Chris. "Some British Army statistics of the Great War". www.1914-1918.net. Archived from the original on 2017-07-18. Retrieved 2017-08-07.
- Korea, Formosa, Kwantung and Sakhalin
- Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia-Hercegovina
- As Hawaii and Alaska were not yet U.S. states, they are included in the dependencies
- Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama
- S.N. Broadberry; Mark Harrison (2005). The Economics of World War I. illustrated. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. Retrieved 2015-03-16.
- Germany (and colonies), Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria
- Tucker, Spencer C. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. 2009. P1562.
- Schuyler, Robert Livingston (March 1920). "The British Cabinet, 1916-1919". Political Science Quarterly. 35 (1): 77–93. doi:10.2307/2141500.
- Perry (2004), p.xiii
- Jelavich, Barbara. Russia's Balkan Entanglements, 1806–1914. P262
- Afflerbach, Holger; David Stevenson, David. An Improbable War: The Outbreak of World War 1 and European Political Culture. Berghan Books. 2012. P. 293.
- Tucker, Spencer C. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. 2009. P1556.
- Cavendish, Richard (January 2002). "The 1902 Anglo-Japanese Alliance". History Today. 52 (1). Retrieved 15 August 2018.
- Gilbert, Martin (1994). First World War (1995 ed.). Harper Collins. p. 123. ISBN 9780006376668.
- "宣戦の詔書 [Sensen no shōsho, Imperial Rescript on Declaration of War] (Aug. 23, 1914), Kanpō, Extra ed., Aug. 23, 1914" (PDF).
- Gilbert, Martin (1994). First World War (1995 ed.). Harper Collins. p. 329. ISBN 9780006376668.
- Zhitian Luo, "National humiliation and national assertion-The Chinese response to the twenty-one demands", Modern Asian Studies (1993) 27#2 pp 297-319.
- Gilbert, Martin (1994). First World War (1995 ed.). Harper Collins. p. 522. ISBN 9780006376668.
- Thompson, Mark (2008). The White War. Faber. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-0-571-22334-3.
- Thompson, Mark (2008). The White War. Faber. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-571-22334-3.
- Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914–1917. P194.
- Clark, Mark (2008). Modern Italy, 1871 to the Present (Longman History of Italy). Routledge. p. 219. ISBN 978-1405823524.
- Thompson, Mark (2008). The White War. Faber. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-571-22334-3.
- Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914–1917. P194-198.
- Thompson, Mark (2008). The White War. Faber. pp. 378–382. ISBN 978-0-571-22334-3.
- Brock, Michael (ed), Brock, Elinor (ed) (2014). Margot Asquith's Great War Diary 1914-1916: The View from Downing Street (Kindle ed.). 759-781: OUP Oxford; Reprint edition. ISBN 0198737726.
- Brock, Michael (ed), Brock, Elinor (ed) (2014). Margot Asquith's Great War Diary 1914-1916: The View from Downing Street (Kindle ed.). 852-864: OUP Oxford; Reprint edition. ISBN 0198737726.
- van Reybrouck, David (2014). Congo: The Epic History of a People. Harper Collins. pp. 132 passim. ISBN 0062200127.
- Strachan, Hew (2014). First World War; a New History. Simon & Schuster UK. p. 70. ISBN 1471134261.
- Abdullah I of Jordan; Philip Perceval Graves (1950). Memoirs. p. 186.
- Charles Upson Clark, United Roumania, p. 135
- Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts, Encyclopedia of World War I, p. 273
- Adrian Storea, Gheorghe Băjenaru, Artileria română în date și imagini (Romanian artillery in data and pictures), pp. 40, 49, 50, 54, 59, 61, 63, 65 and 66 (in Romanian)
- Jozef Wilczynski, Technology in Comecon: Acceleration of Technological Progress Through Economic Planning and the Market, p. 243
- International Naval Research Organization, Warship International, Volume 21, p. 160
- Frederick Thomas Jane, Jane's Fighting Ships, p. 343
- Robert Gardiner, Conway's All the World Fighting Ships 1906–1921, p. 422
- Adrian Storea, Gheorghe Băjenaru, Artileria română în date și imagini (Romanian artillery in data and pictures), p. 53 (in Romanian)
- Martin Gilbert, The First World War: A Complete History, p. 282
- Glenn E. Torrey, Romania and World War I, p. 58
- Michael Hundertmark, Holger Steinle, Phoenix aus der Asche – Die Deutsche Luftfahrt Sammlung Berlin, pp. 110–114 (in German)
- România în anii primului război mondial (Romania in the years of the First World War), Volume II, p. 830 (in Romanian)
- Martin Gilbert, The First World War: A Complete History, p. 287
- King of Battle: Artillery in World War I, p. 347
- Angus Konstam, Gunboats of World War I, p. 29
- René Greger, Austro-Hungarian warships of World War I, p. 142
- "First World War.com - Primary Documents - U.S. Declaration of War with Germany, 2 April 1917".
- first Canadian to attain the rank of full general
- Australia casualties
Included in total are 55,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85-.
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4-
Totals include 2,005 military deaths during 1919–215-. The 1922 War Office report listed 59,330 Army war dead1,237.
- Belgium casualties
Included in total are 35,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85 Figures include 13,716 killed and 24,456 missing up until Nov.11, 1918. "These figures are approximate only, the records being incomplete." 1,352.
- Francisco Verras; "D.N.O.G.: contribuicao da Marinha Brasileira na Grande Guerra" ("DNOG; the role of Brazilian Navy in the Great War") (in Portuguese) "A Noite" Ed. 1920
- Canada casualties
Included in total are 53,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds.6,85
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
Totals include 3,789 military deaths during 1919–21 and 150 Merchant Navy deaths5-. The losses of Newfoundland are listed separately on this table. The 1922 War Office report listed 56,639 Army war dead1,237.
- France casualties
Included in total are 1,186,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85. Totals include the deaths of 71,100 French colonial troops. 7,414-Figures include war related military deaths of 28,600 from 11/11/1918 to 6/1/1919.7,414
- Greece casualties
Jean Bujac in a campaign history of the Greek Army in World War One listed 8,365 combat related deaths and 3,255 missing8,339, The Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis estimated total dead of 26,000 including 15,000 military deaths due disease6,160
- India casualties
British India included present-day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Included in total are 27,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
Totals include 15,069 military deaths during 1919–21 and 1,841 Canadian Merchant Navy dead5. The 1922 War Office report listed 64,454 Army war dead1,237
- Italy casualties
Included in total are 433,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85
Figures of total military dead are from a 1925 Italian report using official data9.
- War dead figure is from a 1991 history of the Japanese Army10,111.
- "Monaco 11-Novembre : ces Monégasques morts au champ d'honneur".
- Jain, G (1954) India Meets China in Nepal, Asia Publishing House, Bombay P92
- New Zealand casualties
Included in total are 14,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
Totals include 702 military deaths during 1919–215. The 1922 War Office report listed 16,711 Army war dead1,237.
- Portugal casualties
Figures include the following killed and died of other causes up until Jan.1, 1920; 1,689 in France and 5,332 in Africa. Figures do not include an additional 12,318 listed as missing and POW1,354.
- Romania casualties
Military dead is "The figure reported by the Rumanian Government in reply to a questionnaire from the International Labour Office"6,64. Included in total are 177,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
- Russia casualties
Included in total are 1,451,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85. The estimate of total Russian military losses was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis.6,46–57
- Serbia casualties
Included in total are 165,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.The estimate of total combined Serbian and Montenegrin military losses of 278,000 was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis6,62–64
- South Africa casualties
Included in total are 5,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
Totals include 380 military deaths during 1919–2115. The 1922 War Office report listed 7,121 Army war dead1,237.
- UK and Crown Colonies casualties
Included in total are 624,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
Military dead total includes 34,663 deaths during 1919–21 and 13,632 British Merchant Navy deaths5. The 1922 War Office report listed 702,410 war dead for the UK1,237, 507 from "Other colonies"1,237 and the Royal Navy (32,287)1,339.
The British Merchant Navy losses of 14,661 were listed separately 1,339; The 1922 War Office report detailed the deaths of 310 military personnel due to air and sea bombardment of the UK1,674–678.
- United States casualties
Official military war deaths listed by the US Dept. of Defense for the period ending Dec. 31, 1918 are 116,516; which includes 53,402 battle deaths and 63,114 other deaths. Archived 25 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine., The US Coast Guard lost an additional 192 dead 11,481.
- ^1 The War Office (2006) . Statistics of the military effort of the British Empire during the Great War 1914—1920. Uckfield, East Sussex: Military and Naval Press. ISBN 1-84734-681-2. OCLC 137236769.
- ^2 Gilbert Martin (1994). Atlas of World War I. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-521077-8. OCLC 233987354.
- ^3 Tucker Spencer C (1999). The European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland. ISBN 0-8153-3351-X.
- ^4 The Commonwealth War Graves Commission. "Annual Report 2005-2006" (PDF).
- ^5 The Commonwealth War Graves Commission. "Debt of Honour Register". Archived from the original on 18 January 2012.
- ^6 Urlanis Boris (2003) [1971, Moscow]. Wars and Population. Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific. OCLC 123124938.
- ^7 Huber Michel (1931). La population de la France pendant la guerre, avec un appendice sur Les revenus avant et après la guerre (in French). Paris. OCLC 4226464.
- ^8 Bujac Jean Léopold Emile (1930). Les campagnes de l'armèe Hellènique 1918–1922 (in French). Paris: Charles-Lavauzelle. OCLC 10808602.
- ^9 Mortara Giorgio (1925). La Salute pubblica in Italia durante e dopo la Guerra (in Italian). New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. OCLC 2099099.
- ^10 Harries Merion, Harries Susie (1991). Soldiers of the Sun – The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army. Random House. ISBN 0-679-75303-6. OCLC 32615324.
- ^11 Clodfelter Michael (2002). Warfare and Armed Conflicts : A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000 (2nd ed.). London: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. OCLC 48066096.
- ^12 Hernâni Donato (1987). Dicionário das Batalhas Brasileiras. Rio de Janeiro: IBRASA. ISBN 8534800340.
- Ellis, John and Mike Cox. The World War I Databook: The Essential Facts and Figures for All the Combatants (2002)
- Esposito, Vincent J. The West Point Atlas of American Wars: 1900–1918 (1997) despite the title covers entire war; online maps from this atlas
- Falls, Cyril. The Great War (1960), general military history
- Gooch, G. P. Recent Revelations Of European Diplomacy (1940), 475pp summarizes memoirs of major participants
- Higham, Robin and Dennis E. Showalter, eds. Researching World War I: A Handbook (2003), historiography, stressing military themes
- Pope, Stephen and Wheal, Elizabeth-Anne, eds. The Macmillan Dictionary of the First World War (1995)
- Strachan, Hew. The First World War: Volume I: To Arms (2004)
- Trask, David F. The United States in the Supreme War Council: American War Aims and Inter-Allied Strategy, 1917–1918 (1961)
- Tucker, Spencer, ed. The Encyclopedia of World War I: A Political, Social, and Military History (5 volumes) (2005), online at eBook.com
- Tucker, Spencer, ed. European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia (1999)