Armistice of Villa Giusti
The Armistice of Villa Giusti or Padua ended warfare between Italy and Austria-Hungary on the Italian Front during World War I. The armistice was signed on 3 November 1918 in the Villa Giusti, outside Padua in the Veneto, Northern Italy, and took effect 24 hours later.
By the end of October 1918, the Austro-Hungarian Army was so fatigued that its commanders were forced to seek a ceasefire.
In the final stage of the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, a stalemate was reached, and the troops of Austria-Hungary started a chaotic withdrawal. On 28 October, Austria-Hungary began to negotiate a truce but hesitated to sign the text of the armistice. In the meantime, the Italians reached Trento and Udine, and landed in Trieste. After a threat to break off negotiations, the Austro-Hungarians, on 3 November, accepted the armistice.
The ceasefire would start at 15:00 on 4 November, but a unilateral order of the Austro-Hungarian High Command made its forces stop fighting on 3 November.
The armistice required Austria-Hungary's forces to evacuate not only all territory occupied since August 1914 but also South Tirol, Tarvisio, the Isonzo Valley, Gorizia, Trieste, Istria, western Carniola, and part of Dalmatia. All German forces would be expelled from Austria-Hungary within 15 days or interned, and the Allies were to have the free use of Austria-Hungary's internal communications. Austria-Hungary was also to allow the transit of the Triple Entente armies to reach Germany from the South. In November 1918, the Italian Army, with 20,000 to 22,000 soldiers, began to occupy Innsbruck and all North Tyrol.
After the war, Italy annexed Southern Tyrol (now Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol), according to the secret Treaty of London, as well as Trieste, Austrian Littoral and part of Dalmatia (Zadar, Lastovo, Palagruža).
- Tenente Generale Pietro Badoglio
- Maggior Generale Scipione Scipioni
- Colonnello Tullio Marchetti
- Colonnello Pietro Gazzera
- Colonnello Pietro Maravigna
- Colonnello Alberto Pariani
- Capitano di Vascello Francesco Accinni
- General Viktor Weber Edler von Webenau
- Oberst Karl Schneller
- Fregattenkapitän Johannes Prinz von und zu Liechtenstein
- Oberstleutnant J.V. Nyékhegyi
- Korvettenkapitän Georg Ritter von Zwierkowski
- Oberstleutnant i.G. Victor Freiherr von Seiller
- Hauptmann i.G. Camillo Ruggera
- Bollettino della Vittoria, the address of General Armando Diaz to his troops and the nation after the armistice
- Treaty of Trianon, which explains the Kingdom of Hungary's part in the peace settlement
- Antonello Biagini, Giovanna Motta, The First World War: Analysis and Interpretation, Volume 1, p. 100
- John Gooch, The Italian Army and the First World War, p. 299
- Bullitt Lowry, Armistice 1918, p. 112
- Manfried Rauchensteiner, The First World War and the End of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1914-1918, p. 1005
- Armistice Convention with Austria-Hungary
- Cervone, Pier Paolo (1994). Vittorio Veneto, l'ultima battaglia (in Italian). Milano: Mursia (Gruppo Editoriale). ISBN 88-425-1775-5.
- Di Michele, Andrea. Trento, Bolzano e Innsbruck: L'Occupazione Militare Italiana del Tirolo (1918-1920) (PDF) (in Italian). pp. 436–37. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-08-22. Retrieved 2018-11-03.
- Moos, Carlo (2017), "Südtirol im St. Germain-Kontext", in Georg Grote and Hannes Obermair (ed.), A Land on the Threshold. South Tyrolean Transformations, 1915–2015, Oxford-Berne-New York: Peter Lang, pp. 27–39, ISBN 978-3-0343-2240-9