Cromer Parish Church
Cromer shown within Norfolk
|Area||4.66 km2 (1.80 sq mi)|
|Population||7,683 (2011 census)|
|– density||1,649/km2 (4,270/sq mi)|
|OS grid reference|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Ambulance||East of England|
|EU Parliament||East of England|
|UK Parliament||North Norfolk|
Cromer is a coastal town and civil parish in north Norfolk, England. The local government authority is North Norfolk District Council, whose headquarters is in Holt Road in the town. The town is situated 23 miles (37 km) north of the county town, Norwich, and is 4 miles (6.5 km) east of Sheringham. The civil parish has an area of 4.66 km2 (1.80 sq mi) and in the 2001 census had a population of 7,749 people in 3,671 households, the population reducing to 7,683 at the 2011 Census. The motto Gem of the Norfolk Coast is highlighted on the town's road signs.
- 1 History
- 2 Notable buildings
- 3 Tourism and the town today
- 4 Sport and leisure
- 5 Youth organisations
- 6 Transport connections
- 7 Cromer crab
- 8 Lifeboat
- 9 The town in literature
- 10 In popular culture and fiction
- 11 Twinning
- 12 Notable people
- 13 Gallery
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 Further reading
- 17 External links
Cromer is not mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086. The place-name 'Cromer' is first attested in a will of 1262 and could mean 'Crows' mere or lake'. There are other contenders for the derivation, a north country word 'cromer' meaning 'a gap in the cliffs' or less likely a direct transfer from a Danish placename.
It is reasonable to assume that the present site of Cromer, around the parish church of Saints Peter and Paul, is what was in 1337 called Shipden-juxta-Felbrigg, and by the end of the 14th century known as Cromer. A reference to a place called Crowemere Shipden can be seen in a legal record, dated 1422, (1 Henry VI), the home of John Gees. The other Shipden is now about a quarter of a mile to the north east of the end of Cromer Pier, under the sea. Its site is marked by Church Rock, now no longer visible, even at a low spring tide. In 1888 a vessel struck the rock, and the rock was subsequently blown up for safety.
Cromer became a resort in the early 19th century, with some of the rich Norwich banking families making it their summer home. Visitors included the future King Edward VII, who played golf here. The resort's facilities included the late-Victorian Cromer Pier, which is home to the Pavilion Theatre. In 1883 the London journalist Clement Scott went to Cromer and began to write about the area. He named the stretch of coastline, particularly the Overstrand and Sidestrand area, "Poppyland", and the combination of the railway and his writing in the national press brought many visitors. The name "Poppyland" referred to the numerous poppies which grew (and still grow) at the roadside and in meadows.
Second World War
Cromer suffered several bombing raids in this period. Shortly after one of these raids, Cromer featured as the location for an episode of "An American In England", written by Norman Corwin with the narrator staying in the Red Lion Hotel and retelling several local accounts of life in the town at wartime. The radio play first aired in the USA on 1 December 1942 on the CBS/Columbia Workshop programme starring Joe Julian. The account mentions some of the effects of the war on local people and businesses and the fact that the town adopted a minesweeper, HMS Cromer, a Bangor class minesweeper.
- The Church of St Peter and St Paul
Since the 14th century the parish church has been in the centre of the town. However, after falling into disrepair it was rebuilt in the late 19th century by architect, Arthur Blomfield. At 160 ft 4 in (48.87 m) the church tower is the highest in the county. Also, of note are the vast stained glass windows which commemorate various members of the lifeboat crew and other features of the resort.
Originally built in 1820 as a marine residence for Lord Suffield. In 1830 the building was converted into a hotel by Pierre le Francois. Norfolk-born architect George Skipper extensively remodelled the building between 1895 and 1896. Today (2010), the hotel which occupies an elevated location overlooking the town's pier still provides accommodation to visitors.
Located to the south of the town in Hall Lane. Gothic Revival style, by Norfolk architect William John Donthorne. Henry Baring, of the Baring banking family, acquired the estate around this time. Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of Cromer was born at the hall in 1841. In 2010 the building was the home of the Cabbell Manners family.The original hall was destroyed by fire and rebuilt in 1829, in a
In 1901, author Arthur Conan Doyle was a guest at Cromer Hall. After hearing the legend of the Black Shuck, a ghostly black dog, he is thought to have been inspired to write the classic novel The Hound of the Baskervilles.
- Cromer Town Hall
The two-storey building with five bays was designed by George Skipper and completed in 1890. Today (2010), the building is used for commercial purposes.
Tourism and the town today
Tourism is an important part of the local economy with the town a popular resort and a touring base for the surrounding area. Accommodation of all types is available in and around Cromer. The town centre offers a wide range of privately owned shops and well-known high street retailers. Adjacent to the railway station is a large supermarket and other retail outlets. Amenities in the town include a good selection of restaurants, several public houses, theatre and a cinema. Outside of the historic town centre Pevsner described the late Victorian architecture as "Principal developments belong to the 1890s. Stylistic elements derived from the Chateaux of the Loire Valley"
Visitor attractions in the town include the Cromer Museum. The building is adjacent to the parish church and partially housed in a late 19th-century fisherman's cottage. Opened in 1978, the museum includes a Geology Gallery, bones from the West Runton elephant, picture gallery and a collection of historic photographs and illustrations which chart the history of the town. The museum has had its grant from North Norfolk District Council halved, and will close for the first time in nearly 40 years over the winter of 2014/2015. Close to the town's pier the RNLI Henry Blogg Museum RNLI is housed inside the early 21st century Rocket House . The museum with the lifeboat Cromer Lifeboat H F Bailey III ON 777 as its centrepiece illustrates the history of the town's lifeboats and Henry Blogg's most famous rescues. The Cromer Prospect public art scheme was installed in 2005/06 and was part of a wider £6.1 million refurbishment. Much of the work is centred on the granite compass on the pier's forecourt. Celebrating 200 years of Cromer lifeboats the installations 24 stones point in the direction of rescue missions. After two years of development the South American themed Amazona zoo park opened to the public in 2006. The park covers 10 acres (40,000 m2) of former brick kilns and derelict woodland on the outskirts of the town. A wide range of animals including jaguar and puma can be viewed. For one week in August the town celebrates its Carnival Week. The events 40th anniversary was held in 2009. Attractions included the carnival queen competition, parade of floats and a fancy dress competition. The highlight of the week was an over- the- sea aerial display by the Red Arrows. The North Norfolk Information Centre was opened in the town on 1 August 2008 by local writer Keith Skipper. The eco-friendly building uses underground heat source pumps and solar energy to provide 60% of its energy needs. On 5 December 2013 the town was affected by a storm surge which caused significant damage to the town's pier and seafront.
Sport and leisure
Cromer Cricket Club are one of the oldest clubs in the county and are based at the Norton Warnes Cricket Ground. The club currently play in the Norfolk Alliance Premier Division.
Lawn tennis and squash
The town's tennis and squash courts are located at Norwich Road and are open to the public.
The 92 miles (148 km) Norfolk Coast Cycleway runs parallel to the coast and passes through a mixture of quiet roads and country lanes to link the town with Kings Lynn to the west and Great Yarmouth in the east.
Established in 2007, the North Norfolk Surf Lifesaving Club (North Norfolk SLSC) has its clubhouse on the town's main promenade.
- Air Training Corps: 1895 (Cromer) Squadron, based at Cromer High School.
- Army Cadet Force: Cromer Platoon, Britannia Company, based at Cromer High School.
The railway came to Cromer in 1877 with the opening of Cromer High railway station by the Great Eastern Railway. Ten years later a second station, Cromer Beach, was opened by the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway bringing visitors from the East Midlands. The second station, now known simply as Cromer, remains. Direct services were operated from London, Manchester, Leicester, Birmingham, Leeds, Peterborough and Sheffield, but today a service between Norwich and Sheringham on the Bittern Line is all that remains.
Bus and coach services are provided by several companies which link the town to destinations including Norwich, Sheringham, Holt, King's Lynn and Cambridge. The A140 links to Norwich, the A148 (direct) and A149 (coast road) to King's Lynn, and the A149 to the Norfolk Broads and Great Yarmouth. The B1159 is a coastal road out towards Mundesley.
The town is famous for the Cromer crab, which forms the major source of income for the local fishermen. The town had grown up as a fishing station over the centuries and became a year-round fishery, with crabs and lobsters in the summer, drifting for longshore herring in the autumn and long-lining, primarily for cod, in the winter, when weather permitted. The pattern of fishing has changed over the last thirty years, and it is now almost completely focused on crabs and lobsters. At the end of the 19th century, the beaches to the east and west of the pier were crowded with fishing boats. Now, about ten boats ply their trade from the foot of the gangway on the east beach, with shops in the town selling fresh crab, whenever the boats go to sea.
The fishermen also crewed Cromer's two lifeboats. Most famous of the lifeboatmen was Henry Blogg, who received the RNLI gold medal for heroism three times, and the silver medal four times. Cromer Lifeboat Station was founded in 1804, the first in Norfolk. Rowing lifeboats were stationed there through the 19th century.
In the 1920s a lifeboat station was built at the end of the pier, enabling a motor lifeboat to be launched beyond the breakers. A number of notable rescues carried out between 1917 and 1941 made the lifeboat and the town well known throughout the United Kingdom and further afield. The area covered by the station is large, as there is a long run of coastline with no harbour – Great Yarmouth is 40 miles (65 km) by sea to the south east and the restricted harbour of Wells next the Sea 25 miles (40 km) to the west. Today the offshore lifeboat on the pier performs about a dozen rescues a year, with about the same number for the inshore lifeboat stationed on the beach.
The town in literature
|“||You should have gone to Cromer, my dear, if you went anywhere. Perry was a week at Cromer once, and he holds it to be the best of all the seabathing places. A fine open sea, he says, and very pure air. And, by what I understand, you might have had lodgings there quite away from the sea quarter of a mile off, very comfortable. You should have consulted Perry.||”|
|“||There was no Spain for Margaret that autumn; although to the last she hoped that some fortunate occasion would call Frederick to Paris, whither she could easily have met with a convoy. Instead of Cadiz, she had to content herself with Cromer. To that place her aunt Shaw and the Lennoxes were bound. They had all along wished her to accompany them, and, consequently, with their characters, they made but lazy efforts to forward her own separate wish. Perhaps Cromer was, in one sense of the expression, the best for her. She needed bodily strengthening and bracing as well as rest.||”|
There was an Old Person of Cromer,
Who stood on one leg to read Homer;
When he found he grew stiff,
He jumped over the cliff,
Which concluded that Person of Cromer.
|“||As/ the 50 isotherm retreats there is/ that secular weather laid down in pollen/ and the separable advances on Cromer (easterly)/ and on Gipping (mostly to the south)||”|
The clones visit Cromer in the book's second section.
|“||"Where is R.A.F Minton, exactly?" I asked him. "Five miles in from the coast, inland from Cromer. That's where we are", he said.||”|
In popular culture and fiction
Cromer is mentioned in Emma by Jane Austen published in 1816, as the preferred vacation spot of Mr Perry, physician to Mr Woodhouse. John and Isabella Knightley discuss this with Isabella's father Mr Woodhouse, as the Knightly family chose Southend, at 40 miles from London by stage coach, compared to 100 miles for Cromer, discussed in Chapter XII of the first volume of the novel.
Cromer is twinned with the following towns;
- Henry Blogg, greatest of the lifeboatmen
- Benjamin Bond Cabbell, politician and philanthropist
- Henry "Shrimp" Davies, longest-serving coxswain of the lifeboat
- Emily Wilding Davison, women's rights campaigner.
- James Dyson, creator of Dyson vacuum cleaners
- John Henry Gurney, banker and amateur ornithologist
- John Hurt, the actor has a home close to the town
- Charles William Peach, British naturalist and geologist
- Malcolm Sayer, designer for Jaguar cars
- Keith Skipper, journalist and author.
- Simon Thomas, television presenter
- Liam Walsh, the boxer is based in the town.
- Charles Mayes Wigg, artist
- Edward Bach, creator of Bach flower remedies
Pavilion Theatre on the end of Cromer Pier
Media related to Cromer at Wikimedia Commons
- Cromer Pier
- Cromer Lighthouse
- Cromer Tunnel
- Cromer Ridge
- Cromer High School
- Cromer Town F.C.
- Cromer Hospital
- Pavilion Theatre
- Cromer Lifeboat Station
- Red Lion Hotel
- Cliftonville Hotel
- Sandcliff Hotel
- Hotel de Paris
- Cromer, New South Wales - the suburb in Sydney Australia named after this north Norfolk town
- Ordnance Survey, Explorer Sheet 252, Norfolk Coast East, ISBN 978-0-319-46726-8
- "Census population and household counts for unparished urban areas and all parishes" (Excel spreadsheet). Office for National Statistics & Norfolk County Council (2001). Retrieved 2005-12-02.
- "Town population 2011". Retrieved 31 August 2015.
- Gem of the Norfolk coast. Retrieved 20 January 2010.
- "Cromer medieval history". Archived from the original on 2009-10-24. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- Eilert Ekwall, Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-names, p.131.
- Plea Roll of the Court of Common Pleas; National Archives; http://aalt.law.uh.edu/AALT1/H6/CP40no647/aCP40no647fronts/IMG_0135.htm; 4th complete entry, containing "Norff" in the margin.
- Poppyland - Strands of Norfolk History, Stibbons and Cleveland, Pub: Poppyland Publishing, Fourth ed. 2001, ISBN 0-946148-56-2
- The Red Lion Hotel. Retrieved 3 April 2010.
- An American In England: Cromer
- The church of St Peter and St Paul. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
- Norfolk churches. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
- Pevsner, Nikolaus; Wilson, Bill (1997). Buildings of England: Norfolk 1: Norwich and North-East. Penguin. pp. 441–445. ISBN 0-300-09607-0.
- Hotel de Paris. Retrieved 8 February 2010.
- Literary Norfolk
- Literary Norfolk. Retrieved 16 February 2010.
- Cinema. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
- Cromer museum Retrieved
- The RNLI Henry Blogg museum. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- Cromer prospect[dead link]. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
- Amazona zoo park. Retrieved 17 February.
- Cromer carnival. Retrieved 21 February 2010.
- North Norfolk Information Centre. Retrieved 6 January 2011.
- Keith Skipper opens Information Centre. Retrieved 6 January 2011.
- EDP report Retrieved 9 December 2013
- Cromer Cricket Club. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
- Cromer Town Football Club. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
- Cromer Lawn tennis club. Retrieved 23 February 2010.
- Royal Norfolk golf club. Retrieved 23 February 2010.
- Norfolk Coast Cycleway. Retrieved 24 February 2010.
- Sea fishing. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- Surfing in Cromer Retrieved 6 March 2012
- North Norfolk Lifesavers Retrieved 18 January 2012
- Public transport from Cromer. Retrieved 6 January 2011.
- Cromer Crab
- Protection wanted for Cromer Crab
- Cromer Online Cromer Crab
- Cromer Crabs and More
- North Norfolk News report. Retrieved 9 September 2008.
- Jane Austen society. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
- Lear, Edward (1846). A Book of Nonsense. London: Thomas McLean.
- Guardian review Retrieved 23 May 2013
- Never Let Me Go review Retrieved 24 May. 2013
- Eastern Daily Press news report Retrieved 8 April 2015
- Google books Retrieved 17 August 2014
- EDP news report Retrieved 15 March 2012
- EDP article Retrieved 12 October 2014
- News report Retrieved 21 March 2012
- Bartell, Edmund, Observations upon the town of Cromer, 1800, accessed on Google Books 2015-08-23
- Leach, Nicholas & Russell, Paul Cromer Lifeboats 1804-2004, Stroud: Tempus Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-7524-3197-8
- Malster, R. The Cromer Lifeboats, 4th ed. Cromer: Poppyland Publishing, 1994, ISBN 0-946148-21-X
- Pipe, C. A Dictionary of Cromer and Overstrand History, 1st ed. Cromer: Poppyland Publishing, 2010, ISBN 978-0-946148-89-9
- Stibbons, Peter & Cleveland, David Poppyland – Strands of Norfolk History, 4th ed., Cromer: Poppyland, 2001, ISBN 0-946148-17-1 (1st ed. 1981)
- Warren, M. Cromer – Chronicle of a Watering Place, 3rd ed. Cromer: Poppyland Publishing, 2001, ISBN 0-946148-55-4
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Cromer.|
- The Cromer Dictionary Web Site
- Cromer at DMOZ
- Information from Genuki Norfolk on Cromer.
- Cromer Literary History
- Song about Cromer