This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. (December 2020)
Gimn Svobodnoy Rossii
"Anthem of Free Russia" (unofficial)
|Government||Democratic federal republic|
• Sep–Nov 1917
|Historical era||World War I/Russian|
|8–16 March 1917|
• Republic proclaimed
|14 September 1917|
|7 November 1917|
|25 November 1917|
• Constitution adopted
|18 January 1918|
• Constituent Assembly
|19 January 1918|
The Russian Republic[d], referred to as the Russian Democratic Federal Republic in the 1918 Constitution, was a short-lived state which controlled, de jure, the territory of the former Russian Empire after its proclamation by the Russian Provisional Government on 1 September (14 September, N.S.) 1917 in a decree signed by Alexander Kerensky as Minister-Chairman and Alexander Zarudny as Minister of Justice.
The Government of the Russian Republic was dissolved after the Bolsheviks seized power by force on 7 November 1917. Nonetheless, a partially democratic election of the Constituent Assembly still took place later in November. On 18 January 1918, this assembly issued a decree, proclaiming Russia a democratic federal republic under the name "Russian Democratic Federative Republic", but had also been illegally dissolved by the Bolsheviks on the next day after the proclamation.
The Bolsheviks also used the name "Russian Republic" until the name "Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic" was officially adopted in the Constitution of July 1918. The term "Russian Republic" is sometimes used erroneously for the period between the abdication of the Emperor Nicholas II on 3 March 1917 (16 March, N.S) and the declaration of the Republic in September. However, during that period the future status of the monarchy remained unresolved.
Officially, the Republic's government was the Provisional Government, although de facto control of the country was contested between it, the soviets (chiefly the Petrograd Soviet), and various ethnic-based separatists (such as the Central Council of Ukraine). Soviets were political organizations of the proletariat, strongest in industrial regions, and were dominated by left-wing parties. Soviets, whose influence was supplemented with paramilitary forces, were occasionally able to rival the Provisional Government which had an ineffective state apparatus.
The Government's control of the military was also tenuous. Seamen of the Baltic Fleet, for example, had far-left views and openly engaged in political activism in the capital. Right-wing proclivities among the army officers were also a problem – Kerensky's attempt to dismiss Gen. Lavr Kornilov led to a failed coup.
- Provisional Council of the Russian Republic
- Congress of Soviets
- Russian Provisional Government
- Directorate (Russia)
- The Russian Republic Proclaimed at prlib.ru, accessed 12 June 2017
- Ikov, Marat Sal. "ROUND TABLE THE INFLUENCE OF NATIONAL RELATIONS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FEDERATIVE STATE STRUCTURE AND ON THE SOCIAL AND POLITICAL REALITIES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION". Prof.Msu.RU. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
However, historically, the first proclamation of the federation was made somewhat earlier - by the Constituent Assembly of Russia. In his short resolution of January 6 (18), 1918, the following was enshrined: "In the name of the peoples, the state of the Russian constituent, the All-Russian Constituent Assembly decides: the Russian state is proclaimed by the Russian Democratic Federal Republic, uniting peoples and regions in an indissoluble union, within the limits established by the federal constitution, Of course, the above resolution, which did not thoroughly regulate the entire system of federal relations, was not considered by the authorities as having legal force, especially after the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly.
- The Russian Republic proclaimed. Presidential Library
- Browder, R. P., Kerensky, A. F. The Russian Provisional Government, 1917: Documents. "Stanford University Press". Stanford, 1961. ISBN 9780804700238