|Prussian Minister of Science, Art and Education|
|Chancellor||Franz von Papen|
|Preceded by||Carl Heinrich Becker|
|Minister of Culture, Lower Saxony|
Adolf Berthold Ludwig Grimme (December 31, 1889 – August 27, 1963) was a German politician, a member of the Social Democratic Party (SPD). He was Cultural Minister during the later years of the Weimar Republic and after World War II, during the early years of the Federal Republic of Germany. During the Third Reich, he was arrested as a member of the German Resistance and sentenced to prison. After the war, he filed a legal complaint against the judge who had condemned him and others. After years of delays, the case was dropped by the prosecutor.
Life before 1945
Grimme was born in Goslar, Prussian Hanover, the son of Louise, née Sander (1858-1952) and Adolf Grimme (1854-1906), a train station master. In 1908, he began studying philosophy and German studies, attending universities in Halle, Munich and Göttingen. He was also involved in the free student reform movement. He finished, passing his state exams in philosophy in 1914. In 1922, he became a member of the SPD. He began teaching in 1924. He then became a senior teacher (Oberstudienrat) in Hannover and in 1925, he became the superintendent in Magdeburg. He became the assistant Minister at the Prussian Ministry of Culture, and a year later, the vice president of the provincial school council of Berlin and Mark Brandenburg. In 1930, he became the successor to Carl Heinrich Becker, serving as the last Culture Minister of a democratically elected state government in Prussia. He was removed from this position on July 20, 1932 when the state government was deposed in the Prussian coup.
Grimme belonged to the Covenant of Religious Socialists. In 1942, his house was searched because of his connections to the Red Orchestra and he was arrested by the Gestapo. In 1943, he was brought before the Reich court martial. A good defense strategy, which mainly consisted of ratting on his fellow Red Orchestra members, enabled him to avoid the death penalty facing him and he was sentenced to three years in a labor prison (Zuchthaus), condemned for "failure to report an attempt at high treason". The Gestapo failed to uncover his participation in the German Resistance as author of many fliers then in circulation. Under the Third Reich, the crime of Wehrkraftzersetzung was punishable by death. Grimme's prison term was spent at the prisons in Luckau and Fuhlsbüttel.
After the war
Although not given to revenge, on September 15, 1945, Grimme filed a complaint with the state's attorney against Manfred Roeder for his involvement condemning to death or imprisonment 49 members of the Red Orchestra, including Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Hans von Dohnanyi, Arvid Harnack and Günther Weisenborn.
Dated May 12, 1951, the final report by Hans-Jürgen Finck, Lüneburg state's attorney, about the investigation into the complaint filed by Grimme and other surviving Red Orchestra members came to the conclusion that the Reich court martial trials had been conducted "in accordance with the law" (ordnungsgemaß) and the defendants correctly sentenced to death. "The basis of the 'Red Orchestra'... was treason. Treason... has ever and in all ages been regarded as the most ignominous crime. ... Also the July 20 plot was in profound measure fueled by treason and espionage." The report further stated that the military opposition had "assumed... an enormous amount of guilt". Other German men disagreed with Hitler and the war, but nonetheless "did their duty as soldiers and in administration and the economy... [and] certainly would have rejected with outrage... being placed in the same league with men like Beck, Canaris, Oster [and] von Dohnanyi."[note 1]
Grimme was a member of the postwar "appointed Landtag" organized by the British military government in their occupation zone. It existed for just a few months, from August 23, 1946 to December 8, 1946. After the British created the German state of Lower Saxony, he became a member of the appointed Landtag of Lower Saxony, which existed from December 8, 1946 to March 28, 1947. When the elections were held, he became a member of the first elected Landtag, later becoming the first Minister of Culture of Lower Saxony. On November 15, 1948, Grimme was named the first General Manager of Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk. In 1956, he retired to Degerndorf am Inn in the municipality of Brannenburg.
A well-known quote from Adolf Grimme is A socialist can be a Christian. A Christian must be a socialist.
Over the decades since his death, Grimme has become a "name without a history". An annual television prize, the most prestigious in Germany, is named for him, the Adolf Grimme Award. Known since 2010 as the Grimme Award, it was first awarded by the City of Marl training institute in 1964. In 1973, a media institute named after Grimme was founded in Marl, and has given out the Grimme Award since 1977, expanded in 2001 to include new media. A biography about Grimme was published in 2008, helping to "return the missing history" to Grimme's name.
- Lüneburg state's attorney Hans-Jürgen Finck also wrote, "the Gestapo was an absolutely normal police organization" and he pointed to "the majority of surviving witnesses... from people, who obsessed over a boundless hate of the National Socialist state". The ruling was in line with an earlier decision by the U.S. military, which in 1946, investigated the death of Red Orchestra member Mildred Harnack. It found that the Nazi court's death sentence had been justified.
- Walther G. Oschilewski (1966), "Grimme, Adolf", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 7, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 88–89
- Adolf Grimme short biography Fernsehmuseum Hamburg. Retrieved January 28, 2012 (German)
- Nelson, Anne: Red Orchestra: the Story of the Berlin Underground, chpt. 21
- Ulrich Teusch, "Wer war Adolf Grimme?" Neue Zürcher Zeitung (March 5, 2008). Retrieved January 29, 2012 (German)
- Ernst Klee: Das Kulturlexikon zum Dritten Reich. Wer war was vor und nach 1945. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-10-039326-5, p. 198 (German)
- Helmut Kramer, "Als hätten sie nie das Recht gebeugt" Ossietzky No. 23 (2002). Retrieved January 29, 2012 (German)
- "Timeline: Prominent Events In Mildred Fish-Harnack's Story"[permanent dead link] Channel 3000 (2007). Retrieved February 16, 2012
- Eva Liebchen, "Günther und Joy Weisenborn" Friedenau Netzwerk. Retrieved January 28, 2012 (German)
- "Adolf Grimme über Christen und Sozialisten"[permanent dead link] sprueche-und-zitate.com Retrieved January 28, 2012 (German)
- Kai Burkhardt: Adolf Grimme. Eine Biographie. Cologne, Weimar, Vienna: Böhlau-Verlag 2007 (ISBN 978-3-412-20025-1) (German)
- Barbara Simon: Abgeordnete in Niedersachsen 1946–1994. Biographisches Handbuch. 1996, p. 128 (German)
- Gert Rosiejka: Die Rote Kapelle. „Landesverrat“ als antifaschistischer Widerstand, foreword by Heinrich Scheel. ergebnisse.Verlag: Hamburg 1986, ISBN 3-925622-16-0 (German)