Alexey Stakhanov

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Aleksei Grigorievich Stakhanov)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Alexsei Stakhanov
Aleksei Stakhanov and another man at work in a Soviet coal mine. Stakhanov, while holding a drill, is seated at the coal face, his head turned to speak to his colleague.
Stakhanov (right) speaks to a fellow miner.
Born
Andrei[1] Grigoryevich Stakhanov

(1906-01-03)3 January 1906
Lugovaya, Livny county, Oryol Governorate, Russian Empire
Died5 November 1977(1977-11-05) (aged 71)
NationalityRussian
OccupationMiner
Known forthe beginnings of the Stakhanovite movement
AwardsOrder of Lenin
Order of the Red Banner of Labour
Hero of Socialist Labour (1970)

Alexsei Grigoryevich Stakhanov (Russian: Алексе́й Григо́рьевич Стаха́нов; 3 January 1906 – 5 November 1977) was a Russian Soviet miner, Hero of Socialist Labor (1970), and a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1936). He became a celebrity during 1935 as part of what became known as the Stakhanovite movement – a campaign intended to increase worker productivity and to demonstrate the superiority of the socialist economic system.

Biography[edit]

Stakhanov was born in Lugovaya, a village near Livny, Oryol Governorate, during 1906. He began working in a mine named "Tsentralnaya-Irmino" in Kadievka (in the Donbas). During 1933, Stakhanov became a jackhammer operator. During 1935, he attended a local course in mining. On 31 August 1935, it was reported that he had mined a record 102 tonnes of coal in 5 hours and 45 minutes (14 times his quota).[2]

On 19 September, Stakhanov was reported to have set a new record by mining 227 tonnes of coal during a single shift.[3] His example was described in newspapers and posters as a model for others, and he appeared on the cover of Time magazine in the United States.[4][5][6]

Picture of Stakhanov on the cover of Time Magazine, December 16, 1935.

During 1936–1941, Stakhanov was a student of the Industrial Academy in Moscow. During 1941–1942, he was appointed director of mine No. 31 in Karaganda. Between 1943 and 1957, Stakhanov worked in the Ministry of Coal Industry of the USSR. During 1957–1959, he was deputy director of the Chistyakovantratsit trust, and after that, assistant chief engineer at the mine management office No. 2/43 of the Torezantratsit trust until his retirement during 1974.

Stakhanov was a deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of the first convocation. He was awarded two Orders of Lenin, Order of the Red Banner of Labour, and numerous medals. The last Sunday of August was designated "Coal Miner's Day", also apparently in his honor.[citation needed]

The town of Kadievka in eastern Ukraine where he started his work was renamed Stakhanov in his honour during 1978, after his death.

Stakhanovite movement[edit]

Stakhanov's records set an example throughout the country and originated the Stakhanovite movement such that workers who exceeded production targets could become "Stakhanovites".[7]

Record disputed[edit]

The validity of Stakhanov's record has been questioned. During 1985, The New York Times printed a story alleging that though Stakhanov had indeed succeeded in his feat, it was only because the Communist Party had arranged the event as a way of boosting public morale, with many other miners working to help Stakhanov exceed the mining record.[8]

The Times quoted the chief of the Tsentralnaya-Irmino mine branch of the Party, Konstantin G. Petrov, as saying that "I suppose Stakhanov need not have been the first... It could have been anybody else. In the final analysis it was not the individual face-worker who determined whether the attempt to break the record would succeed, but the new system of coal extraction."[9]

Alexey Stakhanov, the student of Industrial Academy on the front page of Pravda issue 314 (7280) dated Nov 15 1937.

During 1988, the Soviet newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda claimed that the widely reported achievements of Stakhanov were puffery; the newspaper insisted that Stakhanov had used a number of helpers for support works, while the throughput was tallied for him alone. Still, according to the newspaper, Stakhanov's method had eventually resulted in increased productivity by means of a better organization of the work, including specialization and task sequencing.[10]

It has also been claimed that his record was exceeded by Alija Sirotanović of Yugoslavia and Sergej Scemuk of Ukraine.[11]

Personal life[edit]

Stakhanov had two partners and six children.[12]

  • first partner Yevdokia (Stakhanov met in 1929,[12] but never married) ran away before 1936.
  • second partner and wife Galina (1922-?)[12].
    • Violetta (b. 1940)[12]
    • Alla (1943-?)[12]
    • two more children, Vladimir and Emma, died as toddlers[12]

Legacy[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Troitskiy, N. Stakhanov's feat. Myths and reality. RIA Novosti. 31 August 2010.
  2. ^ Richard Overy. The Dictators: Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia. p. 258. ISBN 0-393-02030-4.
  3. ^ "Labour in the Land of Socialism; Stakhanovites in Conference", Moscow 1936
  4. ^ "Heroes of Labor". Time Magazine. 16 December 1935. (cover image)
  5. ^ "Soviet leaders' gifts go on show". BBC News. 15 November 2006.
  6. ^ Spielvogel, Jackson. Western Civilization. 2011. p. 824. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  7. ^ "Year of the Stakhanovite". Seventeen Moments in Soviet History. 2015-06-18. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
  8. ^ Schmemann, Serge (31 August 1985). "In Soviet, Eager Beaver's Legend Works Overtime". The New York Times. p. 2.
  9. ^ Schmemann, Serge (31 August 1985). "In Soviet, Eager Beaver's Legend Works Overtime". The New York Times. p. 2.
  10. ^ Komsomolskaya Pravda, October 15, 1988
  11. ^ "Sergej lo stakhanovista che supera Stakhanov" (in Italian). 13 August 2010.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Pustovoytov, S. Uncovered biography of Stakhanov: 14-year old spouse and homeless style of living. Ukrainian initiatives support. 4 August 2011