|Nickname(s): Донеччина (Donechchyna)|
|Established||June 3, 1938|
|Administrative center||Donetsk (de jure)
Kramatorsk (de facto)
|• Governor||Pavlo Zhebrivskyi|
|• Oblast council||150 seats|
|• Chairperson||Andriy Fedoruk (PR)|
|• Total||26,517 km2 (10,238 sq mi)|
|Area rank||Ranked 11th|
|Population (September 1, 2013)|
|• Rank||Ranked 1st|
|• Official language(s)||Ukrainian
|• Average salary||UAH 1161 (2006)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|ISO 3166 code||UA-14|
— Regional cities
Donetsk Oblast (Ukrainian: Доне́цька о́бласть, Donets'ka oblast'; also referred to as Donechchyna – Ukrainian: Донеччина Donechchyna; Russian: Доне́цкая о́бласть, Donetskaya oblast [dɐˈnʲɛtskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ]) is an oblast (province) of eastern Ukraine. It is the most populated oblast, with around 4.5 million residents. Its administrative center is Donetsk; however, its Regional State Administration was relocated to Mariupol, a temporary measure due to the ongoing crisis in Donetsk. Historically, the region is an important part of the Donbas region. Until November 1961, it bore the name Stalino Oblast, as its capital Donetsk was named Stalino in honour of Joseph Stalin at that time.
The oblast is known for its urban sprawl and is often associated with mining industry.
On April 7, 2014, following the annexation of Crimea by Russia, separatists occupying the Donetsk Oblast administrative building declared independence from Ukraine and held a referendum on separating from Ukraine on May 11, 2014. Subsequently, the War in Donbass started. After Donetsk was under control of the separatist government, the Donetsk Oblast administration was relocated to Mariupol, and later to Kramatorsk.
Before the establishment of the first Donetsk Oblast, in 1923-1930 on territory of the region existed three districts (okruhas) which appeared with liquidation of the Donetsk Governorate in 1925. As part of the Soviet Ukraine, Donetsk Oblast was established on 2 July 1932 out of Kharkiv Oblast, Dnipropetrovsk Oblast and number of raions that were still under a direct administration from Kharkiv (at that time capital of Soviet Ukraine). Initially the administrative center of the oblast was in Artemivsk (today Bakhmut), but in two weeks 16 July 1932 it was moved to the city of Stalino (today Donetsk). Until 1938 Donetsk Oblast used to cover territories of modern Donetsk Oblast as well as Luhansk Oblast.
In June 1938 it was split in Stalino Oblast (modern Donetsk Oblast) and Voroshylovhrad Oblast (modern Luhansk Oblast).
As part of de-Stalinization in the Soviet Union, in 1961 Stalino along with Stalino Oblast were renamed into Donetsk and Donetsk Oblast respectfully.
During the process of dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1990–1992 Donetsk Oblast became a part of Ukraine.
Since mid 1990s the region is known for its heightened criminal activity in the country which resulted in killings of high-profile business people such as Akhat Bragin and Yevhen Shcherban. Since the turn of millennium Donetsk Oblast also became known for being the base region of pro-Russian political faction in Ukraine Party of Regions which was in the Ukrainian government since 2002 and paved a way into Ukrainian politics for the powerful "Donetsk political clan".
At the end of 2004 Party of Regions were involved in creation of political project South-East Ukrainian Autonomous Republic which also supposed to include the Donetsk Oblast. Having close ties with the Russian government, the Party of Regions along with local communists and pro-Russian activists instigated the 2014 pro-Russian unrest which escalated into an armed conflict involving Russian assistance. Since 2014 Ukraine lost control over its border with Russia in Donetsk Oblast. Currently, portions of the region are being controlled by the Novorossiya Armed Forces and claimed by the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic.
Donetsk Oblast is located in southeastern Ukraine. The area of the oblast (26,517 km²), comprises about 4.4% of the total area of the country. The oblast borders the Dnipropetrovsk and Zaporizhia Oblasts on the southwest, the Kharkiv Oblast on the north, the Luhansk Oblast on the northeast, the Rostov Oblast in Russia on the east, and with the Sea of Azov on the south.
Its longitude from north to south is 270 km, from east to west – 190 km. The extreme points of the oblast's borders are: Bilosarayska Kosa (spit) on the south, Shevchenko of Velykonovosilkivskyi Raion on the west, Verkhnyi Kut of Shakhtarskyi Raion on the east, and Lozove of Krasnolymanskyi Raion on the north.
The province is primarily divided into 18 raions (districts) and 28 municipalities of equal status (22 miskradas and 6 mistos - cities of regional significance), including the provincial administrative centre Donetsk. These are listed below with their areas and populations.
1 Jan 2012
|Bakhmut (Artemivsk)||Бахмут (Міськрада)||74||113,785||104,631||Bakhmut|
|Kirovske (Krestivka)||Кіровське (місто)||7||31,041||28,470||-|
|Lyman (Krasny Lyman)||Лиман (Міськрада)||192||28,996||23,740||Lyman|
|Pokrovsk (Krasnoarmiysk)||Красноарміськ (Міськрада)||39||82,830||77,891||Pokrovsk|
|Toretsk (Dzerzhynsk)||Торецьк (Міськрада)||62||86,281||74,435||Toretsk|
|Amvrosiivsky (raion)||Амвросіївський (район)||1,455||54,939||46,081||Amvrosiivsk|
|Bakhmutsky (raion)||Бахмутський (район)||1,687||54,065||45,367||Bakhmut|
|Dobropilsky (raion)||Добропільський (район)||949||20,659||16,980||Dobropillia|
|Kostyantynivsky (raion)||Костянтинівський (район)||1,172||21,132||19,256||Kostiantynivka|
|Lymansky (raion)||Лиманський (район)||1,018||24,974||22,136||Lyman|
|Marynsky (raion)||Мар'їнський (район)||1,350||90,045||84,571||Marïnka|
|Novoazovsky (raion)||Новоазовський (район)||1,000||38,902||36,066||Novoazovsk|
|Oleksandrivsky (raion)||Олександрівський (район)||1,010||23,036||19,804||Oleksandrivka|
|Pershotravnevy (raion)||Першотравневий (район)||792||29,312||27,325||Manhush|
|Shakhtarsky (raion)||Шахтарський (район)||1,194||24,262||19,974||Shakhtarsk|
|Pokrovsk (raion)||Покровський (район)||1,316||37,567||32,439||Pokrovsk|
|Slovyansky (raion)||Слов'янський (район)||1,274||39,188||34,334||Sloviansk|
|Starobeshivsky (raion)||Старобешівський (район)||1,255||55,952||51,068||Starobesheve|
|Telmanivsky (raion)||Тельманівський (район)||1,340||35,365||29,965||Telmanove|
|Velikonovosilkivsky (raion)||Великоновосілівський (район)||1,901||49,323||41,943||Velyka Novosilka|
|Volnovasky (raion)||Волноваський (район)||1,848||92,489||84,579||Volnovakha|
|Volodarsky (raion)||Володарський (район)||1,221||31,168||29,472||Volodarske|
|Yasynuvatsky (raion)||Ясинуватський (район)||809||30,326||16,980||Yasynuvata|
|Total Oblast||Донецька (Область)||26,517||4,825,563||4,403,178||Donetsk|
The province's secondary division consists of various municipalities that are governed by their councils. Those municipalities may consist of one or more populated places. All are administratively subordinate to the raion in which they are located.
The following data incorporates the number of each type of second-level administrative divisions of Donetsk Oblast:
- total of Settlements – 1,283, including:
- Selsovets – N/A.
The local administration of the oblast' is controlled by the Donetsk Oblast Rada. The governor of the oblast' is the Head of Donetsk Oblast administration, appointed by the President of Ukraine.
Largest cities or towns in Donetsk Oblast
In 2013 the population of Donetsk Oblast was 4.43 million, which constituted 10% of the overall Ukrainian population, making it the most populous and most densely populated region of the country. Its large population is due to the presence of several big industrial cities and numerous villages agglomerated around them.
During the 2004 presidential election, political supporters of Viktor Yanukovych threatened to demand autonomy for Donetsk and neighbouring oblasts if the election of their candidate was not recognised. However, no official moves were ever made.
At the 2001 Ukrainian National Census, the ethnic groups within the Donetsk Oblast were: Ukrainians – 2,744,100 (56.9%), Russians – 1,844,400 (38.2%), Pontic Greeks – 77,500 (1.6%), Belarusians – 44,500 (0.9%), others (2.3%).
|1990||1,6||58 050||2000||0,9||30 042||2010||1,2||41 258|
|1991||1,5||54 466||2001||0,9||29 931||2011||1,3||41 720|
|1992||1,4||50 258||2002||0,9||31 216||2012||1,3||42 839|
|1993||1,3||46 344||2003||0,9||33 433|
|1994||1,2||43 195||2004||1,0||35 526|
|1995||1,1||38 808||2005||1,0||35 883|
|1996||1,1||36 349||2006||1,1||39 327|
|1997||1,0||34 347||2007||1,2||40 560|
|1998||1,0||33 518||2008||1,3||44 394|
|1999||0,9||30 503||2009||1,3||43 373|
- 0–14 years: 12.6% (male 283,584/female 266,977)
- 15–64 years: 70.4% (male 1,453,273/female 1,619,241)
- 65 years and over: 17.0% (male 243,048/female 496,434) (2013 official)
- total: 41.9 years
- male: 38.0 years
- female: 45.8 years (2013 official)
The Donetsk Oblast covers more than one half coal, finished steel, coke, cast iron and steel production in Ukraine. Ferrous metallurgy, fuel industry and power industry are in demand in the structure of industry production. There are about 882 industry enterprises that are on independent balance, and 2,095 small industry enterprises in the oblast.
The oblast' has a developed transport infrastructure which includes the Donetsk railway (covers 40% of national transportation), the Mariupol Port, the Donetsk International Airport, passenger airports in Mariupol and Kramatorsk, and dense road systems. In the Donetsk Oblast two special economic zones have been created, Donetsk and Azov, which have a privileged tax regime.
In 1999, the gross grain yield in the oblast was about 999.1 thousand tons, sugar beets – 27.1 thousand tons, sunflower seeds – 309.4 thousand tons, and potatoes – 380.2 thousand tons. Also, 134.2 thousand tons of meat, 494.3 thousand tons of milk and 646.4 million eggs have been produced. At the beginning of 1999 there was 2108 farms within the oblast.
The Donetsk Oblast's climate is mostly continental, which is characterised by hot summers and relatively cold winters with changeable snow surfaces. East and southeast strong winds, high temperatures and heavy rain showers are typical in the summer. The average annual rainfall is 524 mm.
Important resources for recreation within the area are: the mild climate, the Sea of Azov coast, curative mud, sources of minerals, and radon and table water. Due to these numerous recreation resources, many resort hotels and camps are located here. There are about 26 health centres and pensions, 52 rest homes and boarding houses, and rest camps for children in the oblast.
The curative[clarification needed] areas in the oblast include the Slovyansk salt lakes and mineral water sources. The oblast also contains many park zones, some of which are of great national value. They include the Khomutivsky steppe and the Azov sea coast. Overall, the Donetsk Oblast contains about 70 protected park and nature attractions including branches of the Ukrainian steppe park, six state reserves, ten memorials of nature, landscapes, and six park tracts.
During the 1991 referendum, 83.90% of votes in Donetsk Oblast were in favor of the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine. A survey conducted in December 2014 by the Kyiv International Institute of Sociology found 18.5% of the oblast's population supported their region joining Russia, 53.8% did not support the idea, 22.5% were undecided, and 5.2% did not respond; insurgent-controlled areas were not polled.
- Березина, Настя (11 June 2015). Порошенко уволил губернатора Донецкой области (in Russian). rbc.ru. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- Donetsk Regional Council elects new chairman, Kyiv Post (August 4, 2011)
- "State Statistics Committee of Ukraine". Retrieved September 1, 2013.
- Romanian becomes regional language in Bila Tserkva in Zakarpattia region, Kyiv Post (September 24, 2012)
- "Русский язык стал региональным в Севастополе, Донецкой и Запорожской обл.". RosBusinessConsulting. August 16, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
- "The President instructed the Head of the Donetsk Regional State Administration to relocate temporarily the administration office to Mariupol". president.gov.ua. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
- "Kikhtenko to move Donetsk administration to Kramatorsk and to leave power structures in Mariupol". Zerkalo Nedeli (in Russian). Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, Kiev.
- Ukrcensus.gov.ua — Donetsk region URL accessed on January 13, 2007
- Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine — Donetsk Region URL accessed on January 13, 2007
- Лише 3% українців хочуть приєднання їх області до Росії [Only 3% of Ukrainians want their region to become part of Russia]. Dzerkalo Tyzhnia (in Ukrainian). 3 January 2015.
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- Information Card of the Region – Official site of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine
- www.citylife.donetsk.ua – Official Donetsk city guide – English
- donoda.gov.ua – Official site of Donetsk Oblast Administration (English)(Ukrainian)(Russian)
- catalogue.biz.ua – Post codes directory of Donetsk Oblast (English)(Ukrainian)(Russian)
- Wikimedia Commons – Media on Donetsk Oblast