AMC Amitron

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Amitron
AMC Amitron Concept.jpg
The Amitron as shown in 1967.
Overview
Manufacturer American Motors (AMC)
Designer Richard A. Teague[1]
Body and chassis
Class concept car
Body style three-passenger[2] coupé
Powertrain
Engine DC series traction
Dimensions
Length 85 in (2,159 mm)
Curb weight 1,100 lb (499 kg)[3]

The Amitron was an experimental electric city car built in 1967 by American Motors Corporation (AMC) and Gulton Industries. It included a number of advanced features, including regenerative braking and advanced battery designs, to provide 150 miles (240 km) range on a single charge. No production was undertaken and development ended after funding ran out. In 1977 the original prototype was dusted off, given new paint and side-view mirrors, and re-announced as the Electron.

Design[edit]

Impetus[edit]

Development of the Amitron was prompted by the Electric Vehicle Development Act of 1966. The legislation provided funding for electric car research in response to the rapidly decreasing air quality caused by automobile emissions.[4] A number of US car companies, including AMC, took up development.

Drivetrain[edit]

AMC entered into a partnership with Gulton Industries of Metuchen, New Jersey[5] (acquired by Mark IV Industries in 1986[6]) to develop the battery and power handling electronics for the car. Their entry into the electric car market was significantly more advanced than other developments, including two types of batteries for fast and slow power release and charging, and regenerative brakes to help extend range.[7]

The primary power source was two 75 lb (34 kg) lithium-nickel-fluoride batteries rated at 150 watt-hours per lb, or 331 watt-hours per kg, with a total capacity of 22.5 kWh. The battery designers selected lithium for the Amitron because "it is both highly reactive (easy to oxidize) and has high electromotive potential."[8] The downside to these batteries is that they have relatively low instantaneous power, too little to provide reasonable acceleration or be able to handle the rapid recharging during regenerative braking. To handle these higher power peaks, a secondary battery of two 24 lb (11 kg) nickel-cadmium (ni-cad) batteries were used. These could accelerate the car to 50 mph (80 km/h) in 20 seconds.[9] During cruise, the lithium batteries recharged the ni-cads, which continued to power the motor. The regenerative system would automatically switch the drive motors to generators as the car slowed so that the ni-cads could recharge; thus increasing the range of the car.[3] This was first use of regenerative braking technology in the U.S. automobile industry.[10]

All together, the system provided the car with a range of 150-mile (241 km) when traveling at 50 mph (80 km/h).[11] Its total battery weight of only 200 lb (91 kg) was also light for electric vehicles.[12] The equivalent in lead-acid cells would weigh nearly a ton (907 kg).[8] The entire system was controlled by a solid state power management system.

The first road tests of the power plant were in 1968 using a Rambler American sedan. At the time, American Motors Vice President of Design, Richard A. Teague, was working on a car called "the Voltswagon".[9] The supporters of the Amitron were confident and stated that "We don't see a major obstacle in the technology. It's just a matter of time."[13]

Prototype[edit]

The Amitron was designed to minimize power loss by keeping down rolling resistance, wind drag resistance, and vehicle weight.[14] The prototype was a snub-snouted three-passenger urban area vehicle or city car with an overall length of only 85 inches (2,159 mm).[15] Among its unique automobile design features were passenger seats that had air filled cushions, rather than conventional polyurethane (foam rubber). The car did not feature doors in the conventional sense, but instead the entire clamshell-style roof of the vehicle hinged up and backward.[16]

American Motors put more effort into making its prototype electric car attractive than its competitors.[17] "The modern looking Amitron was one of the most promising electrics developed in the Sixties."[18] During the December 1967 public introduction of the car, Roy D. Chapin, Jr., Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of AMC, stated that the Amitron "could eliminate many problems that up to this point have made electric-type cars impractical".[9]

American Motors original plans were to offer the Amitron for sale to commuters and urban shoppers in five years, and Chapin said AMC had discussed the venture with its bankers and creditors and "they are about as enthusiastic about it".[19] The Amitron was also well received by the public.[12] However, the programs to develop clean-transportation in the U.S. ceased.[20] The Amitron did not go beyond the prototype stage. The expensive batteries forced AMC to halt further experiments with electric vehicles for a number of years.[18]

Legacy[edit]

The Electron gained rear-view side mirrors.

The Amitron's short and wide chassis layout found its way into the 1975 AMC Pacer design with the electric's three across seating,[21] thus looking like a mini Pacer.[2] The "chopped off" rear end treatment of the concept car found its way into the 1970 AMC Gremlin.[22]

In 1977, AMC introduced their "Concept 80" line of experimental vehicles, which included the AM Van, Grand Touring, Concept I, Concept II, and Jeep II.[23] Along with this lineup the renamed the Amitron to the somewhat friendlier Electron, added side-view mirrors to the windows, and gave it a fresh paint job.[24] The show car was not drivable because it did not have a power train.[25]

The designed has been characterized by some observers as "hot, sexy, cute and practical."[26] "The AMC Amitron had almost 50 years ago all that is still considered indispensable for an electric car if it is supposed to succeed: a decent range, low weight, and a jaunty look."[27]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Booij, Jeroen (February 11, 2010). "Lightning strikes". coachbuld.com. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "Franktoid No. 2 - AMC's Amitron". Frank's Classic Car Blog. April 14, 2011. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b Hamilton, W.F.; Eisenhut, E.J.; Houser, G.M.; Sojvold, A.R. (October 1974). Impact of future use of electric cars in the Los Angeles region 2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. p. 1/6. 
  4. ^ Anderson, Curtis D.; Anderson, Judy (2010). Electric and Hybrid Cars: a History. McFarland. p. 75. ISBN 9780786457427. Retrieved 4 May 2014. 
  5. ^ Ayres, Robert U.; McKenna, Richard P. (1972). "The Electric Car". Alternatives to the internal combustion engine: impacts on environmental quality. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-8018-1369-6. Retrieved 4 May 2014. 
  6. ^ "Mark IV Industries Inc 10-K Report". SEC. 28 February 1994. Retrieved 4 May 2014. 
  7. ^ "Next: the Voltswagon?". Time. 22 December 1967. Retrieved 4 May 2014. 
  8. ^ a b Bacon, W. Stevenson (February 1968). "New breed of batteries pack more power". Popular Science: 90–93, 206. 
  9. ^ a b c "Next: the Voltswagon?". Time Magazine, Business Section. December 22, 1967. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  10. ^ Clark, Woodrow W.; Cooke, Grant (2011). Global Energy Innovation: Why America Must Lead. ABC-CLIO. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-313-39721-9. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  11. ^ Shacket, Sheldon R. (1979). The complete book of electric vehicles. Domus Books. p. 28. 
  12. ^ a b Grahame, James (September 22, 2008). "1968: AMC's Amazing Amitron Electric Car". Retro Thing: vintage gadets and technology. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  13. ^ Bryce, Robert (2011). Power Hungry: The Myths of "Green" Energy and the Real Fuels of the Future. PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-953-3. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  14. ^ Firor, John W. (1970). Urban Demands on Natural Resources. University of Denver Press. p. 2. 
  15. ^ The Rubber and Plastics Age (London: Rubber & Technical Press) 49: 1048. 1968. 
  16. ^ "AMC Displays Show Cars". Automotive News (Crain Automotive Group) 52. 1977. Retrieved 4 March 2015. 
  17. ^ Fletcher, Seth (2013). Bottled Lightning: Superbatteries, Electric Cars, and the New Lithium Economy. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 79–80. ISBN 9781429922913. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  18. ^ a b "Electric Cars". Automobile Quarterly 31 (1). 1992. 
  19. ^ "AMC's Electric Car". Automotive Industries (Chilton) 138: 52. 1968. 
  20. ^ Fletche, Seth (2011). Bottled Lightning: Superbatteries, Electric Cars, and the New Lithium Economy. Hill & Wang. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-8090-3053-8. 
  21. ^ Dachet, Flavien (December 13, 2013). "Concept Car of the Week: AMC Amitron (1967)". Car Design News. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  22. ^ "American Motors: Innovations On A Shoe-String". Carolina Muscle. February 9, 2013. See edit history on April 24, 2015, for the url 
  23. ^ "Concept 80". Iron and Steel Engineer (Association of Iron and Steel Engineers) 54: 177. 1977. 
  24. ^ Flory, Jr., J. "Kelly" (2012). American Cars, 1973-1980: Every Model, Year by Year. McFarland. p. 937. ISBN 9780786443529. 
  25. ^ Flory, Jr., J. Kelly (2012). "Concept Cars". American Cars, 1973-1980: Every Model, Year by Year. McFarland. p. 937. ISBN 9780786443529. Retrieved 4 March 2015. 
  26. ^ "AMC Amitron – Vintage Electric Car Concept". Motor Trade News. March 1, 2013. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  27. ^ "Schönes Ding: Der elektrische Stuhl" (in German). Spiegel Online. March 16, 2014. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Frumkin, Mitch; Hall, Phil (2002). American Dream Cars: 60 Years of the Best Concept Vehicles. Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87349-491-1. 
  • Shacket, Sheldon R. (1979). The Complete Book of Electric Vehicles. Domus Books. ISBN 0-89196-019-8. 

External links[edit]