Amphioctopus marginatus

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Amphioctopus marginatus
Coconut Octopus (Amphioctopus marginatus) (6079648725).jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Cephalopoda
Order: Octopoda
Family: Octopodidae
Genus: Amphioctopus
A. marginatus
Binomial name
Amphioctopus marginatus
(Iw. Taki, 1964)
  • Octopus marginatus
    Taki, 1964
  • Octopus striolatus
    Dong, 1976

Amphioctopus marginatus, also known as the coconut octopus and veined octopus, is a medium-sized cephalopod belonging to the genus Amphioctopus. It is found in tropical waters of the western Pacific Ocean. It commonly preys upon shrimp, crabs, and clams, and displays unusual behavior including bipedal walking and tool use (gathering coconut shells and seashells and using these for shelter).

Size and description[edit]

The main body of the octopus is normally 8 centimeters (3 in) long and including the arms, approximately 15 centimeters (6 in) long. The octopus displays a typical color pattern with dark ramified lines similar to veins, usually with a yellow siphon. The arms are usually dark in color, with contrasting white suckers. In many color displays, a lighter trapezoidal area can be seen immediately below the eye.

Behavior and habits[edit]

Small (4-5 cm diameter) individual using a nutshell and clam shell as shelter

The coconut octopus is found on sandy bottoms in bays or lagoons. It frequently buries itself in the sand with only its eyes uncovered.[2]

In March 2005, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, published an article in Science in which A. marginatus was reported to show bipedal locomotion. It is one of only two octopus species known to display such behavior, the other species being Abdopus aculeatus. The authors discovered this behavior in an area off Sulawesi, Indonesia, where the sandy bottom was littered with coconut shells.[3] The bipedal motion appears to mimic a floating coconut.[4]

Researchers from the Melbourne Museum in Australia claimed the coconut octopus uses tools for concealment and defense by gathering available debris to create a defensive fortress. This behavior was observed in individuals in Bali and North Sulawesi in Indonesia.[5][6][7] The researchers filmed the octopus collecting coconut half-shells discarded by humans from the sea floor. They were then carried up to 20 meters (66 ft) and arranged around the body of the octopus to form a spherical hiding place similar to a clam-shell.[6][8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Allen, G & Allcock, L (2018). "Amphioctopus marginatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T163176A980445. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T163176A980445.en. Retrieved 7 March 2023.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ "Coconut Octopus Amphioctopus marginatus". Oceana. Retrieved 14 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. ^ Sanders, Robert: Octopuses occasionally stroll around on two arms, UC Berkeley biologists report, University of California, Berkeley, March 24, 2005.
  4. ^ Christine L. Huffard, Farnis Boneka, Robert J. Full: Underwater Bipedal Locomotion by Octopuses in Disguise, Science, March 25, 2005.
  5. ^ Finn, Julian K.; Tregenza, Tom; Norman, Mark D. (2009), "Defensive tool use in a coconut-carrying octopus", Curr. Biol., 19 (23): R1069–R1070, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.10.052, PMID 20064403, S2CID 26835945.
  6. ^ a b Gelineau, Kristen (2009-12-15). "Aussie scientists find coconut-carrying octopus". The Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 18, 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-15.
  7. ^ Harmon, Katherine (2009-12-14). "A tool-wielding octopus? This invertebrate builds armor from coconut halves". Scientific American. Archived from the original on 2009-12-17. Retrieved 2009-12-15.
  8. ^ Henderson, Mark (2009-12-15). "Indonesia's veined octopus 'stilt walks' to collect coconut shells". Times Online. Archived from the original on August 15, 2011.

External links[edit]