|6th Tlatoani of Tenochtitlan
Ruler of the Aztec Triple Alliance
Axayacatl as depicted in the Codex Azcatitlan
|Issue||King Moctezuma II
|Mother||Princess Atotoztli II|
Axayacatl (//; Classical Nahuatl: āxāyacatl, Nahuatl pronunciation: [aːʃaːˈjákatɬ] ( listen); Spanish: Axayácatl, pronounced: [aksaˈʝakatɬ]; meaning "face of water"; c. 1449-1481) was the sixth tlatoani of the altepetl of Tenochtitlan and ruler of the Aztec Triple Alliance.
Early life and background
He was a successor of Moctezuma and his brothers were Emperors Tixoc and Ahuitzotl and his sister was the Queen Chalchiuhnenetzin. He was an uncle of the Emperor Cuauhtémoc and father of Emperors Moctezuma II and Cuitláhuac.
Rise to power
During his youth, his military prowess gained him the favor influential figures such as Nezahualcoyotl and Tlacaelel I, and thus, upon the death of Moctezuma I in 1469, he was chosen to ascend to the throne, much to the displeasure of his two older brothers, Tizoc and Ahuitzotl.
It is also important that the Great Sun Stone, also known as the Aztec Calendar, was carved under his leadership. In the year 1475 there was a major earthquake that destroyed many homes in Temochtitlán.
Military actions and death
Using as a pretext the insulting behavior of a few Tlatelolcan citizens, Axayacatl invaded his neighbor, killed its ruler, Moquihuix, and replaced him with a military governor. The Tlatelolcans lost any voice they had in forming Aztec policy.
Axayacatl largely dedicated his twelve-year reign to consolidating his militaristic repute: he led successful campaigns against the neighboring altepetl of Tlatelolco in 1473 and the Matlatzinca of the Toluca Valley in 1474, but was finally defeated by the Tarascans of Michoacán in 1476. Despite some subsequent minor triumphs, Axayacatl's defeat at the hands of the Tarascans irreversibly marred his image, as it constituted the only major defeat suffered by the Aztecs up to that moment. In spite of his young age, he fell gravely ill in 1480, passing away a mere year later, in 1481, whereupon he was succeeded by his brother Tizoc.
- Map based on Hassig (1988)
- Davies, Nigel (1980). The Aztecs (2nd ed.). Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
- Davies, Nigel (1987). The Aztec Empire: The Toltec Resurgence. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
- Hassig, Ross (1988). Aztec Warfare: Imperial Expansion and Political Control. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2121-1.
- Townsend, Richard F. (2000). The Aztecs (revised ed.). London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-28132-7.
- Weaver, Muriel Porter (1993). The Aztecs, Maya, and Their Predecessors: Archaeology of Mesoamerica (3rd ed.). San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN 0-01-263999-0.
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|Tlatoani of Tenochtitlan