Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing

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BOINC
BOINC logo
BOINC Manager Screenshot.jpg
Developer(s)University of California, Berkeley
Initial release10 April 2002; 20 years ago (2002-04-10)
Stable release
7.20.2 Windows
19 July 2022; 2 months ago (2022-07-19)

7.20.2 macOS
19 July 2022; 2 months ago (2022-07-19)

7.20.2 Linux
19 July 2022; 2 months ago (2022-07-19)

7.18.1 Android
5 August 2021; 13 months ago (2021-08-05)

Repository
Written inC++ (client/server)
PHP (project CMS)
Java/Kotlin (Android client)
Operating systemWindows
macOS
Linux
Android
FreeBSD
TypeGrid computing and volunteer computing
LicenseLGPL-3.0-or-later[1]
Project licensing varies
Websiteboinc.berkeley.edu
BOINC Manager Advanced View

The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing[2] (BOINC, pronounced /bɔɪŋk/ – rhymes with "oink"[3]) is an open-source middleware system for volunteer computing (a type of distributed computing).[4] Developed originally to support SETI@home,[5] it became the platform for many other applications in areas as diverse as medicine, molecular biology, mathematics, linguistics, climatology, environmental science, and astrophysics, among others.[6] The purpose of BOINC is to enable researchers to utilize processing resources of personal computers and other devices around the world.

BOINC development began with a group based at the Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL) at the University of California, Berkeley, and led by David P. Anderson, who also led SETI@home. As a high-performance volunteer computing platform, BOINC brings together 34,236 active participants employing 136,341 active computers (hosts) worldwide, processing daily on average 20.164 PetaFLOPS as of 16 November 2021[7] (it would be the 21st largest processing capability in the world compared with an individual supercomputer).[8] The National Science Foundation (NSF) funds BOINC through awards SCI/0221529,[9] SCI/0438443[10] and SCI/0721124.[11] Guinness World Records ranks BOINC as the largest computing grid in the world.[12]

BOINC code runs on various operating systems, including Microsoft Windows, macOS, Android,[13] Linux, and FreeBSD.[14] BOINC is free software released under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL).

History[edit]

BOINC was originally developed to manage the SETI@home project.

The original SETI client was a non-BOINC software exclusively for SETI@home. It was one of the first volunteer computing projects, and not designed with a high level of security. As a result, some participants in the project attempted to cheat the project to gain "credits", while others submitted entirely falsified work. BOINC was designed, in part, to combat these security breaches.[15]

The BOINC project started in February 2002, and its first version was released on April 10, 2002. The first BOINC-based project was Predictor@home, launched on June 9, 2004. In 2009, AQUA@home deployed multi-threaded CPU applications for the first time,[16] followed by the first OpenCL application in 2010.

As of 15 August 2022, there are 33 projects on the official list.[17] There are also, however, BOINC projects not included on the official list. Each year, an international BOINC Workshop is hosted to increase collaboration among project administrators. In 2021, the workshop was hosted virtually.[18]

While not affiliated with BOINC officially, there have been several outside projects to reward BOINC users for their participation, to include Charity Engine (sweepstakes based on processing power with prizes funded by private entities who purchase computational time of CE users), Bitcoin Utopia (now defunct), and Gridcoin (a blockchain which mints coins based on processing power).

Design and structure[edit]

BOINC is software that can exploit the unused CPU and GPU cycles on computer hardware to perform scientific computing. In 2008, BOINC's website announced that Nvidia had developed a language called CUDA that uses GPUs for scientific computing. With NVIDIA's assistance, several BOINC-based projects (e.g., MilkyWay@home. SETI@home) developed applications that run on NVIDIA GPUs using CUDA. BOINC added support for the ATI/AMD family of GPUs in October 2009. The GPU applications run from 2 to 10 times faster than the former CPU-only versions. GPU support (via OpenCL) was added for computers using macOS with AMD Radeon graphic cards, with the current BOINC client supporting OpenCL on Windows, Linux, and macOS. GPU support is also provided for Intel GPUs.[19]

BOINC consists of a server system and client software that communicate to process and distribute work units and return results.

Mobile application[edit]

A BOINC app also exists for Android, allowing every person owning an Android device – smartphone, tablet and/or Kindle – to share their unused computing power. The user is allowed to select the research projects they want to support, if it is in the app's available project list.

By default, the application will allow computing only when the device is connected to a WiFi network, is being charged, and the battery has a charge of at least 90%.[20] Some of these settings can be changed to users needs. Not all BOINC projects are available[21] and some of the projects are not compatible with all versions of Android operating system or availability of work is intermittent. Currently available projects[21] are Asteroids@home, Einstein@Home, LHC@home, Moo! Wrapper, Rosetta@home, Universe@Home, World Community Grid and yoyo@home. As of September 2021, the most recent version of the mobile application can only be downloaded from the BOINC website or the F-Droid repository as the official Google Play store does not allow downloading and running executables not signed by the app developer and each BOINC project has their own executable files.

User interfaces[edit]

BOINC can be controlled remotely by remote procedure calls (RPC), from the command line, and from a BOINC Manager. BOINC Manager currently has two "views": the Advanced View and the Simplified GUI. The Grid View was removed in the 6.6.x clients as it was redundant. The appearance (skin) of the Simplified GUI is user-customizable, in that users can create their own designs.

Account managers[edit]

A BOINC Account Manager is an application that manages multiple BOINC project accounts across multiple computers (CPUs) and operating systems. Account managers were designed for people who are new to BOINC or have several computers participating in several projects. The account manager concept was conceived and developed jointly by GridRepublic and BOINC. Current and past account managers include:

  • BAM! (BOINC Account Manager) (The first publicly available Account Manager, released for public use on May 30, 2006)
  • GridRepublic (Follows the ideas of simplicity and neatness in account management)
  • Charity Engine (Non-profit account manager for hire, uses prize draws and continuous charity fundraising to motivate people to join the grid)
  • Science United (An account manager designed to make BOINC easier to use which automatically selects vetted BOINC projects for users based on desired research areas such as "medicine" or "physics")[22]
  • Dazzler (Open-source Account Manager, to ease institutional management resources)

Credit system[edit]

  • The BOINC Credit System is designed to avoid bad hardware and cheating by validating results before granting credit.
  • The credit management system helps to ensure that users are returning results which are both statistically and scientifically accurate.
  • Online volunteer computing is a complicated and variable mix of long-term users, retiring users and new users with different personal aspirations.

Projects[edit]

BOINC is used by many groups and individuals. Some BOINC projects are based at universities and research labs while others are independent areas of research or interest.[23]

Active[edit]

Active Projects that have a Wikipedia page
Project Name Publications Launched Status Operating System GPU App Sponsor Category Research Focus
climateprediction.net 108 papers[24] 2003-12-09 307,359 volunteers[25] Windows, Linux, ARM, macOS[26] No Oxford University Climate change Improve climate prediction models. Sub-project: Seasonal Attribution Project.
Collatz Conjecture paper[27] 2009-01-06[28] 67,719 volunteers[29] Windows, Linux, macOS[30] GPU CPU Independent Mathematics Study the unsolved Collatz conjecture[31]
Cosmology@Home 6 papers[32] 2007-06-26 87,465 volunteers[33] Windows, Linux, macOS[34] No Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris Astronomy Develop simulations that best describe The Universe
DENIS@Home 4 papers[35] 2015-03-16 6,111 volunteers[36] Windows, Linux, ARM, macOS[37] No Universidad San Jorge, Zaragoza, Spain Medical physiology Simulate electrical activity of cardiac cells
Einstein@Home 35 papers[38] 2005-02-19 1,041,796 volunteers[39] Windows, Linux, ARM, macOS, Android[40] GPU CPU University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Max Planck Institute Astrophysics Search for pulsars using radio signals and gravitational wave data
Gerasim@Home papers[41] 2007-02-10 6,811 volunteers[42] Windows, Linux[43] No Southwest State University (Russia) Multiple applications Research in discrete mathematics and logic control systems
GPUGRID.net 72 papers[44] 2007-12-05 46,874 volunteers[45] Windows, Linux, macOS[46] NVIDIA GPU only Barcelona Biomedical Research Park Molecular biology Perform full-atom molecular simulations of proteins on Nvidia GPUs for biomedical research
LHC@home 20 papers[47] 2004-01-09 178,623 volunteers[48] Windows, Linux, ARM, macOS, Android, FreeBSD[49] No CERN Physics Help construct and test the Large Hadron Collider and search for fundamental particles
MilkyWay@home 12 papers[50] 2007-07-07 250,447 volunteers[51] Windows, Linux, macOS[52] GPU CPU Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Astronomy Create a simulation of the Milky Way galaxy using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
MindModeling@Home 2007-07-07 24,574 volunteers[53] Windows, Linux, macOS[54] No University of Dayton Research Institute and Wright State University Cognitive science Making cognitive models of the human mind
PrimeGrid 4 papers[55] 2005-06-12 353,261 volunteers[56] Windows, Linux, macOS[57] GPU CPU Independent Mathematics Search for primes such as 321 primes, Sierpinski numbers, Cullen-Woodall primes, Proth prime, and Sophie Germain primes. Subprojects include Seventeen or Bust, and Riesel Sieve.
Rosetta@home 18 papers[58] 2005-10-06 1,373,480 volunteers[59] Windows, Linux, ARM, macOS, Android[60] No University of Washington Molecular biology Protein structure prediction for disease research
TN-Grid 5 papers[61] 2013-12-19 3162 volunteers[62] Windows, Linux, macOS[63] No University of Trento Genetics Currently deploying gene@home work to expand gene networks
World Community Grid 63 papers[64] 2004-11-16 85,119 volunteers[65] Windows, Linux, ARM, macOS, Android[66] GPU CPU Krembil Research Institute Multiple applications Subprojects: Open Pandemics - COVID-19. Clean Energy Project, GO Drug Search for Leishmaniasis, Fight Against Malaria, Computing for Clean Water, Discovering Dengue Drugs - Together, OpenZika, Help Cure Muscular Dystrophy, Help Conquer Cancer, Help Fight Childhood Cancer, Smash Childhood Cancer, Human Proteome Folding Project, Uncovering Genome Mysteries, FightAIDS@Home, Let's outsmart Ebola together, Mapping Cancer Markers, Help Stop TB.
yoyo@home 2007-07-19 94,236 volunteers[67] Windows, Linux, macOS, Android, ARM, Solaris, Sony Playstation 3[68] No Independent Multiple applications Using the BOINC Wrapper with existing volunteer projects

Completed[edit]

Completed Projects that have a Wikipedia page
Project Name Publications Launched Status Operating System GPU app Sponsor Category Research Focus
SETI@home papers[69] 1999-05-17 1,808,938 volunteers[70] Windows, Linux, macOS, Android, ARM[71] GPU CPU University of California, Berkeley Astronomy Analyzing radio frequencies from space to search for extraterrestrial life. Sub project: Astropulse
SETI@home beta 2006-01-12 GPU CPU University of California, Berkeley Software testing Test project for SETI@home
ABC@Home 2 papers[72] 2006-11-21 No Mathematical Institute of Leiden University Mathematics Find triples of the ABC conjecture
AQUA@home 3 papers[73] 2008-12-10 GPU CPU D-Wave Systems Computer science Predict the performance of Quantum computers
Artificial Intelligence System No Intelligence Realm Inc Artificial Intelligence Simulate the brain using Hodgkin–Huxley models via an artificial neural network
Big and Ugly Rendering Project (BURP) 2 papers[74] 2004-06-17 No Independent Rendering (computer graphics) Use BOINC infrastructure with Blender (software) to render animated videos
Cell Computing No NTT Data Biomedical sciences
Correlizer 6 papers[75] 2011[76] No Biology Examining genome organization
DistrRTgen 2008-01-12 No Independent Cryptography Analysis of hash strength for password security by developing rainbow tables.
Docking@Home 21 papers[77] No University of Delaware Molecular biology Use the CHARMM program to model protein-ligand docking. The goal was the development of pharmaceutical drugs.
EDGeS@Home papers[78] 2009-10 No MTA SZTAKI Laboratory of Parallel and Distributed Systems Multiple applications Support of scientific applications developed by the EGEE and EDGeS community
eOn 6 papers[79] No University of Texas at Austin Chemistry Theoretical chemistry techniques to solve problems in condensed matter physics and materials science
Evolution@Home paper[80] No evolutionary biology Improve understanding of evolutionary processes
FreeHAL 2006 No Independent Artificial intelligence Compute information for software to imitate human conversation
HashClash papers[81] 2005-11-24 No Eindhoven University of Technology Cryptography Find collisions in the MD5 hash algorithm
Ibercivis paper example[82] 2008-06-22 No Zaragoza, CETA-CIEMAT, CSIC, Coimbra Multiple applications Research in physics, material science and biomedicines
Leiden Classical paper[83] 2005-05-12 No Leiden University Chemistry Classical mechanics for students and scientists
Malaria Control Project 30 papers[84] 2006-12-19 No Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute Model Diseases Stochastic modelling of clinical epidemiology and the natural history of Plasmodium falciparum malaria
µFluids@Home 4 papers[85] 2005-09-19 No Purdue University Physics, Aeronautics A computer simulation of two-phase flow behavior in microgravity and micro fluidics
OProject@Home 2012-08-13 No Olin Library, Rollins College Mathematics Algorithm analysis. The library is open and available in the Code.google.com SVN repository.
Orbit@home paper[86] 2008-04-03 No Planetary Science Institute Astronomy Monitor near-earth asteroids
Pirates@Home 2004-06-02 No 1 Vassar College

2 Spy Hill Research

Software testing Mission 1: Test BOINC software and help to develop Einstein@Home screensaver[87]

Mission 2: Develop forum software for Interactions in Understanding the Universe[88]

POEM@Home 9 papers[89] 2007-13-11 No University of Karlsruhe Molecular biology Model Protein folding using Anfinsen's dogma
Predictor@home paper[90] 2004-05-04 No The Scripps Research Institute Molecular biology Test new methods of protein structure prediction and algorithms in the context of the Sixth Biannual CASP[91] experiment
Proteins@home 4 papers[92] 2006-09-15 No École polytechnique Protein structure prediction Contribute to a better understanding of many diseases and pathologies and to progress in Medicine and Technology
QMC@Home paper[93] 2006-03-03 No University of Münster Chemistry Study the structure and reactivity of molecules using quantum chemistry and Monte Carlo techniques
Quake-Catcher Network 6 papers[94] 2008-02-03 No Stanford University Seismology Use accelerometers connected to personal computers and devices to detect earthquakes and to educate about seismology
RALPH@Home 2006-02-15 GPU CPU University of Washington Molecular biology Test project for Rosetta@home
Riesel Sieve No Mathematics Prove that 509,203 is the smallest Riesel number by finding a prime of the form k × 2n − 1 for all odd k smaller than 509,203
SAT@home papers[95] 2011-09 No Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences Mathematics Solve discrete problems by reducing them to the problem of satisfiability of Boolean formulas
SIMAP 5 papers[96] 2006-04-26 No University of Vienna Molecular biology Investigated protein similarities
SLinCA@Home 2010-09-14 No National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Physics Research in physics and materials science
Spinhenge@home 4 papers[97] No Technion – Israel Institute of Technology genetic linkage Used genetic linkage analysis to find disease resistant genes
SZTAKI Desktop Grid papers[98] 2005-05-26 No MTA SZTAKI Laboratory of Parallel and Distributed Systems Mathematics Find all the generalized binary number systems (in which bases are matrices and digits are vectors) up to dimension 11, understand basic universality classes of nonequilibrium system
TANPAKU 2005-08-02[99] No Tokyo University of Science Molecular biology Protein structure prediction using the Brownian dynamics method
The Lattice Project 14 papers[100] No University of Maryland, College Park Life science Multiple applications
theSkyNet 4 papers[101] 2011-09-13 No International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research Astronomy Analysis of radio astronomy data from telescopes

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

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