Jump to content

Bangsamoro declarations of independence

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bangsamoro Declaration of Independence
MNLF's adopted flag for their Bangsamoro Republik.
CreatedApril 28, 1974
January 15, 2012
July 27, 2013
LocationTalipao, Sulu
Author(s)Moro National Liberation Front
PurposeIndependence of the Bangsamoro Republik from the Philippines

The Bangsamoro are a majority-Muslim ethnic group occupying a range of territories across the southern portions of the Republic of the Philippines. On three occasions, a short-lived and unrecognized Bangsamoro state independent of the Philippines has been formally declared by the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). The first declaration was issued in 1974, amid the Moro conflict. Bangsamoro Land would be declared in 2012. In 2013, the United Federated States of Bangsamoro Republik was declared.


Nur Misuari, chairman of the Moro National Liberation Front issued the Proclamation of Bangsamoro Independence on April 28, 1974.[1][2]


On January 15, 2012, the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) declared the Independence of Bangsamoro Land (Sulu, Mindanao, Palawan, Sabah) in Valencia Bukidnon.[3][unreliable source?]


The Bangsamoro Declaration of Independence was proclaimed on July 27, 2013[4] in Talipao, Sulu. The Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), under Nur Misuari, proclaimed the independence of the Bangsamoro Republik, officially known as the United Federated States of Bangsamoro Republik, claiming the islands of Mindanao, Basilan, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi and Palawan in the Philippines.[5]

The Bangsamoro Republik also includes Sabah and Sarawak (in Malaysia's Borneo), confirmed Emmanuel Fontanila, Misuari's counsel.[6]


National governments[edit]

  •  Philippines – The Philippine government refused to recognize the Bangsamoro Republik, reiterating that theirs is the only legitimate government in the Philippine archipelago. Presidential spokesperson Abigail Valte said that the elected officials in the claimed territory of Bangsamoro still exercise control over their constituents. “Perhaps it’s time to go to the elected representatives of the people there [to see] if they support this call of Misuari [saying they] have declared themselves an independent state from the [Philippine] government,” she added.[7]
  •  Malaysia – The Malaysia government rejected the sovereignty of the Sultanate of Sulu (and subsequently the Bangsamoro Republik) over the territory.[8][failed verification][9]


  • Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao regional governor Mujiv Hataman said that all town mayors and provincial governments in the autonomous region remain loyal to the Philippine constitution. He described the Bangsamoro independence declared by Misuari unconstitutional. “All the elected officials of the region do not recognize Misuari’s declaration and they remain supportive of the national government's peace process with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front,” Hataman said.
  • Davao City mayor Rodrigo Duterte supports the idea of a Bangsamoro Republik. “Wala akong problema (I don't have any problem with it). I can work under a Muslim leader,” Duterte said. “Ang gusto ko lang it is fair to everybody. Kasi, pag hindi fair, ako ang magrerebelde. (My only desire is that it would be fair to everybody; if not, I will be the one to rebel.),” Duterte added. Duterte said that he would support Misuari's "legitimate" bid for independence.[10] At the height of the Zamboanga City crisis, however, the Davao mayor clarified his stance and said that Misuari and his group are free to raise their MNLF flag in the Davao City "as long as it is not higher than the Philippine flag."[11]
  • Sultanate of Sulu under Jamalul Kiram III - A Sultanate spokesman named Idjirani said that Sultan Jamalul Kiram III was not consulted on the declaration of the independence of Bangsamoro Republik.“That was his (Misuari) prerogative. But as far as Sabah is concerned, we are not in favor of that,” Idjirani said. The spokesman said that they had been hearing reports of Misuari's plan to declare independence and to bolster the strength of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). “Sultan Kiram’s instruction to our men on the ground is not to entertain such reports and not take part in any undertaking not authorized by the sultanate and the council,” he said. He also added that the Sulu Sultanate won't support Nur Misuari when he declares war on the Philippine government, despite the mutual disapproval by the Sultanate and Misuari's group of the Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro that triggered the declaration.[12]

Planned future declarations[edit]

In February 2015, Nur Misuari held a meeting with MNLF leaders in Sulu to inform them on the progress of declaring a "Bangsamoro Republik of Mindanao". Misuari also ordered the consolidation of MNLF troops following reports that government forces are launching a "secret all-out military operation” against armed groups not part of the peace process in Mindanao.[13] In 2016, Misuari accepted a federal system bid by the Philippine government, but with a condition that the Muslim Filipinos will have their own state under the proposed system. Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte supports Misuari's condition, along with the House Speaker and the Senate President. In 2017, Misuari offered aid to Duterte in his fight against ISIS in the Battle of Marawi, which Duterte accepted.[14]


  1. ^ W.K. Che Man. "Muslim Separatism: The Moros of Southern Philippines and the Malays of Southern Thailand". Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1974.
  2. ^ Abinales, Patricio. N., et al. "State and Society in the Philippines". Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.
  3. ^ People Signing of Declaration of Mindanao Independence
  4. ^ "WHO IS AFRAID OF MINDANAO INDEPENDENCE?". August 14, 2013. Archived from the original on September 15, 2013. Retrieved November 19, 2013.
  6. ^ "Misuari declares independence of Mindanao, southern Philippines". Gulf News. August 16, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  7. ^ "Philippines debunks declaration of 'Bangsamoro Republik'". The Philippine Star. August 16, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  8. ^ "East and Southeast Asia: the Philippines". CIA Factbook. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
  9. ^ "Claim of 4,000 armed men in Sabah, Sarawak 'pure propaganda' — MNLF chairman". The Borneo Post. September 11, 2013. Retrieved September 11, 2013.
  10. ^ "Davao City Mayor Rodrigo Duterte okay with Moro Republik". Sun.Star. August 18, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  11. ^ "Duterte, Misuari speak on phone". Tempo.com.ph. Archived from the original on September 14, 2013. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
  12. ^ "Sultanate of Sulu turns its back on Misuari's independence declaration | The Manila Times Online". The Manila Times. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  13. ^ Echeminada, Perseus (February 20, 2015). "Misuari fortifies stronghold in Sulu". The Philippine Star. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  14. ^ "Duterte accepts Misuari's offer of MNLF fighters vs Maute". May 29, 2017.