Rodrigo Duterte

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Rodrigo Duterte
Rodrigo Duterte (2009).jpg
Mayor of Davao City
Assumed office
June 30, 2013
Preceded by Sara Duterte
In office
June 30, 2001 – June 30, 2010
Preceded by Benjamin C. de Guzman
Succeeded by Sara Duterte
In office
February 2, 1988 – March 19, 1998
Preceded by Jacinto T. Rubillar
Succeeded by Benjamin C. de Guzman
Vice-Mayor of Davao City
In office
June 30, 2010 – June 30, 2013
Preceded by Sara Duterte
Succeeded by Paolo Duterte
In office
May 2, 1986 – November 27, 1987
Officer in Charge
Preceded by Cornelio P. Maskariño
Succeeded by Gilbert G. Abellera
Member of the Philippine House of Representatives from Davao City's 1st district
In office
June 30, 1998 – June 30, 2001
Preceded by Prospero Nograles
Succeeded by Prospero Nograles
Personal details
Born Rodrigo Roa Duterte
(1945-03-28) March 28, 1945 (age 70)
Maasin, Leyte Philippine Commonwealth
Political party PDP-Laban (National)
Hugpong Sa Tawong Lungsod (Local)
Spouse(s) Elizabeth Abellana Zimmerman (Annulled)
Domestic partner Cieleto "Honeylet" Avanceña[1]
Children Paolo
Sara
Sebastian
Veronica
Alma mater Lyceum of the Philippines University
San Beda College of Law
Affiliation Lex Talionis Fraternitas
Website Official Website

Rodrigo "Rody" Roa Duterte[2] (born March 28, 1945), nicknamed Digong, is a Filipino lawyer and politician of Visayan descent. Duterte is among the longest-serving mayors in the Philippines. He has been mayor of Davao City, a highly urbanized city on Mindanao island, for 7 terms, totalling more than 22 years. He has also served as vice-mayor and congressman in the city.

On November 21, 2015, Duterte declared his candidacy for President of the Philippines in the upcoming 2016 election after a period of banter.

Early life[edit]

Duterte was born on March 28, 1945 in Maasin, Leytein the Philippine Commonwealth[3] to Vicente G. Duterte, who served as Governor of (the then-undivided) Davao and Soledad Roa, a school teacher and a civic leader.

The Dutertes came to the Davao Region in 1951. Vicente as a lawyer engaged in private practice, while Soledad taught in public schools as a teacher. Mrs. Duterte, however, retired as a supervisor in 1952 when her lawyer-husband joined politics. She left government service owing to the demands of being a wife of an active politician. As wife of the governor, she became familiar with the social and economic problems of the people, especially out-of-school youth, women, children and the disabled.

Education[edit]

Rodrigo spent his elementary days at the Sta. Ana Elementary School in Davao City, where he graduated in 1956. He finished his secondary education at the Holy Cross Academy of Digos in Digos City, Davao del Sur after being expelled twice from previous schools, including one in Ateneo de Davao University due to misconduct.[4] For his tertiary education, he took up Bachelor of Arts in Political Science degree at the Lyceum of the Philippines University in Manila, where he graduated in 1968. He also obtained a law degree from San Beda College of Law, still in Manila, in 1972. In the same year, he passed the bar exam. Duterte eventually became Special Counsel at the City Prosecution Office in Davao City from 1977-1979; Fourth Assistant City Prosecutor from 1979-1981; Third Assistant City Prosecutor from 1981-1983; and Second Assistant City Prosecutor from 1983-1986.

Political career[edit]

Davao mayor[edit]

After the 1986 People Power Revolution, Duterte was appointed officer-in-charge vice mayor. In 1988, he ran for mayor and won, serving until 1998. He set a precedent by designating deputy mayors that represented the Lumad and Moro peoples in the city government, which was later copied in other parts of the Philippines. In 1998, because he was term-limited to run again for mayor, he ran for the House of Representatives and won as Congressman of the 1st District of Davao City. In 2001, he ran again for mayor in Davao and was again elected for his fourth term. He was re-elected in 2004 and in 2007.

Davao City under Duterte won the National Literacy Hall of Fame Award for being a three-time first-place winner in the Outstanding Local Government Unit, Highly Urbanized City category. In 2013, Davao City sent rescue and medical teams to Tacloban to give aid to the victims of Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda). Financial assistance was also given to Bohol and Cebu for the earthquake victims.[5]

Crime figures reported by Duterte, alleged that crime in the city was significantly reduced during the period 1985–2000. Duterte suggested that there had been a decrease in crime from a triple-digit crime rate per 1,000 people in 1985 to 0.8 cases per 10,000 inhabitants in the period 1999 to 2005. Furthermore, according to police statistics, the population in Davao City grew from 1.12 million to 1.44 million between 1999 and 2008 (29 per cent). In the corresponding period, the incidence of crime rose from 975 to 3,391 (248 per cent).

One article of TIME magazine shows him patroling in Davao City’s streets on one of his big motorcycles, leading a convoy complete with blaring sirens and M16 rifles. Local news reports show him foregoing the pomp, opting to inspect in a regular taxi, surprising his would-be passengers.[6] In early September 2015, an infamous incident was reported regarding a tourist being forced to swallow his own cigarette butt in a local bar in Davao City after the tourist arrogantly refused to comply with the public anti-smoking ordinance of the city. Duterte was personally contacted by the bar owner and went in forcing the tourist to swallow his cigarette butt. Duterte was then met with criticisms especially from the Commission on Human Rights (CHR).[7]

Though supportive of the extra-judicial killings of habitual drug users and dealers, Duterte used city government funds to build a ₱12-million drug rehabilitation and treatment center which provides 24-hour services. In 2003, he offered a ₱2,000 monthly allowance to drug addicts who personally approached him and committed to kick the habit. Duterte is also publicly known for visiting remote New People's Army camps negotiating peace transaction efforts and advocating diplomacy.[6]

Duterte was also the first mayor in the Philippines to give formal representation to the indigenous Lumad and Muslim community, designating deputy mayors to represent their interests in the local government. The anti-discrimination ordinance he mandated, was reportedly a response to news he received that Muslims were being discriminated against by real estate agents.[6]

In a survey released by crowd-sourced rating site Numbeo.com dated April 30, 2015, Davao City ranked 9th as the safest city in the world.[8] In the following month, Davao City's rank moved up to the 5th spot[9] and in June 2015, Davao City gained the spot as the 4th safest city in the world.[10]

In 2010, he was elected vice mayor, succeeding his daughter, Sara Duterte-Carpio, who was elected as mayor. He has been offered the Interior Secretary post 4 times, by presidents Fidel V. Ramos, Joseph Ejercito Estrada, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, and Benigno S. Aquino III but rejected all of them. In April 2014, he also declined a nomination for the World Mayor Prize, given by an international body to outstanding mayors saying "he was just doing his job."[6] Among the other awards Duterte also refused to accept for Davao City includes the one given by the American Cancer Society and the 2010 anti-smoking award in Singapore.[4]

Law and order[edit]

  • Through the support of Duterte, the City Council amended ordinance No. 1627, Series of 1994, to impose a prohibition on selling, serving, drinking and consuming alcoholic beverages from 01:00 until 08:00 each morning.
  • Executive Order No. 39 was signed by Duterte, reducing the speed limits for all kinds of motor vehicles within the territorial jurisdiction of Davao City in the interest of public safety and order.
  • Duterte also signed Executive Order No. 04, Series of 2013 to impose an order creating the implementing of rules and regulations for the new comprehensive anti-smoking ordinance no. 0367-12, Series of 2012.
  • Davao City's Firecracker Ban was also implemented with ordinance No. 060-02/1406-02, Series of 2002 by the City Council through the support of Duterte.
  • Another known accomplishment was that the City Government of Davao was able to acquire 10 more ambulances for central 911 intended for medical emergencies and 42 new mobile patrol vehicles and motorcycles for the Davao City Police Office (the first and only 9-1-1 emergency telephone number in Asia).
  • Duterte, through Executive Order No. 24, ordered all shopping malls and commercial centers to install, operate and maintain high end and high definition closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras at all entrance and exit points of their premises.

Criticism[edit]

Main article: Davao death squads

Duterte, who has been dubbed "The Punisher" by Time magazine,[12] has been criticized by human rights groups and by Amnesty International for tolerating extrajudicial killings of alleged criminals allegedly by the vigilante Davao death squads.[12] Duterte has been heavily criticised by numerous organizations for condoning and even inciting murders to take place during his leadership. In the April 2009 UN General Assembly of the Human Rights Council, the UN report (Eleventh Session Agenda item 3, par 21) said, "The Mayor of Davao City has done nothing to prevent these killings, and his public comments suggest that he is, in fact, supportive."[13] Human Rights Watch reported that in 2001-2002, Duterte appeared on local television and radio and announced the names of "criminals", some of whom were later executed.[14] In July 2005 at a crime summit in the Manila Hotel, the politician said, "Summary execution of criminals remains the most effective way to crush kidnapping and illegal drugs".[15]

Unlike many politicians, Duterte is forthright and plain speaking. In 2009 he said: "If you are doing an illegal activity in my city, if you are a criminal or part of a syndicate that preys on the innocent people of the city, for as long as I am the mayor, you are a legitimate target of assassination."[16]

Duterte responded to the reported arrest and subsequent release of a notorious drug lord in Manila by saying: "Here in Davao, you can’t go out alive. You can go out, but inside a coffin. Is that what you call extra-judicial killing? Then I will just bring a drug lord to a judge and kill him there, that will no longer be extra-judicial."

Referring to the arrest of a suspected rice smuggler, Duterte spoke out in the state senate saying, "If this guy would go to Davao and starts to unload (smuggled rice)… I will gladly kill him." For these comments, Duterte was attacked in an editorial in The Manila Times, which condemned "the mentality of lawlessness and vigilantism."[17] The newspaper argued that this culture of impunity enabled those in power, including officials, "private warlords and businessmen vigilantes" to take retribution against those they felt had acted against their interests: "They kill journalists exposing corruption and human rights activists exposing abusive police and military men."[17] Following Duterte's comments in relation to killing a person suspected of smuggling rice, the office of the President of the Philippines issued a statement saying, “Killing a person is against the law. The President has been firm in the belief that no one is above the law. We must not resort to extralegal methods."[18]

In 2015, Duterte confirmed his links to extrajudicial killings in Davao, and warned that if elected president he may kill up to 100,000 criminals.[19]

Human Rights Watch have called on him to stop the death squads in the city.[20]

Presidential bid[edit]

As early as the first quarter of 2015, Duterte made hints to the media of his intention to run for president in the 2016 elections. However, he denied these plans numerous times amidst clamor from his supporters for him to run.

On October 16, 2015, on the last day of filing for certificates of candidacy, Martin Diño filed his intent to run for president under Duterte's party, PDP-Laban. Duterte's supporters clamored for the possibility that Duterte be fielded as a substitute candidate for Diño, in the event that Diño gets disqualified or withdrew. On October 26, 2015, Duterte said on an interview that the deadline for his last decision if he will seek the presidency is on December 10. He also warned the people to abide by the law if he wins.[21] On October 27, PDP-Laban has made it official that Duterte will substitute as the party's presidential bet if aspirant Martin Diño withdraws or is disqualified by the Commission of Elections (Comelec) from the 2016 race.[22] Two days later, PDP-Laban standard bearer Martin Diño officially withdrew his presidential bid and named Duterte as his substitute because there’s a possibility that Diño might be declared as a nuisance candidate by the COMELEC.[23]

On October 30, an alleged campaign video of Duterte and Cayetano circulated on social media that put hopes on Duterte's candidacy as Cayetano's running mate. However, Duterte's aide Bong Go said on an interview that Duterte's mind hasn't changed yet but will continue on soul-searching with his family to know if he's going to run in the upcoming elections.[24] On November 1, Duterte said that nothing still hasn't changed and he isn't fit for national office. He also said that he is still waiting for an official communication from his party about his possible candidacy; Duterte will also wait if his daughter will agree to substitute for him at the mayoral race of Davao and he will retire from public service if Sara agreed to do so.[25] On November 2, Parish Pastoral Council for Responsible Voting (PPCRV) executive Dr. Arwin Serrano said that Martin Diño is deemed to face an election sabotage complaint because of proposing Duterte as his substitute for him, however, Diño denied the allegations that his filing of candidacy is just a front to pave the way for Duterte's possible substitution.[26] In an interview with Comelec Chairman Andres D. Bautista on November 3, he stated that, although they have noted Diño's withdrawal, he additionally mentioned that they won't move with any further action with regard to a possible substitution until they have Duterte's consent and unless it would be made official with a COC and a certificate of nomination and acceptance from PDP-Laban.[27] Duterte himself then further clarified that his decision of acceptance for the substitution offer would be on the deadline itself come December 10.[28]

On November 21 in a private gathering with fraternity brothers from San Beda College of Law, Duterte formally announced his presidential bid and also finally accepted Alan Peter Cayetano's offer to be his running mate.[29] Duterte said he is disappointed over the decision made by the Senate Electoral Tribunal (SET) regarding Grace Poe's citizenship as well as the current administration's handling of the ‘laglag-bala’ issue.[30] Duterte further stated that he will file his candidacy immediately after he reached out to his party.[31]

On November 27, 2015, Duterte filed his certificate of candidacy for president through his representative Atty. Salvador Medialdea in Metro Manila shortly after withdrawing his COC for Davao City mayoralty re-election. The document was filed along with a certificate of nomination and acceptance from PDP-Laban signed by Duterte and the party's vice president, Engr. Salvador Ty. In withdrawing his COC for Davao City mayor, Duterte named his daughter, Sara, as his substitute. Sara formally submitted the document for substitution at Comelec Davao and both COCs were received.[32]

The validity of Duterte's substitution was further assessed by Comelec and on December 7, Comelec rejected a petition to designate Martin Diño as a nuisance candidate[33] and while the Comelec legal department has assured Duterte that the first COC he filed through a representative was valid, he personally filed his COC at the Comelec national office in Intramuros, Manila on December 8 to formalize his bid for the presidency in the 2016 elections. An estimated 500 people showed up, including students from Duterte’s alma mater Lyceum of the Philippines, to express their support.[34][35]

On December 17, Comelec officially recognized Duterte’s substitution of Martin Diño as PDP-Laban’s presidential candidate for the May 2016 elections. Comelec Chairman Andres "Andy" D. Bautista said in a press conference on the same day:

The poll body voted 6-1 in favor of recognizing Duterte’s candidacy. Comelec Senior Commissioner Christian Robert Lim pointed out that Comelec has two functions — administrative and quasi-judicial. The decision on Duterte’s candidacy, he said, is administrative.[36][37]

Advocacy[edit]

In 2014, Davao City Mayor Rodrigo Duterte initiated the holding of a summit: "I am calling on all responsible leaders in the island, from government and civil society organizations, from the business and academe sectors, the leaders of the Church, the military and the youth, let us all forge a well-informed, united front, so we could craft a collective plan of action for Mindanao’s true identity reflective of what its peoples and tribes truly wish and aspire for", Duterte said in a statement.

Among those who were expected to attend were former President Fidel V. Ramos, Msgr. Fernando Capalla, Ateneo de Davao University President Fr. Joel Tabora, former Mindanao Economic Development Council chair Paul G. Dominguez, and retired General Hermogenes Esperon. Local government heads from Mindanao cities, towns and provinces were also expected to attend, as well as Catholic bishops and Muslim religious leaders.

In September 2014, Duterte met with former mayors and governors in an initial effort to revive calls for a federal form of government. The group, which called itself Mindanao Council of Leaders, made their position public after an informal caucus. Present during the said meeting were Bukidnon Governor Jose Maria Zubiri, former Cagayan de Oro mayors Reuben Canoy and Vicente Emano, former Zamboanga del Norte congressman Romeo Jalosjos, and former Davao del Norte representative Pantaleon Alvarez.

A month later, Duterte was in Cebu City and met with Cebu officials. The event was sponsored by the Federal Movement for a Better Philippines and coincided with the induction of its new set of officers held at the Sacred Heart Center in Cebu City.[38]

Personal life[edit]

Duterte is known for being an avid fan of big bikes but detests luxury cars. He once owned a second-hand Harley Davidson and currently a Yamaha Virago. He was once a habitual smoker but he eventually quit after a doctor's suggestion due to health concerns. Duterte is also openly supportive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights and is an avid reader of Robert Ludlum and Sydney Sheldon novels.[6]

Duterte also has his own local show in Davao City called Gikan Sa Masa, Para Sa Masa ("From the Masses, For the Masses") aired as a blocktimer on ABS-CBN Davao. He is also a member of Lex Talionis Fraternitas, a fraternity based in the San Beda College of Law and the Ateneo de Davao University.[39]

Family[edit]

Duterte has siblings named Benjamin "Bong" Duterte, a one-term city councilor of Davao between 1992-1995, younger sister Jocelyn Duterte who lost in several attempts to grab a Third District city council seat as well as for the mayor post in 2001, and Blue Boy Duterte who ran and lost in the First District congressional race in 1998. Duterte is also known for his straightforward and vocal attitude in public especially in interviews, showing no hesitation in using profanity profusely live on-screen on numerous occasions despite formal requests by media groups and schools beforehand to abstain.[40][41]

Duterte was once married to Elizabeth Abellana Zimmerman, a flight attendant who hails from Davao City and is of German American descent There are 3 children of this marriage: Paolo ("Pulong"), Sara ("Inday Sara") and Sebastian ("Baste"). Paolo and Sara ventured into politics while Baste, with no interest in politics, concentrated on business.[40] In 2012, Duterte made a notorious remark in a media interview regarding an incident where Paolo's name was allegedly linked to a carnapping syndicate led by Ryan Yu. Duterte is infamously quoted as having said Kill my son Paolo if he is involved in crime. Paolo was never charged for lack of evidence and eventually won the Davao City vice mayoralty in 2013.[42]

Rodrigo Duterte has been publicly very open about his infidelity and philandering while married to Zimmerman and cited it as the reason for his failed first marriage when asked in interviews. In 1998, Zimmerman filed a petition with the Regional Trial Court in Pasig to nullify her marriage. Duterte never appeared in court and did not contest Zimmerman’s petition. Two years later, the court decided in her favor, ending the 27-year marriage of Duterte and Zimmerman. Duterte and Zimmerman have been on good terms in recent years with Zimmerman stating, "Yes, he [Rodrigo] is really a very good leader. That is all he is. But when it comes to family, he is not capable of taking care of it." In 2001, Zimmerman eventually ran for a seat on the city council but lost. Duterte and Zimmerman are said to have patched things up and appear to be civil to each other, 15 years after their marriage was declared null and void. Zimmerman also emphasized in an interview that, despite Duterte's womanizing, he listens to activist women and set up a program that mainstreams “gender and development” issues. Davao City won the Galing Pook award for “gender-responsive” governance in 2004.[43] On November 30, 2015, he openly admitted to be a "womanizer".[44]

Despite his status being listed as 'single' in the Davao City government website, Duterte is currently living with his common-law wife Honeylet, a nurse, with whom he has one daughter named Veronica ("Kitty").[6][45]

Religion[edit]

Despite being raised as a communicant of the Catholic Church, he was thought to have cursed Pope Francis for the pontiff's visit to the Philippines in January 2015 because it caused a traffic jam. He immediately then apologized through the media saying he wasn't 'cursing' the Pope but the government's way of preparing the Pope's visit.[46] On January 19, 2016 while meeting with businessmen in Binondo, Manila on Tuesday, he clarified that he did not still attend church since it was incompatible with his mayoral responsibilities: "(Kung) pakinggan ko yang Ten Commandments, pati yung pari diyan, wala na akong magagawa sa pagka-mayor ko" [Translation: "If I obey the Ten Commandments or listen to priests, I would not be able to do anything as a mayor."]. Duterte then clarified that he had not abandoned God, only "forfeited" his religion for the meantime.[47]

Duterte has revealed that he was one of the many students who was sexually abused by a priest from his previous school, Ateneo de Davao University (AdDU) during circa late 1950s.[48] After he was challenged by the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) and AdDU officials to name the priest and file a case against him, Duterte then revealed the priest's name as Fr. Mark Falvey, SJ (d. 1975).[49] The Jesuits of the Society of Jesus in the Philippines confirmed that according to press reports in the United States, in May 2007, the Society of Jesus agreed to a tentative payout of USD16 million to settle claims that Falvey sexually abused at least nine children in Los Angeles from 1959 to 1975. Accusations against Falvey began in 2002 and he was never charged with a crime. Additionally in May 2008, the Diocese of Sacramento paid USD100,000 settlement to a person allegedly raped and molested by Mark’s brother, Fr. Arthur Falvey. However, it was not clearly indicated in the report if Mark Falvey was assigned at the Jesuit-run Ateneo de Davao.[50] When asked why he didn't complain when the abuse supposedly happened, Duterte claimed that he was too young to complain about the priest’s abuse and was intimidated by authorities at that time. He also stated that he never disclosed that information after he was expelled and moved to a different high school and especially not to his family, .[51] On December 4, 2015, Duterte along with his executive assistant Bong Go, visited and talked with Davao Archbishop Romulo Valles and Bishop George Rimando, together with Monsignor Paul Cuison to get lectured on Christian Values. Duterte committed to lessen his profanity in public gatherings and even assured that he will donate ₱1,000 to Caritas Davao everytime he swears in public. He also stated that he will be planning to visit the Vatican at a later time.[52]

Health[edit]

Duterte personally disclosed that he suffers from Buerger’s Disease, an inflammation of blood vessels mostly in the limbs that has been traced to previous habitual smoking, contrary to earlier rumors of throat cancer.[53]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Duterte’s common-law wife joins him in Manila events – Rappler.
  2. ^ Personal Data from i-site.ph. URL last accessed 2006-10-14.
  3. ^ Lopez, Alexander (11 May 2015). "Duterte returns home on Mother’s Day". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved 8 February 2016. 
  4. ^ a b 17 Things You Didn’t Know About Rodrigo Duterte - FilipiKnow.
  5. ^ "Accomplishments of Mayor Duterte to date". Enter Davao. Enter Davao. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f 22 things to know about 'Duterte Harry' - Rappler.
  7. ^ "Duterte forces smoking tourist to swallow cigarette butt". Rappler. 
  8. ^ Davao City ranks as 9th safest in the world - Inquirer.net.
  9. ^ Davao City improves to 5th in ranking of world’s safest cities - Inquirer.net.
  10. ^ Davao now 4th safest city - SunStar.
  11. ^ "Duterte: Look ma, cheap shoes, no socks". 
  12. ^ a b Zabriskie, Phil: The Punisher, Time magazine (Asia edition), June 24, 2002. URL last accessed 2006-10-12.
  13. ^ "Report of the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions" (PDF). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 
  14. ^ ""You Can Die Any Time" Death Squad Killings in Mindanao" (PDF). www.hrw.org. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 6 September 2014. 
  15. ^ Cullen, Fr. Shay (May 7, 2006). "We must stand against the death squads". The Manila Times. Retrieved 6 September 2014. 
  16. ^ "The Philippines' real-life Punisher, Davao City Mayor Rodrigo Duterte, urged to run for president". News.com.au. News.com.au. Retrieved 6 September 2014. 
  17. ^ a b "Duterte and the Law Enforcers’ Code of Ethics". Manila Times. Manila Times. Retrieved 6 September 2014. 
  18. ^ "Palace, CBCP, rights activists gang up on Davao mayor". www.manilatimes.net. Manila Times. Retrieved 6 September 2014. 
  19. ^ "Duterte admits links to Davao Death Squad". ABS-CBN News. 
  20. ^ Rodrigo Duterte: The Rise of Philippines’ Death Squad Mayor - Human Rights Watch.
  21. ^ "Duterte, his 6 contradictions and planned dictatorship". Rappler. 
  22. ^ PDP-Laban decision final: Duterte to substitute if Diño withdrew his presidential bid - CNN Philippines.
  23. ^ Takumi, Rie. "Martin Diño withdraws candidacy for president, names Duterte as substitute". gmanetwork.com. Retrieved October 29, 2015. 
  24. ^ "Duterte still won't run for president, says assistant". sunstar.com.ph. Retrieved October 30, 2015. 
  25. ^ "Party can’t budge Duterte; ‘heads shaved in protest’". newsinfo.inquirer.net. Retrieved November 2, 2015. 
  26. ^ "PPCRV exec: Diño faces election sabotage case for Duterte substitution plan". interaksyon.com. Retrieved November 2, 2015. 
  27. ^ Comelec won’t move on Diño’s withdrawal unless Duterte agrees to be his substitute - GMA News Online.
  28. ^ "Will ‘tanim-bala’ push Duterte to run?". sunstar.com.ph. Retrieved November 3, 2015. 
  29. ^ "Duterte makes a stand". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved November 22, 2015. 
  30. ^ "Duterte now open to running, says he is disappointed over Poe decision and ‘laglag-bala’". Kicker Daily News. 
  31. ^ Duterte decides to run for president - ABS-CBN News.
  32. ^ Duterte files COC for president - GMA News Online.
  33. ^ Comelec junks petition to tag Martin Diño as ‘nuisance’ candidate - Inquirer.net.
  34. ^ It’s official: Duterte seals presidential bid, personally files COC - Inquirer.net.
  35. ^ Duterte's supporters camp out in front of Comelec - CNN Philippines.
  36. ^ Comelec recognizes Duterte as PDP-Laban bet - PolitikoPH.
  37. ^ Comelec accepts Rodrigo Duterte's COC for president - CNN Philippines.
  38. ^ Casas, Arianne Caryl (30 November 2014). "Federalism summit in Davao today". Sun.Star. 
  39. ^ 2 Duterte aides hurt in accident - BusinessMirror.
  40. ^ a b "THE DUTERTES IN DAVAO CITY POLITICS". DURIAN POST BY DURIANBURGDAVAO. 
  41. ^ Davao City Mayoral Race; Duterte siblings slugging it out - PhilStar.
  42. ^ Davao City Vice Mayor Rodrigo Duterte said anybody is free to kill Paolo Duterte, if his son is involved in crime, following reports that Paolo has been linked to a carnapping syndicate. - The Durian Post.
  43. ^ ‘Philandering’ Rodrigo Duterte cause of marriage annulment - Rappler.
  44. ^ Rodrigo Duterte: Yes, I'm a womanizer - Rappler.
  45. ^ Ledesma: Calling Duterte - SunStar Archive.
  46. ^ Duterte curses Pope Francis over traffic during his visit - Rappler.
  47. ^ Duterte leaves religion for mayoral duties; sees Roxas as 'useless' - CNN Philippines video.
  48. ^ Duterte says he was sexually abused by priest - GMA Network.
  49. ^ Jesuit priest who allegedly molested Duterte had other victims - Rappler.
  50. ^ "Jesuit order paid USD16M to settle Falvey case in US". Philippine Daily Inquirer. December 5, 2015. Retrieved December 17, 2015. 
  51. ^ Duterte says he was too young to complain about priest’s abuse - GMA News Online.
  52. ^ Rody Duterte December 4, 2015 Facebook post - Rody Duterte Officially Verified Facebook Page.
  53. ^ Frialde, Mike (December 10, 2015). "Duterte: I may not last 6 years in office". The Philippine Star. Retrieved December 17, 2015. 

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