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Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Malacostraca
Superorder: Syncarida
Order: Bathynellacea
Chappuis, 1915 [1][2]
Families [1]

Bathynellacea is an order of crustaceans which live interstitially in groundwater.[3] Some species can tolerate low salt concentrations, and at least one African species is a thermophile, living in hot springs and tolerating temperatures up to 55 °C (131 °F).[4] Bathynellaceans are minute, blind, worm-like animals with short, weak legs,[5] reaching a maximum size of 3.4 millimetres (0.13 in).[6] They are found on every continent except Antarctica, although they are missing from some islands, including Fiji, New Caledonia and the Caribbean islands.[4] There are two families, Bathynellidae and Parabathynellidae; a third family, "Leptobathynellidae", is considered a synonym of Parabathynellidae.[7]


  1. ^ a b "Bathynellacea". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved October 20, 2010. 
  2. ^ Pierre-Alfred Chappuis (1915). "Bathynella natans und ihre Stellung im System". Zoologische Jahrbücher: Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Thiere (in German). 40 (2): 147–176. 
  3. ^ J. K. Lowry. "Bathynellacea (Malacostraca)". Crustacea, the Higher Taxa: Description, Identification, and Information Retrieval. Retrieved October 20, 2010. 
  4. ^ a b "Bathynellacea". Animal Life Resource. Jrank. Archived from the original on 10 September 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010. 
  5. ^ "Crustacean". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 24 December 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
  6. ^ "Bathynellacea (bathynellaceans)". Identification and Ecology of Australian Freshwater Invertebrates. Murray Darling Freshwater Research Centre. Retrieved October 20, 2010. 
  7. ^ Jan Drewes & Horst Kurt Schminke (2011). "Number of families within Bathynellacea (Malacostraca) and year of publication of their names, with redescription of Baicalobathynella magna (Bazikalova, 1954) from Lake Baikal". Crustaceana. 84 (11): 1377–1401. doi:10.1163/001121611X590120. 

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