From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Bieberite, Bismuth-466347.jpg
A 4.4 by 2.7 cm mass of mainly grey bismuth covered by a thin film of pinkish bieberite from an old classic Locality, Schlema, Schlema-Hartenstein District, Erzgebirge, Saxony, Germany
CategorySulfate mineral
(repeating unit)
Strunz classification7.CB.35
Dana classification29.6.10.4
Crystal systemMonoclinic
Crystal classPrismatic (2/m)
Space groupP2/m
ColorRose-red, red-pink, flesh-red
Crystal habitCrusts, stalactites
Cleavage{001} perfect, {110} fair
Mohs scale hardness2
Specific gravity1.96
Density1.96 (measured), 1.83 (calculated)
Optical propertiesBiaxial (+), colorless to pale rose color (transmitted light)
2V angle88° (measured), 88° (calculated)
SolubilitySoluble in water

Bieberite (CoSO4 · 7H2O) is a pinkish red colored sulfate mineral high in cobalt content. The name is derived from the type locality at the copper deposit in Bieber, Hesse, Germany.[1][2] It has been described and reported as far back as the 1700s.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] Bieberite primarily occurs as a secondary mineral, forming in cobalt-bearing arsenide and sulfide deposits through oxidation.[3]

Natural bieberite crystals may have a small amount of cobalt lattice sites instead occupied by magnesium and copper (Palache et al., 1960).[9]

Geologic occurrence[edit]

Aside from the type locality at Hesse, Germany bieberite has been found in multiple countries in Europe, North and South America, and Africa, as well as in Japan.[1][15] In Greece bieberite was identified for the first time in the 2000s at the Lavrion Pb-Ag-Zn deposit, a polymetallic sulfide deposit that underwent supergene oxidation during its formation.[16] In England in the United Kingdom, bieberite has been found at mines Penberthy Croft Mine and Wheal Alfred in St Hilary, Cornwall and Phillack, Cornwall respectively.[17]

Bieberite was identified in volcanic cave settings for the first time at Irazú Volcano, Costa Rica and reported in 2018.[18] The mineral roemerite was identified at Island Mountain, Trinity County, California in the United States of America for the first time in association with bieberite along with pyrrhotite, claudeite, goslarite, fibroferrite, and morenosite and a description of the mineral from the site published in 1927.[19] The occurrence of bieberite at the Island Mountain deposit had earlier been recorded in 1923.[20] Uranium mineralization in the Cameron Area of Coconino County, Arizona was found to have beiberite as one of the cobalt mineral species in association with secondary uranium minerals formed through oxidation.[21]


  1. ^ a b c - Bieberite
  2. ^ a b - Bieberite
  3. ^ a b Handbook of Mineralogy - Bieberite
  4. ^ Sage (1791) Le Journal de physique et le radium, Paris, 39: 53 (as Cobalt Vitriol).
  5. ^ Klaproth, M.H. (1797) "Untersuchung des natürlichen Kobaltvitriols von Herrengrund, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper", Zweiter Band, Rottmann Berlin, pp. 320.
  6. ^ Kopp (1808) Allgemeines Journal der Chemie, Berlin 1798-1803 (Scherer’s Journal), 6: 157 (as Kobaltvitriol).
  7. ^ Beudant, F.S. (1832) Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes, 2: 481 (as Red Vitrol. Sulphate of Cobalt. Rhodhalose).
  8. ^ Haidinger (1845) 489 (as Bieberit).
  9. ^ a b Winkelblech (1845) Ann. Chem., 13: 265.
  10. ^ Marignac (1855) Mém. soc. phys. nat. Genève, 14: 245 (artificial material).
  11. ^ Goldschmidt, V. (1913) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, 1: 194.
  12. ^ Larsen, E.S. and Glenn (1920) “Some minerals of the melanterite and chalcanthite groups with optical data on the hydrous sulphates of manganese and cobalt“. American Journal of Science, 50: 225-233.
  13. ^ Westenbrink (1926) Proceedings of the Academy of Science Amsterdam, 29: 1223.
  14. ^ Porter (1928) Festschr. V. Goldschmidt, Heidelberg, 210.
  15. ^ a b Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) "The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc." John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: pp. 507.
  16. ^ Skarpelis, N. And Argyraki, A. (2009) “Geology and Origin of Supergene Ore at the Lavrion Pb‐Ag‐Zn Deposit, Attica, Greece”. Resource Geology, 59(1): 1-14.
  17. ^ Golley, P. and Williams, R. (1995) "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual." Endsleigh Publications, Great Britain. Online pdf. IBSN - 0951941992.
  18. ^ Ulloa, A., Gázquez, F., Sanz-Arranz, A., Medina, J., Rull, F., Calaforra, J.M., Alvarado, G.E., Martínez, M., Avard, G., de Moor, J.M., and Waele, J.D. (2018) “Extremely high diversity of sulfate minerals in caves of the Irazú Volcano (Costa Rica) related to crater lake and fumarolic activity”. International Journal of Speleology, 47(2): 229-246.
  19. ^ Landon, R.E. (1927) “ROEMERITE FROM CALIFORNIA”. American Mineralogist, 12(7): 279-283.
  20. ^ Eakle, A.S. (1923) “Minerals of California, Issue 91 of Bulletin (California State Mining Bureau)”. California State Printing Office, Sacramento, California, pp. 275.
  21. ^ Austin, S.R. (1964) “MINERALOGY OF THE CAMERON AREA: COCONINO COUNTY, ARIZONA, U.S. Atomic Energy Comm. RME 99”. Tech. Inf. Serv., Oak Ridge, Tennessee, pp. 9.


  • Palache, P.; Berman H.; Frondel, C. (1960). "Dana's System of Mineralogy, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. (Seventh Edition)" John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, pp. 505-507.