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Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Amoebozoa
Class: Breviatea
Order: Breviatida
Genus: Breviata
Species: B. anathema
Walker, Dacks, and Embley 2006

Mastigamoeba invertens Klebs, 1892

Breviata anathema is a single-celled protist. It lacks mitochondria but has numerous differences with other amitochondiate Amoebozoa like Entamoeba and Endolimax.[1][2] Because B. anathema has genes which are known from mitochondria, it is likely to possess degenerate mitrochondria.[3] The closest relatives of B. anathema are not clear; molecular data places it in the Amoebozoa, but without obvious affinity to known groups of Amoebozoa.[3][4]

It has previously been studied under the name Mastigamoeba invertens.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Edgcomb, Vp; Simpson, Ag; Zettler, La; Nerad, Ta; Patterson, Dj; Holder, Me; Sogin, Ml (Jun 2002), "Pelobionts are degenerate protists: insights from molecules and morphology" (Free full text), Molecular Biology and Evolution 19 (6): 978–82, doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a004157, ISSN 0737-4038, PMID 12032256 
  2. ^ Walker, G; Dacks, Jb; Martin, Embley, T (Mar 2006), "Ultrastructural description of Breviata anathema, n. Gen., n. Sp., the organism previously studied as "Mastigamoeba invertens"", The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology 53 (2): 65–78, doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2005.00087.x, PMID 16579808 
  3. ^ a b A, Minge, M; Silberman, Jd; Orr, Rj; Cavalier-Smith, T; Shalchian-Tabrizi, K; Burki, F; Skjæveland, A; Jakobsen, Ks (Nov 2008), "Evolutionary position of breviate amoebae and the primary eukaryote divergence", Proceedings. Biological sciences / the Royal Society 276 (1657): 597–604, doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.1358, PMC 2660946, PMID 19004754 
  4. ^ Roger, Aj; Simpson, Ag (Feb 2009), "Evolution: revisiting the root of the eukaryote tree", Current biology : CB 19 (4): R165–7, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.12.032, PMID 19243692 
  5. ^ Stiller, J. W.; Duffield, E. C.; Hall, B. D. (1998). "Amitochondriate amoebae and the evolution of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95 (20): 11769–11774. Bibcode:1998PNAS...9511769S. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.20.11769. PMC 21715. PMID 9751740.